Premium Essay

Ideas and Ontology

In: English and Literature

Submitted By habsmark
Words 122775
Pages 492
nd Ontology aa e ysics of Ide etaph as
rn de o

An Ess


Marc A. Hight

ay i

nE ar ly

Idea and Ontology

Idea and Ontology an essay in early modern metaphysics of ideas

marc a. hight

t h e p e n n s y l va n i a s t at e u n i v e r s i t y p r e s s u n i v e r s i t y p a r k , p e n n s y l va n i a

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hight, Marc A., 1969– Idea and ontology : an essay in early modern metaphysics of ideas / Marc A. Hight. p. cm. Summary: ‘‘Provides an interpretation of the development of the ontology of ideas from Descartes to Hume that reaffirms the vital role metaphysical concerns played in early modern thinking’’—Provided by publisher. Includes bibliographical references and index. isbn 978–0-271–03383–9 (cloth : alk. paper) 1. Ontology. 2. Idea (Philosophy). 3. Metaphysics. I. Title. BD301.H54 2008 110.9—dc22 2008002466

2008 The Pennsylvania State University All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America Published by The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA 16802–1003 Copyright The Pennsylvania State University Press is a member of the Association of American University Presses. It is the policy of The Pennsylvania State University Press to use acid-free paper. This book is printed on Natures Natural, containing 50% post-consumer waste, and meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Material, ansi z39.48–1992.

For ict and snj and `e in memory of rene elizabeth hight (1968–2006)


Acknowledgments xi List of Abbreviations xiii Introduction: Idea Ontology and the Early Modern Tale 1

1 the traditional ontology 11
1.1 Substance 12 1.2 Modes 20 1.3 What Is an Idea? 22 1.4 Stretching Idea Ontologies 34

2 descartes 37
2.1 Representation 38 2.2 Perception,...

Similar Documents

Free Essay


...Ontology A collation by paulquek Adapted from Barry Smith's draft @ Download PDF file ***** Adapted from Stanford Univ's KST Project @ [KST : Knowledge Sharing Technology] What is an Ontology? By Tom Gruber ontology Page 1 Short answer: An ontology is a specification of a conceptualization. The word "ontology" seems to generate a lot of controversy in discussions about AI. It has a long history in philosophy, in which it refers to the subject of existence. It is also often confused with epistemology, which is about knowledge and knowing. In the context of knowledge sharing, I use the term ontology to mean a specification of a conceptualization. That is, an ontology is a description (like a formal specification of a program) of the concepts and relationships that can exist for an agent or a community of agents. This definition is consistent with the usage of ontology as setof-concept-definitions, but more general. And it is certainly a different sense of the word than its use in philosophy. What is important is what an ontology is for. My colleagues and I have been designing ontologies for the purpose of enabling knowledge sharing and reuse. In that context, an ontology is a specification used for making ontological commitments. The formal definition of ontological......

Words: 2447 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Ontology Based Web Searching Mechanism for Information Retrieval

...1 Ontology Based Web Searching Mechanism for Information Retrieval W.A.C.M. Wickrama Arachchi & K.L. Jayarathne University of Colombo School of Computing, Sri Lanka & Abstract—The largest data repository, World Wide Web is being a popular research domain where many experiments carry on various types of search architectures. This paper explore the ability of applying concept to concept mapping to the search architecture that applied to a semantic model of given domain. This novel search architecture combines classical search techniques with ontological approach. This research presents effective mechanism to represent the result of meaningful web search. For the simplicity, the breast cancer domain has been used. Index Terms—ontology, semantic web, web search, Semantic Search, concept, keyword extraction I. I NTRODUCTION T HE World Wide Web has been grown up as tree which has spread its branches in all the areas. Thus it can be identified as the largest data repository in the world that presents key driving force for large scale of information technology. With the increase of the amount of content it has been difficult to build an interactive web search with traditional keyword search. The idea presented here is improve the searching process with information extracted from the semantic model of the domain. Ontology is the backbone of semantic web technologies. One of the greatest problems of the...

Words: 5464 - Pages: 22

Free Essay


...The Ontology problem in eCommerce applications Rasheed M. Al-Zahrani Information Systems Dept., KSU PO Box 51178, Riyadh, 11543 Abstract Originating in AI semantic networks, ontologies are becoming an essential component of many modern systems. An ontology is a set of specifications, relationships and constraints that describe a certain domain. These specifications capture the concepts pertaining to the domain. Research in this domain is now witnessing intensive efforts due to the growth and success of distributed computing systems in real world applications such as eCommerce, eHealth, eLearning and other eServices. Though at the core of modern distributed technologies, such as multi-agent systems, the ontology issue has sometimes been considered secondary and related issues are underestimated. In this paper, we attempt to address the ontology issue in modern distributed services, and the various problems to be investigated, with special emphasis on eCommerce systems. Our paper illustrates how the semantic-web initiative integrates with ontology. It critically appraises existing solutions, and offers ideas for tackling major ontological issues in eServices. 1. Introduction Distributed systems is the future computing model. This fact is proved by the success of the client-server model and the recent extensions to that model. Maturity of cheap PC, networking and communication technologies contributed to the wide spread adoption of this model. The......

Words: 3300 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay


...1080/19393550903404902 Information 1939-3547 1939-3555 Security Journal: A Global Perspective, Vol. 19, No. 2, Mar 2010: pp. 0–0 UISS Perspective An Ontological Approach to Computer System Security ABSTRACT Computer system security relies on different aspects of a computer system such as security policies, security mechanisms, threat analysis, and countermeasures. This paper provides an ontological approach to capturing and utilizing the fundamental attributes of those key components to determine the effects of vulnerabilities on a system’s security. Our ontology for vulnerability management (OVM) has been populated with all vulnerabilities in NVD (see with additional inference rules and knowledge discovery mechanisms so that it may provide a promising pathway to make security automation program (NIST Version 1.0, 2007) more effective and reliable. KEYWORDS analysis system security, common vulnerability exposures, ontology, vulnerability Ju An Wang, Michael M. Guo, and Jairo Camargo School of Computing and Software Engineering, Southern Polytechnic State University, Marietta, Georgia, USA J. A. Wang, M. Approach to Computer An Ontological M. Guo, and J. Camargo System Security 1. INTRODUCTION Secure computer systems ensure that confidentiality, integrity, and availability are guaranteed for users, data, and other computing assets. Moreover, security policies should be in place to specify what is secure and nonsecure, and security......

Words: 6084 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay


...reading. This paper seeks to highlight the basic information of each lecture a student should expect while undertaking this module. Additionally, this paper will note some key points from each seminar and try to define some concepts pertained therefof. Lecture 1 This lecture is aimed at helping a student to understand the significance of social research and why it matters. A learner will understand that a research method is a technical subject that encompasses its own language and this language ought to be utilized in precise way. In this course, the precise meaning of technical terms ought to be learned and then applied carefully, more so in undertaking examinations. A student of social science, a learner will be familiar with the idea of sociology as multi-paradigm discipline. Debates and controversies aside, the main divide in social research has been about the philosophical basis of sociological research and the right choice of social research methods. For instance, a learner will undertake to understand the divide between positivists and anti-positivists. The lecture will prove to be critical to a student to understanding the wider role of social research to the society. It will come out clear how most of various day-to-day activities depend on social research. The lecture will for instance...

Words: 2487 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay


...Systems Research and Behavioral Science Syst. Res. 15, 365–372 (1998) & Research Paper Evolution and Thermodynamics: The New Paradigm{ Jeffrey S. Wicken* Department of Biochemistry, Penn State University, Erie, Pennsylvania, USA This paper introduces the new evolutionary paradigm born of the synthesis of Darwinism and thermodynamics. It also introduces this volume, whose theme is the integration of life and social process with physical law. The sense of this expansion is as follows: Darwinism has come under intense scrutiny in recent years, from several fields. These range from statistical mechanics to developmental biology. In this paper, I will discuss the direction the revision of the Darwinian program is taking through thermodynamics, which is the science of irreversible process and self-organization. My objective is to show the coherence of life with the rest of nature. # 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Keywords evolution; emergence; thermodynamics INTRODUCTION Evolutionary theory is presently undergoing the kind of massive conceptual restructuring that marked the two great scientific revolutions of our century: relativity and quantum mechanics. Like those two revolutions, the one occurring in evolutionary theory has tremendous practical and epistemological implications for understanding, and dealing with, nature. Much is dissonant in the Darwinian world. The ecological relationality of life had, from the time of Aristotle, suggested a functional order of......

Words: 4414 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Algorithm in Recommendation System

...Algorithms and Methods in Recommender Systems Daniar Asanov Berlin Institute of Technology Berlin, Germany Abstract—Today, there is a big veriety of different approaches and algorithms of data filtering and recommendations giving. In this paper we describe traditional approaches and explane what kind of modern approaches have been developed lately. All the paper long we will try to explane approaches and their problems based on a movies recommendations. In the end we will show the main challanges recommender systems come across. II. T RADITIONAL R ECOMMENDER A PPROACHES A. Content-based filtering Content-based recommender systems work with profiles of users that are created at the beginning. A profile has information about a user and his taste. Taste is based on how the user rated items. Generally, when creating a profile, recommender systems make a survey, to get initial information about a user in order to avoid the new-user problem. [2] In the recommendation process, the engine compares the items that were already positively rated by the user with the items he didnt rate and looks for similarities. Those items that are mostly similar to the positively rated ones, will be recommended to the user. Figure 1 shows an example of a user profile with the movies he/she has watched and the ratings the user made. Figure 2 shows the list of movies and their attribute-values. A contentbased recommender system would find out movies from the list (Figure 2) that the user has already watched......

Words: 5413 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Business Process Reengineering

...|BPR |23rd March | | |2011 | | | | ROLE OF IT IN BPR Submitted By Abhinav Johnson (F09001) Table of Contents INTRODUCTION 4 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IT & BPR 6 IT Capabilities and Reengineering 6 Phase 1: before the process is designed (as an enabler) 7 Phase 2: while the process is being designed (as a facilitator) 9 Phase 3: after the design is complete (as an implementer) 13 ROLE OF IT IN REENGINEERING 16 Principles of Reengineering by Hammer 17 BPR – The Current focus in IT 20 Concept of Database 20 Data Mining: 20 Data Warehousing 21 STRATEGIC USES OF IT AND CRITICALITY OF IT 22 BPR TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 23 The Nature of IT Support for BPR 23 Integrated Enterprise Models 24 Analysis 26 Software Functionality 28 New ways of building models 29 Communication and Visualization 30 ......

Words: 10980 - Pages: 44

Premium Essay

Qualitative Research Methods Review

...2014/2015 ------------------------------------------------- MA in Human Resources & Consulting Assessed Work Declaration Form This form should be attached to the front of all work submitted for assessment. Name: | Chao Sun | Library card number: | 31434921 | Coursework Title: | Paper 1 Paper 2 Research Essay Consulting Project Dissertation Proposal Dissertation | Tutor: | Dr Valerie Stead | * All submissions for coursework assessment should be your own work. * Any copying from the work of others will be heavily penalized. * Allowing other students to copy your work will also be penalized. I hereby confirm that I have read and understood the University’s regulations relating to plagiarism (as summarized in the MA in Human Resources and Consulting Participant Handbook) and that the work to which this declaration is attached is my own. Signature of Student: | | Qualitative Research Methods Review Taking “The Supportive expatriate spouse” as a case Introduction This Review is aimed at analyzing the qualitative research methods used in “The supportive expatriate spouse” by Jakob Lauring and Jan Selmer (2010).The specific research elements will be discussed in perspectives of suitability, benefits, limitations and ethical issues in context of the authors’ research. Research Methods The research question of the above article is to investigate......

Words: 1462 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


...or thought. African culture is diverse and detailed in areas such as polygamy, identity, authority, customs, morality, and religion. In African ethics, behavior is dictated by local customs. This brings confusion to people between customs and morality. Customs are like social rules, they are either explicit or implicit, social rules reflect values. Not all social values have moral rules behind them. For example a social values in African cultures would be a beautiful speech, which is logical, but it is not considered immoral if one is to lack in value. When it comes to etiquette, it becomes more complex. Social etiquette does reflect social values in African cultures. Many social values do have moral relevance much like the Confucianism idea of li. Li is defined as propriety, better known as etiquette. This may shock many, but the act of polygamy is something that can be found in African culture today. Polygamy is completely normal and acceptable to Africans and...

Words: 801 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Object-Relational Database Modeling Using Uml

...Running Head: OBJECT-RELATIONAL DATABASE MODELING USING UML Table of Contents Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………..4 Overview of ER Modeling and UML…………………………………………………………...4 UML Meta-model……………………………………………………………………………… 6 UML Components………………………………………………………………………………7 UML Data Profile……………………………………………………………………………….9 UML Diagrams……………………………………………………………………………….....10 UML Diagram Classification – Static, Dynamic, and Implementation…....................................12 4+1 View of UML Diagrams……………………………………………………………………13 Object-oriented Class Model and Relational Database Model..............................................…...14 Use of UML to develop Ontologies…………………………………………………………..…17 References……………………………………………………………………………………….19 Abstract The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is being used as the de-facto standard in the software industry. With the adoption of UML 2.0, the new enhancements allow this version to describe many of the elements found in today's software technology as well as Model Driven Architecture and Service-Oriented Architecture. Many existing software applications involve complex application layer implemented in object-oriented programming languages and at the same time use relational database systems as the back-end data store. Modeling the whole system in a consistent manner will help developers and end users better understand the application. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standard language for modeling software and......

Words: 3708 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Research Essay

...Second PHI1GPI Essay – Question Two Humanity knows of nothing. And according to Jean-Paul Sartre this is what makes humanity unique. In his Being and Nothingness Sartre explores this uniqueness through a series of exercises that, he hopes, will bring forward new ideas of our existence and the meaning of nothingness. His chapter on ‘The origin of negation’ explores the existence of the non-being, a concept that he explains is unique to the human condition. In comparing the natural world with the human; we see that Sartre’s argument can make a clear distinction between the two, presenting a convincing argument that places humanity above anything else in this world. Sartre uses allegories to make a case Humanity is unique in that we ask questions and have expectations of answers. Even the most seemingly simple of questions such as ‘what is that?’ is the sign of a higher level of thinking than had ever occurred before humanity. It is our questioning and expectation, according to Sartre, is our link between our being and non-being. Sartre starts off by stating the everyday experience “does not seem to reveal non-being to us” (Sartre, p.5), that if we take the world on face value non-being shall never be shown. Yet, he goes on to explore how our questioning of the world acknowledges that the world is made up of is and is nots. That objects have perceived essence and qualities, that is; a tree is a tree and is not a car because it shares simular qualities with other trees. When we...

Words: 1189 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Social Theory of International Politics

...of International Politics’ to explain this process, this theory is based on social constructivism. His works can be seen as a response to the theory developed by Waltz, which provided the basis for the neorealist school. This new approach to international relations is increasingly gaining ground and can be seen as a important contribution towards existing theories of international relations. Wendt felt that the existing theories in international relations were too restrictive and too much adherence to guidelines. He thinks out of the box and is in certain areas very rebellious. He beliefs that realism misses the inter subjectively shared ideas which shape behaviour by constituting the identities and interest of actors. Wendt (1999) sees the international system as a social construction. In his works he emphasizes the role of shared ideas and norms in shaping state behavior. Liberal and realist perspectives aim that materialist or individualist reasons causes actions by states. Wendt however, thinks that the social relationships between states are reason for the determining of international politics. In this paper I will focus on the differences in concept between the mindset of Hay and Wendt with respect to international relations. At first I will clarify and explain the theory which Wendt has developed . Secondly I will clarify and explain the institutionalist theory...

Words: 1934 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Embracing Web 3.0

...Peering E d i t o r : C h a r l e s Pe t r i e • p e t r i e @ s t a n fo rd . e d u Embracing “Web 3.0” Ora Lassila • Nokia Research Center James Hendler • Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute I n an article published in The New York Times this past November, reporter John Markoff stated that “commercial interest in Web 3.0 — or the ‘Semantic Web,’ for the idea of adding meaning — is only now emerging.”1 This characterization caused great confusion with respect to the relationships between the Semantic Web and the Web itself, as well as between the Semantic Web and some aspects of the so-called Web 2.0. Some wanted to reject the term “Web 3.0” as too business-oriented; others felt that the vision in the article was only part of the larger Semantic Web vision, and still others felt that, whatever it was called, the Semantic Web’s arrival in the Business section of The New York Times reflected an important coming of age. With the Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Web Ontology Language (OWL) — the languages that power the Semantic Web — becoming standards and new technologies reaching maturity for embedding semantics in existing Web pages and querying RDF knowledge stores, something exciting is clearly happening in this area. Semantic Web Background With more than 10 years’ work on the Semantic Web’s foundations and more than five years since the phrase became popular, it’s an opportune moment to look at the field’s current state and future opportunities.......

Words: 3254 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Doc, Docx, Pdf, Wps, Rtf, Odt

...Coping with Continuous Change in the Business Environment CHANDOS KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SERIES Series Editor: Melinda Taylor (email: Chandos’ new series of books are aimed at all those individuals interested in knowledge management. They have been specially commissioned to provide the reader with an authoritative view of current thinking. If you would like a full listing of current and forthcoming titles, please visit our web site or contact Hannah Grace-Williams on email or telephone number +44 (0) 1993 848726. New authors: we are always pleased to receive ideas for new titles; if you would like to write a book for Chandos, please contact Dr Glyn Jones on email or telephone number +44 (0) 1993 848726. Bulk orders: some organisations buy a number of copies of our books. If you are interested in doing this, we would be pleased to discuss a discount. Please contact Hannah Grace-Williams on email or telephone number +44 (0) 1993 848726. Coping with Continuous Change in the Business Environment Knowledge management and knowledge management technology ANTONIE BOTHA DERRICK KOURIE AND RETHA SNYMAN Chandos Publishing Oxford · England Chandos Publishing (Oxford) Limited TBAC Business Centre Avenue 4 Station Lane Witney Oxford OX28 4BN UK Tel: +44 (0) 1993 848726 Fax: +44 (0) 1865......

Words: 69553 - Pages: 279