Premium Essay

Iliad

In: English and Literature

Submitted By marycool
Words 1558
Pages 7
ILIAD

The gods and goddesses took a huge place in the lives of Greek people. The gods were a great power, and provided clear explanations for all events. The Greeks thought that the gods help people in trouble and influence on all mans actions and thoughts working through human nature. Although Homer in The Iliad attached significant meaning to the gods intervention in the lives of the human characters I think that “If the gods were removed from the Iliad, the events would be largely the same”. The events, that were happened in the lives of main characters of the Iliad, basically were depended on their own particular traits of characters and behavior. Patroklos’s death is the plot moment in the Iliad. From this moment the events are on the move very quickly and getting fatal for the main characters of the poem - Achilleus and Hector. After Patroklos’s death Achilleus forgets about his offences , pride and speculations about fair actions. Now the most important thing in his life is to avenge Patroklos’s death. Hector is becoming the worst enemy for Achilleus , although he never wanted to fight against Hector and the Trojan as well. “...I am unwilling to fight against brilliant Hector...”(9.356). Now Achilleus is ready to fight in spite of threats of Apollo, who always stands behind Hector. Nobody and nothing can change his decision to take revenge. The deep human sorrow displays in his behavior. Achilleus wants to deaden his pain by means of killing his offender. What can do the gods in such situation? How can they control Achilleus’s desire to revenge? Achilleus is eager to fight. The gods just are watching upon him from Olympus and Zeus is trying to call up the gods to protect Hector. “My heart is mourning for Hector ...Come then, you immortals, take thought and take counsel, whether to rescue this man or whether to make him, for all his...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Iliad

...One thing that stood out to me as I was reading The Iliad is how Chryses offered so many gifts as ransom in order to get his daughter back, but no matter what he offered or how much he begged, Agamemnon refused. He kept telling Chryses that he would not give her back. On page 78, Agamemnon states, “The girl- I won’t give up the girl.” One line that I thought was very powerful was when Agamemnon says to Chryses, “Now go, don’t tempt my wrath- and you may depart alive.” After hearing this, Chryses felt threatened and he obeyed what Agamemnon said. On page 79, Apollo sends a plague upon the Greek army and on this page it states, “he cut them down in droves- and the corpse-fires burned on, night and day, no end in sight.” I thought this was also a very powerful line and it was a line that stood out to me. One thing that stood out to me as I was reading The Iliad is how Chryses offered so many gifts as ransom in order to get his daughter back, but no matter what he offered or how much he begged, Agamemnon refused. He kept telling Chryses that he would not give her back. On page 78, Agamemnon states, “The girl- I won’t give up the girl.” One line that I thought was very powerful was when Agamemnon says to Chryses, “Now go, don’t tempt my wrath- and you may depart alive.” After hearing this, Chryses felt threatened and he obeyed what Agamemnon said. On page 79, Apollo sends a plague upon the Greek army and on this page it states, “he cut them down in droves- and the......

Words: 949 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Iliad

...Book 1 That night, Agamemnon puts Chryseis on a ship back to her father and sends heralds to have Briseis escorted from Achilles’ tent. Achilles prays to his mother, the sea-nymph Thetis, to ask Zeus, king of the gods, to punish the Achaeans. He relates to her the tale of his quarrel with Agamemnon, and she promises to take the matter up with Zeus—who owes her a favor—as soon as he returns from a thirteen-day period of feasting with the Aethiopians. Thetis makes her appeal to Zeus, as promised. Zeus is reluctant to help the Trojans, for his wife, Hera, favors the Greeks, but he finally agrees. Hera becomes livid when she discovers that Zeus is helping the Trojans, but her son Hephaestus persuades her not to plunge the gods into conflict over the mortals. Analysis But while the poem focuses most centrally on the rage of a mortal, it also concerns itself greatly with the motivations and actions of the gods. Even before Homer describes the quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon, he explains that Apollo was responsible for the conflict. In general, the gods in the poem participate in mortal affairs in two ways. First, they act as external forces upon the course of events, as when Apollo sends the plague upon the Achaean army. Second, they represent internal forces acting on individuals, as when Athena, the goddess of wisdom, prevents Achilles from abandoning all reason and persuades him to cut Agamemnon with words and insults rather than his sword. But while the gods serve a......

Words: 2851 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Iliad

...Gods in the Iliad In the era of Homer, divine intervention was thought to be typical, and one of his foremost works, The Iliad, reflects this. Nearly all of the Greek gods are involved in the outcome of the Trojan War, which happens to be the background story of this epic poem. The gods are used by Homer to add twists on an otherwise standard plot of war. Evidently, the gods will be a powerful source of divine intervention and their actions certainly have significant outcomes on the Trojan War, and more importantly, the story of The Iliad. Zeus, very untypical of a Greek god in his lack of involvement in the Trojan War for selfish reasons, was portrayed as the father figure, being impartial and fair to both sides of the war. He remains this way to serve as a check for the other god's involvement in the war. Without the presence of fate controlling the inner circle of Olympus, it is likely that the activity of the Trojan War would have become chaotic, possibly even becoming a playground of war for the gods. The power of fate, above all of the other gods combined, is a power that not even divine intervention can prevent. This theme of fate and how it controls the god’s actions is quite befitting to the storyline of The Iliad. The Iliad, in essence, recounts the story of part of the tenth year of the Trojan War. It recounts of the anger of Achilles, the greatest warrior present at Troy, and of the background battle that is ensuing. The reoccurring theme in the Iliad is that no......

Words: 370 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Iliad

...Humanity and Leadership in the Iliad Many values found in The Iliad correlate with our society today. In the ancient epic poem by the bard Homer, Agamemnon, the leader of the Achaeans, and Hector, the hero of the Trojans, stand out as two radically different types of leadership. Hector is considered the tragic hero of the poem; he is both the devoted family man and the patriotic champion of Troy. Agamemnon is the cruel, harsh commander-in-chief of Achaeans, driven by self-gratification and greed. However, as drastically different as the two leaders are, they also share certain similarities. Both are fundamentally human and have their own unique flaws and admirable characteristics that coalesce to influence their individual styles of leadership. Hector motivates his army with promises of glory and loot, while Agamemnon uses ridicule and humiliation to motivate his army. When Hector needs a spy to learn if the exhausted Achaeans are still guarding their ships, he begins with promises of glory and material objects. He offers “a chariot, two horses with strong necks, the best of the breeds beside Achaea’s fast ships”, with the alluring promise of “what glory (the spy) can win” (286). Instead of selecting a spy through intimidation or goading, Hector appeals to his warriors’ desire for glory and luxury. Glory, or kleos, is one of the most sought after ideals in both the Achaean and Trojan armies, and Hector knows this. By appealing to these desires, Hector motivates......

Words: 1779 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

The Iliad

...In the book the Iliad I believe the archetypal hero is Achilles i believe he is the hero for three reasons; he has a unusual birth ,his call to adventure, and finial victory. The first reason is because of his unusual birth in the book it does not say a lot about his birth only that his mother,Thesis,was a god and his father, Peleus. The unusual circumstances surrounding his birth are not mentioned a whole lot but what is mentioned is that when he was a child his mother dipped him in the river of styx and held him by his Achilles heel thus it weakness. The second reason is because of his call to adventure. When Achilles was called to fight in the was Agamemnon called upon him to fight, not because he liked Achilles, which he did not, but because he was an amazing fighter. THroughout the Epic Agamemnon is always complaining about Achilles and Achilles is always threatening to kill or hut Agamemnon.Rage is the very first word of the whole poem, setting the theme that will control the actions of the entire poem, the rage of Achilles. We are in the ninth year of the war of the war—another word being fought in Troy, a city in what is now Turkey. Achilles is a young man his enemy commanding general is Agamemnon, but Achilles is the greatest warrior the Greeks have. The third reason is because of the finial victory. In the book in the end. This battle takes place because of the anger inside of Achilles after his cousin is killed. THis anger helps him defeat hector......

Words: 302 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Iliad

...Shanera Hankins Professor Ramsey HIST 1110-006 28 October 2014 The Iliad The epic poem The Iliad by Homer is centered around the time of the Trojan War. The poem retells the battles and fights of the Troy and Greek states amid the assault of Troy. The poem concentrates on the fights in the middle of Achilles and Agamemnon and Hera and Zeus. Achilles anger from the Iliad uses arguments from the immortals and the divine beings. In the squabble, Achilles through his outrage, went about as a delegate from the divine beings to disprove King Agamemnon's insatiable credit that helped the annihilation of Achaeans by taking hostage of the little girl of Chryses, Agamemnon had goaded the divine beings through rebellion (Tvedtnes 147). The point of this paper is to dissect and examine the exercises of the immortals and divine beings in the Iliad. The record of Greek divine beings by Homer in the Iliad focuses to the way that divine beings cooperated with Greeks from alternate points of view that reveals the conduct, state and statute of aged divine beings in overseeing group of men and lords of the old world. Hector executes Patroclus who is a quick warrior much the same as Achilles after god Apollo knocked Patroclus shield to the ground, Hector confused Patroclus for being Achilles since he was wearing Achilles' protective layer and kills him immediately. The occasion uncovers that divine beings intercede in choosing human movement. In the meantime, the war of words in the......

Words: 1679 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Iliad

...Emmett Oh Lyke 4:00 ESSAY 1 FATE IN THE ILIAD Fate is unavoidable, regardless of the effort one puts into changing or avoiding it. Fate in Homer’s ILIAD is depicted as a one way freeway with no exit ramps. No matter what the characters do, once they set foot on their path there is no going back. Dr. Harvey has brought forward the idea in lecture that any speech, simile, or any other small part in the epic can be a microcosm to a greater theme in the text. One of the greater themes that continued to appear throughout the text was fate’s inevitability superseded all other forces in the ILIAD. Fate is the most powerful force in the ILIAD because it shapes the events and decisions that occur throughout the epic. Fate shapes events and decisions by overpowering the will of gods and great warriors, as well as overwhelming characters to the point where they concede to their own fate. Fate`s power is also preserved by the very characters it acts upon. Throughout the Epic, the gods seem to be unable to change fate. For example, the gods are unable to save Hector and Achilles, despite loving them both, as fate has to run it`s course. The Homeric simile described below is a microcosm to these examples. In Book 11 of Homer’s epic, the Acheans are able to drive Trojan forces into a retreat caused by a strong charge put on by Agamemnon. During the Trojan retreat, Agamemnon knocks Isus and Antiphus off their fleeting chariot, killing them, and stripping them of their armor...

Words: 1457 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The Iliad

...Primary Texts: Homer. The Iliad. trans. Robert Fagles. New York: Penguin, 1990. Walcott, Derek. Omeros. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1990. Supplementary Texts and Resources: Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin, eds.. The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in Post-colonial Litaratures. New York: Routledge, 1989. Baer, William, ed. Conversations with Derek Walcott. Oxford: U of Mississippi P, 1996. Bhabha, Homi K., ed. Nation and Narration. London: Routledge, 1990. Bloom, Harold. The Anxiety of Influence: A Theory of Poetry. Oxford UP, 1973. ------ed., Homer: Modern Critical Views. New York: Chelsea House, 1986. Brown, Stewart, ed. The Art of Derek Walcott. Chester Springs, PA.: Dufour P, 1991. Davies, Gregson, ed. The Poetics of Derek Walcott: Intertextual Perspectives. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1997. “Derek Walcott.” Contemporary Literary Criticism. Volume 42 (1987). Dove, Rita. “Either I’m nobody, or I’m a nation.” Parnassus: Poetry in Review 14, 1 (1987): 49-76. Finley, M.I. The World of Odysseus. New York: Signet, 1974. Fox, Robert Elliot. “Derek Walcott: History as Dis-Ease.” Callalloo 9, 2 (1986): 331-40. Fuller, Mary. “Forgetting the Aeneid.” American Literary History 4,3 (1992): 517-38. Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of African-American Literature. Oxford UP, 1989. Griffin, Jasper. Homer on Life and Death. New York: Oxford UP, 1980. Hamner, Robert D. ed. Critical......

Words: 504 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Pride in the Iliad

...have the same general personality traits. One such characteristic that all humans tend to have in common is pride. Everyone is motivated in some way by considerations of their social standing or by their sense of self-importance, which is why people, at times, are driven to act in a selfish manner at the cost of someone else’s own self-interest. While it is important for one to have self-respect and dignity, it is wrong to let those feelings get in the way and cause unnecessary problems. In the Ancient Greek epic The Iliad by the poet Homer, the actions of nearly all of the characters are influenced by their sense of pride. In the story, arrogance is the main reason behind all of the conflicts that take place, and throughout the entire epic, pride is depicted as a destructive force. Pride is the cause of the war, the source of sub-conflicts between the characters, and the motive behind the actions taken by Achilles throughout the story. The entire epic of The Iliad occurs in the middle of a ten-year conflict in the city of Troy between the Trojans and Achaeans. As is the case with most wars, the cause of the Trojan War is arguably quite pointless because it stems from nothing more than wounded egos. The clash of the egos begins when Paris “launches the war” (Homer 14. 33) when he offends Athena and Hera by choosing Aphrodite in a beauty contest between the goddesses. The two who lose the contest feel dishonored, and as a result they take the side of the Achaeans in the......

Words: 1313 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Homers Iliad

...Week 3 Iliad paper The Iliad’s use of similarities between characters and animals is found throughout the books. My focus will be on book twenty two “The Death of Hector.” No more words-he dashed toward the city, heart racing for some great exploit, rushing on like a champion stallion drawing a chariot full tilt, sweeping across the plain in easy, tearing strides-so Achilles hurtled on, driving legs and knees. (Page 542 line 26) Here we see Achilles on his way to Troy in order to take on his arch nemesis Hector. His strides that he is taking are very similar to the gliding of a thorough bread horse. His power is shown in the way in which he races without tiring. Hector is seen awaiting Achilles with his fate already determined. The next passage from the book in my eyes is a very powerful message in that it positions Achilles and Hector into categories. There are no binding oaths between men and lions-wolves and lambs can enjoy no meeting of the minds. (Page 550 line 309) Here with this statement, Achilles is affirming that Hector is a mere mortal while Achilles should be considered a god because of his abilities. In the same passage he is considering his abilities to that of the wolf and Hector being the prey that is the lamb. He is showing that these two particular species will never co-exist without fighting to the death. And on that resolve he drew the whetted sword that hung at his side, tempered, massive, and gathering all his force he swooped......

Words: 436 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Suffering the Iliad

...Suffering in The Iliad Suffering seems to be one of the under toning themes of the Iliad. Everyone undergoes the effects of war and battle. The women stand and watch helplessly as their loved ones fight, and live knowing they may never come back. The role of what a ‘man’ or ‘women’ is or should be also causes suffering because of the decisions they must take on. The warriors understand that whichever decision they make to continue in battle or desert, their honor and integrity is at stake and that dilemma causes suffering Although, each person I mention seems to somewhat understand what fate lies ahead of them or of their loved ones, they realize the suffering they will have to eventually go through. As a warrior Achilles has witnessed much death but this war has him questioning why labor through it all? Achilles does not believe in this war initially. He knows the war is over power and ego of a man who could not keep his wife, and doesn’t understand why many men must be dragged into personal affairs and get their hands dirty will the Kings stand back and watch their people and country die. Achilles identity is based on being a proud fighter and he weeping to his mother is a great concern. The humiliation he experiences with Agamemnon, the fact that he lost his war prize and could not defend what was his, affects Achilles pride as well. Achilles, in a time of vulnerability goes to his mother and asks for her guidance after his integrity is compromised. Thetis son......

Words: 796 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Iliad Review

...The story of the Iliad begins towards the end of the Trojan War. Chryses, a Trojan priest, is trying to get his daughter (Chryseis) back from Agamemnon. Chryses prays to Apollo, who sends a plague on Achaeans army. After nine days of plaque, Agamemnon agrees to return Chryseis and take Briseis instead. Achilles becomes angry and he and the Myrmidons would no longer fight with Agamemnon. Achilles also prays to his mother, Thetis, to ask Zeus that the Achaeans be punished. So Zeus sends a dream to Agamemnon telling him to attack Troy. Agamemnon decides to follow his dream and the two armies approach each other. However before they meet, Paris, a Trojan prince, offers to put an end to the war by fighting a duel. Menelaus accepts the challenge but Paris becomes scared because Paris stole Menelaus’s wife. Paris is beaten by Menelaus, but Aphrodite saves him. The God, Hera who wants to see the war continue and the destruction of Troy argues with Zeus who believes Menelaus won and the war should be over but Zeus gives in and sends Athena to have the Pandaros break the truce by wounding Menelaus. During the fierce fighting, Diomedes is wounded by Pandarus and he prays to Athena who gives him extraordinary power. He then kills many Trojans, including Pandarus. He also attacks Aeneas who is Aphrodite’s son. Aphrodite rescues him but Diomedes attacks her and cuts off her wrist. Diomedes goes on to attack Apollo as well. Nestor knows that the Trojans are weakening and urges the......

Words: 1250 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Iliad - "Achilles' Rage"

...Journal Essay #3 When the reader first opens Homer's epic poem The Iliad, the author's very first line states the poem's main premise: "Achilles' rage" (1); if that doesn't tell the reader anything, it's also the title of the first book. However, I've noticed that many people still find it difficult to determine who the heroic protagonist is in The Iliad. That's because the audience today doesn't believe that their view, of what constitutes a heroic protagonist, coincides with the typical heroic protagonist of the Ancient Greeks. Yes, contemporary readers will all probably agree that Achilles possesses a couple of the characteristics, that would make him a heroic protagonist (i.e. being extremely brave, ambitious for honor, physically strong, etc...). However, Achilles also possesses some less thought-of characteristics, that might cause contemporary readers to arguably disagree with Achilles being an heroic protagonist. Given all criteria that makes up an epic poem's heroic protagonist, and that The Iliad is considered an epic; I'm going to have to say, that (while others display qualities of heroic protagonists) Achilles is the most heroic protagonist of The Iliad. Some of the more controversial characteristics, that make Achilles the perfect candidate for being the most heroic protagonist include: ambition driven by glory and immortality, he fights something or someone god-like, he has a known companion, he has an outward physical element that's very prominent, he......

Words: 652 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Iliad vs Odessey

...Odyssey The Iliad and the Odyssey are two of the world masterpieces that have survived the times . Admired through the ages as the ultimate epics Homer 's Iliad and the Odyssey , was venerated by the ancient Greeks themselves as the cornerstone of their civilization (Nagy , Online . The two epics are the portrayal of early Greek civilization with the spotlight focused on heroism and the heroes ' struggles and triumph Early Greece likewise was depicted in the two epics as a people who believed in the power of the immortals which was clearly shown in how br the gods and goddesses ran the lives of the characters The Iliad and Odyssey are both colorful and dramatic . Not only was Homer able to use vivid s of the different war episodes but he was also successful in portraying supernatural beings that Odysseus met during his journey back home . These styles of Homer likewise characterized the people during the time that the epics were written A very diverse Greek culture was shown in the Iliad and the Odyssey Just like what was previously mentioned , people in ancient Greece revered their heroes . The people then consider men or women who were endowed with superhuman abilities which were believed to have come from the gods and the goddess as their heroes . These heroes likewise embodied the character of the Greek people as a whole . Homer used the different characters in the two epic to give a picture of how society and the people was during the earlier times Achilles was......

Words: 1411 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The Role of the Gods in the Iliad

...intervention was thought to be typical, and one of his foremost works, The Iliad, reflects this. Nearly all of the Greek gods are involved in the outcome of the Trojan War, which happens to be the background story of this epic poem. The gods are used by Homer to add twists on an otherwise standard plot of war. Evidently, the gods will be a powerful source of divine intervention and their actions certainly have significant outcomes on the Trojan War, and more importantly, the story of The Iliad. Zeus, very untypical of a Greek god in his lack of involvement in the Trojan War for selfish reasons, was portrayed as the father figure, being impartial and fair to both sides of the war. He remains this way to serve as a check for the other god's involvement in the war. Without the presence of fate controlling the inner circle of Olympus, it is likely that the activity of the Trojan War would have become chaotic, possibly even becoming a playground of war for the gods. The power of fate, above all of the other gods combined, is a power that not even divine intervention can prevent. This theme of fate and how it controls the god’s actions is quite befitting to the storyline of The Iliad. The Iliad, in essence, recounts the story of part of the tenth year of the Trojan War. It recounts of the anger of Achilles, the greatest warrior present at Troy, and of the background battle that is ensuing. The reoccurring theme in the Iliad is that no matter whom the character is, god or human,......

Words: 3197 - Pages: 13