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Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum

Chapter 1
A. The Problem and Its Setting
a. Background of the Study
Various cultural influences are here in our country, there’s the Chinese,
Indian, Islamic, Spanish and even American traditions left their trademarks on the
Filipino culture that plays a part on country’s architecture. Different traditions, motifs and even culture are merged with our identity. Identity that had struggled for centuries by Filipino especially in designing and architecture.
Many of us are wondering with these questions: Does Philippine Architecture really exist? Is there Filipino architecture?People said that our architecture is an adaptation of Asian architecture. Our very own bahay -kubo, our mountain region dwellings are said to be similar with the other countries.
Architecture, as an art, It is “subject to social, political or cultural influences”. It reflects the values of the society. we should provide an opportunity of more accommodating for the presentation, promotion and development of this art.
The aim of this study is to give us the information about the architectural background of our country, not to prove that, but to give the facts and knowledge of our architecture.
b. Statement of the Problem
Major problem:
Filipino architecture is not that recognized.
 Non existence of architectural museum in our country.
 Several people are asking about the country’s architecture.
 Only arch’l students and professionals are those people who have the knowledge/ information about architecture
 People’s interests are more on technological gadgets and leisure like going mall shopping.
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Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum

c. Architectural Thesis Goal
To propose an architectural museum that leads to the architectural knowledge of the people.( Filipino architecture)
1. To establish a museum that will give emphasis on architecture in the
 Study significant facts and information about the history of early and today’s present architecture.
 To provide an innovative solution in preserving and enhancing architecture 2. To give the public a new look for museums and surpass their known perception. (To design a museum that is different from today’s modern setting.)
 Create an ideal concept from innovative technology.
 Study the existing features of a museum and seek for identical features to be changed or retain.
3. To come up with a design that will revitalize the sleeping intellect of
Filipinos regarding architecture.
 Study the architectural features of the Philippine.
 Look for the latest trends and architectural innovations today.
d. Project scope and limitation
Scope of the study:
The study will cover the facts and information regarding the following:
 Facts regarding Philippine historic and architectural background.
 Studies regarding museum principles.
 Architectural innovations
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Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum

This study will come up only with limited sources. Some of the data needed are time consuming and shall be given enough time to be presented. e. Significance of the Study
Museums are said to be storage of intellectual knowledge, source of preserved information and facts. This study will provide ideas on the country’s architecture, as a part of our culture and art through museum, and with this project, the following will benefit:
 Public - as the main beneficiary of this project, especially students and researchers.  Economic Status - country’s economy will benefit with this project through the income it will provide.
 Community – by providing a new environment that will give a sense of intellectuality. f. Assumptions
Through this project:
1. The public will have the knowledge about the country’s architecture.
2. The project will provide a new look and a site for our tourism, and will contribute our economic quality.
3. Will provide a new public perception on museums and be a part of their leisure.
4. Will provide the public a new stepping stone into culture and life.
5. Will provide opportunities for learning for all age level, especially students; 6. And these said assumptions will be accomplished with the participation of the local government for the possible project development and needs. Alejandro, Kevin J. Architecture 4B 3

Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum

g. Definition of Terms
Architecture- the art and science of design and erecting buildings and other physical structures
Economy - activities related to the production and distribution of goods and services in a particular geographic region.
Community - a group of interacting people, living in some proximity
Innovation - is the creation of better or more effective products, processes, services, technologies, or ideas that are accepted by markets, governments, and society.
Museum - is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of scientific, artistic, cultural, or historical importance and makes the available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary.
- pertaining to, or affecting a population or a community as a whole:
Tourism - is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes.

B. Review of Related Literature and Studies


he art and technique of designing and building, as distinguished from the skills

associated with construction. The practice of architecture is employed to fulfill both practical and expressive requirements, and thus it serves both utilitarian and aesthetic ends. Although these two ends may be distinguished, they cannot be separated, and the relative weight given to each can vary widely. Because every society—whether highly developed or less so, settled or nomadic—has a spatial relationship to the natural world and to other societies, the structures they produce reveal much about their environment (including climate and weather), history, ceremonies, and artistic sensibility, as well as many aspects of daily life.

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Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum

The characteristics that distinguish a work of architecture from other man-made structures are (1) the suitability of the work to use by human beings in general and the adaptability of it to particular human activities, (2) the stability and permanence of the work’s construction, and (3) the communication of experience and ideas through its form. All these conditions must be met in architecture. The second is a constant, while the first and third vary in relative importance according to the social function of buildings. If the function is chiefly utilitarian, as in a factory, communication is of less importance. If the function is chiefly expressive, as in a monumental tomb, utility is a minor concern. In some buildings, such as churches and city halls, utility and communication may be of equal importance.

Architecture of Philippines


s you explore the culture of Philippines, you will find various cultural influences.

Chinese, Indian, Islamic, Spanish and even American traditions left their trademarks on the Filipino culture including the Architecture of Philippines
Let us bring your notice to Philippines Architecture, which was heavily overshadowed by the cultural movements turmoiling Europe and the United States since the 1950s.
Interestingly enough, the architectural samples of this country evoke a strong sense of national pride and unity in spite of the diverse forms, treatments and shapes.
Architecture of Philippines also showcases strong religious symbols because it was highly patronized by the Roman Catholic Church at a point of time in the past. Local craftsmen were employed by the church to build stone churches with bas-relief sculpture, statues of saints, and other religious structures in wood and ivory. Under the influence of Spanish colonial period, the statues often displayed the Spanish baroque style of architecture. Chinese architectural styles were also often noted in these structures which were rich in religious symbols. With the passage of time, even the sculpture showed a shift from religious to secular items. By 1950s, Napoleon Abueva introduced modernism in Philippine sculpture and was followed by masters like Eduardo Castrillo, Solomon Saprid, and Abdulmari Imao.

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Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum

History of architecture in the Philippines


he history and culture of the Philippines today are reflected in its architectural

heritage, in the dwellings of its various people, in churches and mosques, and in the buildings that have risen in response to the demands of progress and the aspirations of the people.
Architecture in the Philippines today is the result of a natural growth enriched with the absorption of varied influences. It developed from the pre-colonial influences of our neighboring Malay brothers, continuing on to the Spanish colonial period, the American commonwealth period, and the modern contemporary times. As a result, the Philippines has become an architectural melting pot.
The late national hero for architecture, Leandro Locsin once said, that the Philippine
Architectre is an elusive thing, because while it makes full use of modern technology, it is a residue of the different overlays of foreign influences left in the Philippines over the centuries: the early Malay culture and vestiges of earlier Hindu influences, the more than 300 years of Spanish domination, the almost 50 years of American rule, the Arab and Chinese influences through commerce and trade over the centuries. What resulted may have been a hybrid, a totally new configuration which may include a remembrance of the past, but transformed or framed in terms of its significance today.
The philippine’s architectural landscape is a contrast among small traditional huts built of wood, bamboo, nipa, grass, and other native materials; the massive Spanish colonial churches, convents and fortifications, with their heavy “earthquake baroque” style; the
American mission style architecture as well as the buildings of commerce with their modern 20th century styles; and today’s contemporary’ albeit “modern mundane” concrete structures of the cities.

Origins and Vernacular Architecture
Building first evolved out of the dynamics between needs (shelter, security, worship, etc.) and means (available building materials and attendant skills). As human cultures developed and knowledge began to be formalized through oral traditions and practices, building became a craft, and "architecture" is the name given to the most highly formalized and respected versions of that craft.

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Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum

Pride of Place
Is there ‘Filipino architecture?’
By Augusto Villalon
Philippine Daily Inquirer
First Posted 06:44:00 08/10/2009
Filed Under: Architecture, Books, history
A MOST welcome addition to the scant material on Philippine architecture is?
Arkitekturang Filipino: A History of Architecture and Urbanism in the Philippines,? by
Gerard Lico, professor of Architecture and campus architect of the University of the
The book is from the collection published by the University of the Philippines Press in celebration of the university?s centennial.
The title of this book, eminent architecture historian Rodrigo D. Perez III writes in the foreword, ?may resurrect an old question: Is there such a thing as Filipino architecture??
For generations the issue keeps arising during academic and architectural discussions, stubbornly refusing to be put to rest.
But Perez resolves the issue, completing his introductory statement: ?Anyone who has diligently examined the various types of buildings in this country and has bothered to look into their history will realize that there is such a thing as Filipino architecture.?
The 560-page textbook takes an in-depth examination of Philippine architecture as it has been shaped over the centuries by environmental, historic, cultural and political influences. Illustrating how architecture is often used as an instrument of domination in some periods of injustice, Lico correctly points out that, despite being subjected to colonial, political or financial demands, the genius of Filipino architects, whether schooled or not, has always shone through.
Lico takes architecture in its holistic context. Buildings are not studied as solitary monuments. Instead, the author steps back and refers to the built environment as part of an urban or landscape ensemble, integrating architecture with human life, which is the way it should be, since architecture, no matter how grand or humble, is simply the
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nurturer of lifestyle.
Lico does not isolate architecture. He looks at it through a trained historian? eye while acknowledging the strong contribution of allied disciplines such as sociology, culture, history, politics, economics and others in shaping our towns and the structures that give those towns their character.
Geography as influence
Geography is another strong influence in our lifestyle, and Filipino architecture reflects the influences from across the seas, starting with the Astronesian building tradition that came to the Batanes islands from southern Taiwan over 6,000 years ago, before dispersing to the west through the Philippines to Borneo, Sulawesi, Indonesia and ultimately Oceania. Eastward, the Astronesian influence spread to Vietnam, the Malay
Peninsula, reaching as far as Madagascar.
Among some shared Astronesian characteristics very evident today are language similarities and houses raised on stilts with steep, thatched roofs.
There is no denying colonial influence. Philippine architecture reflected what Lico terms the ?spectacle of power? so evident in the Spanish colonial churches, government buildings, and especially in the rigid town planning following the precepts of the 1573
Leyes de Indias, which stipulated exactly how new towns were to be laid out.
Thanks to the royal ordinance signed by King Phillip II of Spain, towns were laid out in a rectilinear pattern, with straight streets crossing each other at right angles, around a central plaza where the two main structures were the principal government building and the church facing each other. The highest government and church officials lived in the town plaza along with the elite.
Upon the introduction of ?imperial imaginings? by the newly installed American colonial government in 1898, Lico dissects its impact on the architecture and urban design in the new tropical colony of the United States.
This is the age of Daniel Burnham and his City Beautiful urban plan for Manila and
Baguio in the image of Washington, DC.
Outside the Intramuros walls, Manila broke out in wide, radial boulevards shaded with tropical hardwood. Neoclassic government buildings, such as the Manila Post Office and the Philippine General Hospital, were situated at strategic locations as focal points declaring the new style of colonial governance.
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Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum

Pre-World War II Peace Time was the apex of American power in the Philippines, the halcyon days of Quezon when the Philippines reflected its opening to world influences with the Art Deco architecture and lifestyle of the 1930s.
From the ashes of World War II, Lico traces the permanent destruction of Intramuros and the rise of Quezon City, suburbia and bungalow housing.
This was the time when architectural leaders emerged: Juan Nakpil, Pablo Antonio,
Carlos Arguelles, Leandro Locsin, whose presence led to the establishment of a strong architectural profession.

Vernacular renaissance
Lico takes a perceptive look into the renaissance of Filipino vernacular architecture, followed by examination of various architectural trends until arriving at the current phenomenon of an ?architecture of pluralism? that embraces the architecture of malls, new developments like Global City in Fort Bonifacio, Rockwell Center and Eastwood City
The question with the present state of architecture in the Philippines is: Is the current trend signaling the end of Filipino architecture?
One way or another, as in the past, the Filipino will prevail,? Perez so positively declares.
Hopefully this book will inculcate in the student who reads it a strong sense of pride for the culture that has produced the individualistic Philippine architecture.
More importantly, this volume provides an opportunity for students to discover and appreciate the intellectual foundation of the architectural profession, preparing them to be thinking architects rather than simply being back-room architectural technicians servicing the export market.

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Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum


re institution dedicated to preserving and interpreting the primary tangible

evidence of humankind and the environment. In its preserving of this primary evidence, the museum differs markedly from the library, with which it has often been compared, for the items housed in a museum are mainly unique and constitute the raw material of study and research. In the museum the object, in many cases removed in time, place, and circumstance from its original context, communicates itself directly to the viewer in a way not possible through other media. Museums have been founded for a variety of purposes: to serve as recreational.

Museums, Lifelong Learning and Civil Society


useums are huge success stories. The museum is a communication medium that

has been functioning continuously for more than two hundred years. As technological change has transformed communication industries from print to radio to television and the internet, museums have absorbed the technology into their exhibition and work processes, from IMAX to web sites to podcasting .Museums have been among early adopters of new communication technologies. What’s most amazing is that museums seem to absorb these technologies without fundamentally changing ___whether you date museums from the cathedral vault or the princely schatzkammer or the great eighteenth and nineteenth century universal collections, they remain powerful public spaces of representation of the leading ideas of their time___ based on the study of the objects that they collect and preserve.
Museums are typically employers of highly educated people, and attract visitors from the ranks of highly educated. In this sense, they can be seen as a talent magnet for the creative economy. Museums can also represent openness to diversity and self – expression.( On the other hand, museums can also represent closed and static ways of thinking.) museums can be hubs for the creative economy as cultural accelerators, forums for debate, places for the display of creation of new ideas. However, this implifies some changes in the ways that museums operate.

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Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum

Types of Museums
Different kinds of museums to work at and visit:

History Museum: History museums can be housed in modern buildings or inside a historic site. Collections document the history of a specific region, time period, or other theme that pertains to its Mission Statement.

Historic House: A historic house is furnished in period décor and usually interprets a fairly narrow aspect of history. They often commemorate a famous person or a historical or regional event.
Art Museum: Art museums feature fine arts collections including paintings, sculptures, furniture and other decorative arts. Many art museums have highly specialized collecting objectives.
Open Air Museum: A collection of historic buildings in a village setting is called an “open air museum.” These museums usually feature first person interpreters and craft and cooking demonstrations. Many open air museums also include livestock and farming demonstrations. Maritime Museum: Museums that focus on water-related topics such as boating, shipwrecks or whaling are called maritime museums.
Science Center: A museum that focuses on science is usually called a science center.
They feature interactive exhibitions relating to scientific themes.
Natural History Museum: Natural history museums explore topics such as dinosaurs, animals, fossils, and native peoples.
Aviation Museum: An aviation museum focuses on the history of aircraft, aviation and flight. Most aviation museums contain a collection of vintage airplanes.

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Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum

Zoos: A zoo’s collection contains live animals from around the world. Many zoos participate in conservation programs to preserve endangered species.

Development of Philippine Museum
The development of Philippine museum in the past 98 years has been from tradition to innovation. In the early stage, museums conformed to the orthodox framework_ as institutions that collect and exhibit material culture for the education of humanity. In recent years, museums have become cultural animators and social reformers. At different levels of intensity throughout the Philippine museum history, conditions of the government support for the arts provided conductive environment for the museums growth and transformation.
“Museums will continue exist and evolve as long as they provide meaning to people and uplift their lives.”

Significance of a museum:
 providing the country,a city or county with an understanding of its history;
 working with the media to promote exhibitions and therefore to propagate ideas,debate or knowledge;
 initiatives for schools and young people to attract them into museums and galleries;  programmes for new citizens to provide a stepping-stone into culture and life;
 encouraging intergenerational links and understanding;
 helping the government deliver educational or social initiatives;
 working with other public,private and voluntary bodies to promote economic or social objectives;
 understanding how museums and galleries can better link to a changing population in a rapidly developing and competitive world.
Museum social purpose:
 Acquisition and care for collections which may illustrate the cultural, historical, scientific or artistic life of a region or locality
 A contribution to the quality of life
 In support of formal education
 To attract tourists and contribute to ‘place marketing’ and attracting new investment in an area
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Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum

"The museum should not be presented as a temple of knowledge whence enlightenment is offered by those who 'hold the keys', but rather as a place for the exchange of ideas. Museums may offer the individual an opportunity to regain lost cultural initiative."
Value of local museums were the links back to community;
 opportunities for people to visit, including attending events; the work opportunities (both paid & unpaid) that were available;
 the wealth that the museum creates in the local community leading to generate money to go back to the community.
 developing an appreciation of place and culture, community pride, museums preserving heritage, and opportunities for learning across all age levels.
 Cultural Centers and Social Instruments - the museum becoming a multifunctional centre with a developed social awareness and a drive for topical relevance
 Treasure, Fetish, and Symbolic roles – implicit or not – were also acknowledged
 The late Stephen Weil, a former Secretary of the Smithsonian, added into the mix:  Exemplars of Enjoyment, Recreation, or Refreshment, i.e. the original Muse idea
 Education in the broadest sense - all formal, i.e. to learn what's new or simply to learn  and Value-stating roles (1983, 32-51)

Concerned Agencies:
National Commission for Culture and the Arts (Philippines)

Formulate policies for the development of culture and the arts
To coordinate & implement the overall policies and program of attached agencies on the development of culture and arts as stated under Executive Order No. 80
Administer the National Endowment Fund for Culture and the Arts
Encourage artistic creation within a climate of artistic freedom
Develop and promote the Filipino national culture and arts; and
Preserve Filipino cultural heritage
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Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum

Department of Tourism (DOT) - is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for the regulation of the Philippine tourism industry and the promotion of the Philippines as a tourist destination.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
Mission and priorities:
UNESCO’s stated aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, communication and information".
Other priorities of the Organization include attaining quality education for all and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication.
The broad goals and concrete objectives of the international community – as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs) – underpin all UNESCO’s strategies and activities.

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Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum


Filipino Architecture is not that recognized

Establish a museum that will give emphasis on
Philippine architecture.
The trends for commercial facilities have diverted public’s attention towards culture.

Give the public a new look for museums and perception on museums Come up with a design that will revitalize the sleeping intellect of Filipinos regarding architecture. Bahayan

Features of

An innovative solution in preserving and enhancing architecture

Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino
Architecture Thru Museum

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Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum

D. Methodology of Research
My research methodology requires gathering and reviewing relevant data from the specified documents and compiling databases in order to analyze the material and arrive at a more complete understanding about Philippine architecture

E. Bibliography
 Nerissa Sabaricos Pingol” Alternative Design for A Museum”( A Museum
Depicting Bulacan Heritage and Culture) Undergraduate
 Thesis. Bulacan: Bulacan State University, 2003
 Estrada, Jayson P. ,Marcelino, Leopoldo M.“TURISMUSEO: A Paradigmatic
Cultural Museum through Enclosures” Undergraduate Thesis. Bulacan: Bulacan
State University, 2008
 Barry Lord,The Manual of Museum Learning: Rowman Altamira, 2007
 Sara Selwood Associates, Making a difference: the cultural impact of museums
An essay for NMDC: July 2010
 Tony Travers, Stephen Glaister “MUSEUMS Impact and innovation among national museums” London School of Economics Imperial College
 History of Philippine Architecture(2012) Retrieved from:  Augusto Villalon”Is there ‘Filipino architecture?”Philippine Daily Inquirer (2009) retrieved from: Alejandro, Kevin J. Architecture 4B 16

Preserving and Revitalizing Filipino Architecture Thru Museum

We, the architects, concerned by the future development of architecture in a fast changing world, believe that everything, influencing the way in which the built environment is made, used, furnished, landscaped and maintained, belongs to the domain of the architects. We, being responsible for the improvement of the education of future architects to enable them to work for a sustainable development in every cultural heritage,

Alejandro, Kevin J. Architecture 4B 17

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