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Idiophones – sound is primarily produced by the actual body of the instrument vibrating, rather than a string, membrane, or column of air. In essence, this group includes all percussion instruments apart from drums, as well as some other instruments. In the Hornbostel–Sachs classification, idiophones are first categorized according to the method used to play the instrument. The result is four main categories: struck idiophones (11), plucked idiophones (12), friction idiophones (13), and blown idiophones (14). These groups are subsequently divided through various criteria. In many cases these sub-categories are split in singular specimens and sets of instruments. The latter category includes the xylophone, the marimba, the glockenspiel, and the glass harmonica. List of idiophones by Hornbostel–Sachs number.
Struck idiophones (11)
These idiophones are set in vibration by being struck, for example cymbals or xylophones.
Directly struck idiophones (111)
The player himself executes the movement of striking; whether by mechanical intermediate devices, beaters, keyboards, or by pulling ropes, etc. It is definitive that the player can apply clear, exact, individual strokes, and that the instrument itself is equipped for this kind of percussion. * 111.1 Concussion idiophones or clappers – Two or more complementary sonorous parts are struck against each other. * 111.11 Concussion sticks or stick clappers. * 111.12 Concussion plaques or plaque clappers. * 111.13 Concussion troughs or trough clappers. * 111.14 Concussion vessels or vessel clappers. * 111.141 Castanets – Natural and hollowed-out vessel clappers. * 111.142 Cymbals – Vessel clappers with manufactured rim. * 111.2 Percussion idiophones – The instrument is struck either with a non-sonorous object (hand, stick, striker) or against a non-sonorous object (human body, the ground). * 111.21 Percussion sticks. * 111.211 Individual percussion sticks. * 111.212 Sets of percussion sticks in a range of different pitches combined into one instrument. – All xylophones, as long as their sounding components are not in two different planes. * 111.22 Percussion plaques. * 111.221 Individual percussion plaques. * 111.222 Sets of percussion plaques – Examples are the lithophone and also most metallophones. * 111.23 Percussion tubes. * 111.231 Individual percussion tubes. * 111.232 Sets of percussion tubes. * 111.24 Percussion vessels. * 111.241 Gongs – The vibration is strongest near the vertex. * 111.241.1 Individual gongs. * 111.241.2 Sets of gongs. * 111.242 Bells – The vibration is weakest near the vertex. * 111.242.1 Individual bells. * 111.242.11 Resting bells whose opening faces upward. * 111.242.12 Hanging bells suspended from the apex. * 111.242.121 Hanging bells without internal strikers. * 111.242.122 Hanging bells with internal strikers. * 111.242.2 Sets of bells or chimes. * 111.242.21 Sets of resting bells whose opening faces upward. * 111.242.22 Sets of hanging bells suspended from the apex. * 111.242.221 Sets of hanging bells without internal strikers. * 111.242.222 Sets of hanging bells with internal strikers.
Indirectly struck idiophones (112)
The player himself does not go through the movement of striking; percussion results indirectly through some other movement by the player. * 112.1 Shaken Idiophones or rattles – The player makes a shaking motion * 112.11 Suspension rattles – Perforated idiophones are mounted together, and shaken to strike against each other. * 112.111 Strung rattles – Rattling objects are strung in rows on a cord. * 112.112 Stick rattles – Rattling objects are strung on a bar or ring. * 112.12 Frame rattles – Rattling objects are attached to a carrier against which they strike. * 112.121 Pendant rattles. * 112.122 Sliding rattles. * 112.13 Vessel rattles – Rattling objects enclosed in a vessel strike against each other or against the walls of the vessel, or usually against both. * 112.2 Scraped Idiophones – The player causes a scraping movement directly or indirectly; a non-sonorous object moves along the notched surface of a sonorous object, to be alternately lifted off the teeth and flicked against them; or an elastic sonorous object moves along the surface of a notched non-sonorous object to cause a series of impacts. This group must not be confused with that of friction idiophones. * 112.21 Scraped sticks. * 112.211 Scraped sticks without resonator. * 112.212 Scraped sticks with resonator. * 112.22 Scraped tubes. * 112.23 Scraped vessels. * 112.24 Scraped wheels – cog rattles or Ratchet * 112.3 Split idiophones – Instruments in the shape of two springy arms connected at one end and touching at the other: the arms are forced apart by a little stick, to jangle or vibrate on recoil.
Plucked idiophones (12)
Plucked idiophones (lamellaphones) – idiophones set in vibration by being plucked, for example the jaw harp or mbira. This group is sub-divided in the following two categories:
In the form of a frame (121)
The lamellae vibrate within a frame or hoop. * 121.1 Clack idiophones or Cricri – The lamella is carved in the surface of a fruit shell, which serves as resonator. * 121.2 Guimbardes and Jaw harps – The lamella is mounted in a rod- or plaque-shaped frame and depends on the player's mouth cavity for resonance. * 121.21 Idioglot guimbardes – The lamella is of one substance with the frame of the instrument. * 121.22 Heteroglot guimbardes – The lamella is attached to the frame. * 121.221 Individual heteroglot guimbardes. * 121.222 Sets of heteroglot guimbardes.
In the form of a comb (122)
The lamellae are tied to a board or cut out from a board like the teeth of a comb. * 122.1 With laced on lamellae. * 122.11 Without resonator. * 122.12 With resonator. * 122.2 With cut-out lamellae – Musical box
Friction idiophones (13)
Idiophones which are rubbed, for example the nail violin, a bowed instrument with solid pieces of metal or wood rather than strings.
Friction sticks (131) * 131.1 Individual friction sticks. * 131.2 Sets of friction sticks. * 131.21 Without direct friction. * 131.22 With direct friction.
Friction plaques (132) * 132.1 Individual friction plaques. * 132.2 Sets of friction plaques.
Friction vessels (133) * 133.1 Individual friction vessels. * 133.2 Sets of friction vessels.
Blown idiophones (14)
Blown idiophones – idiophones set in vibration by the movement of air, for example the Aeolsklavier, an instrument consisting of several pieces of wood which vibrate when air is blown onto them by a set of bellows. The piano chanteur features plaques.
Blown sticks (141) * 141.1 Individual blown sticks. * 141.2 Sets of blown sticks.
Blown plaques (142) * 142.1 Individual blown plaques. * 142.2 Sets of blown plaques.
Unclassified idiophones (15)

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