Free Essay

Impact of Festivals and Events on a Destination

In: English and Literature

Submitted By Defjam744
Words 2035
Pages 9
Impact of Festivals and Events on a Destination
Events and festivals can be described as the most exciting and fastest growing industry related to leisure, business and travel. These special attractions have a purpose and objective, which in turn, have impacts on host communities, participants and other stakeholders who as Getz puts it, are “impacted” by the outcomes of events (1993). In recent decades, a substantial amount of research has been carried out to examine the impacts of tourism on a destination and, to a lesser extent, events and festivals. Through this work, both positive and negative impacts of events and festivals on a destination have been discovered. Indeed, it is the expected benefits of events, whether economic, social, political or environmental, that is the principal drive underpinning the support for and increasing popularity of events and festivals at the local, national and international scale. Getz also believes that “local and regional events, including business events and conferences can increase visitation and expenditure, reduce seasonality, revitalize the economy, encourage repeat visitation and heighten regional awareness. Added to this, events and festivals can also provide the stimulus for additional infrastructure development in the local area and building community pride” (1993). On the other hand, events almost inevitably incur cost or have negative consequences that, to a lesser or greater extent, serve to reduce one’s net benefit. Unfortunately, these negative results can give rise to problems for the host community who may wish to host the event again. With this being said, event mangers should carefully plan an event in such a way that benefits are optimized and negative impacts are minimized.

Event Planning and Management
Developing a successful event, whether it is a local, special, business or major event, commonly requires a well thought out and put together plan by a wide range of stakeholders. When planning an event here are some things to consider (Getz, 1993): * Establishment of an event management committee to develop and plan specific events. * Developing an event concept or theme that is aligned with the destination and business’ values. * Consideration of event requirements including funding, sponsorship, promotion, facilities and equipment, access, legal obligations and risk management. * Coordinating involvement of other tourism industry stakeholders including accommodation providers, attractions and transport providers.
The Nature of Events and Economic Impacts
Within the tourism field, the term “event” is used to describe a wide range of event categories many of which have different characteristics. Events are categorized into four (4) major categories: local community based (arts and craft stalls), major (Regatta Festival), hallmark (Madi Gras) and mega-events (Summer Olympics). A mega-event such as the Olympics demands infrastructure such as, transportation, accommodations, stadium and necessary construction. Added to this, the scale of an event (how big or small) has a direct relationship with the impact a destination might receive, such as: potential attendance, media profile and cost and benefits (McDonell et. al, 1999). Economic impact affects a community not only through a mega-event but also a small-scale event. Yes, even a one night concert economically impacts a community.
Getz believes that “The economic role for events is to act as catalysts for attracting visitors and increasing their average spend and length stay of length. They are also seen as image- makers for the destination, creating a profile of destinations, positioning them in the market and providing a competitive marketing advantage” (1993). The benefits of events and festivals to a community can bring major change, particularly when persons travel from outside of the region. An event is said to provide newness, freshness and changes which are appealing to visitors. As a result, events and festivals often encourage old visitors to return to a destination as well as attract new visitors. It is also important to recognize that events and festivals are attractions that have drawing power and holding power, which encourages visitors to stay longer in a destination (Getz, 1993). This untapped market of new visitors further diversifies the economy by increasing both income and governmental revenue.
Environmental Impacts of Events
Environmental impacts both, local and global, direct and indirect, reversible and irreversible and positive and negative can emerge as a result of hosting events and festivals. Larger events are likely to have both a broader range of, and greater magnitude of environmental impacts. For example, a mega-event such as the Olympic Games versus music festival possesses a greater percentage of inflicting threat and harm on the environment.
Festivals and events contribute to the depletion of natural resources by the use of fossil fuels in transportation as well as to the air, water and soil pollution. Second, they decrease the numbers and varieties of plants and animals and ruin their habitats. Thirdly, they can create great pressure on local resources like energy, food and other raw materials that may already be in short supply. In order to have more favorable environmental impacts, sustainable planning and development principles should be taken into consideration throughout the organization of a festival. Sustainable event mangers should consider the control use of resources, restriction of overconsumption and reduction of the amount of waste, conservation of diversity and the involvement of event management in long-term development concepts (Raj & Musgrove, 2009).
Social Impact of Events
According to Getz, social impacts can be defined generally as “all social and cultural consequences to human population of any public or private actions that alter the ways in which people love, work, play, relate to one another, organize their needs and generally cope as members of society” (1993). Events play a pivotal role in the lives of persons within a community because it aims to foster and improve relationships between people, thus strengthening people’s abilities to understand one another. Events bring about a sense of unity by bringing people together for a common good: to have themselves a good time. As events bring visitors into contact with the local host community, this adds further dimensions to the socio-cultural change. This change can bring about a mixture of both positive and negative changes that affect the host community and the event visitor. For example: the integration of different cultures, ethnic groups, lifestyles, languages and levels of prosperity are brought together for one common good. The social impacts of events and festivals on a destination are truly meaningful as, the day-to-day life of people associated directly or indirectly with events, their attitudes and values are in favor of reaching out to people (1993).
Possible Impacts Resulting From Events (Hall, 1992). Type of Impact | Positive | Negative | Economic | * Increased expenditures. * Creation of employment. * Increase in labor supply. | * Prices increase during events. * Failure to attract tourist. * Inadequate capital. | Tourism/Commercial | * Increased awareness of the region as a travel/tourist destination. * Increase in accessibility. * Creation of new accommodation and tourist attractions. | * Given poor reputations as a result of inadequate facilities, improper practices, or inflated prices. * Negative reactions from existing enterprises due to the possibility of new competition. | Physical/Environmental | * Construction of new facilities. * Improvement of local infrastructure. * Preservation of heritage. | * Overcrowding. * Ecological damage. * Change in natural processes. | Social/Cultural | * Strengthening of regional values and traditions. * Increase in permanent level of interest and participation with the types of activities associated with events. | * Social dislocation. * Changes in community structure. * Potential increase in crime. * Commercialization of activities which may be of a personal or private nature. | Psychological | * Increased local and community spirit. * Increased awareness of non-local perceptions. | * Culture shock. * Misunderstanding leading to varying degrees of host/visitor hostility. | Political/administrative | * Enhanced international recognition of region and values. * Development skills among planners. | * Failure to cope. * Inability to achieve aims. * Increase in administrative costs. |

Festivals Impact on Host Communities Festivals are important to host communities because it helps to develop local pride and identity for the local people. Events can help with a fundraising, to change a city’s image, to expand its trade, to stimulate its economy and help companies market their products (Catherwood & Van Kirk, 1992). One of the greatest advantages of community festivals and many other special events are to improve independence from capital-intensive development projects (Getz, 1993). Events contribute to income and employment through the event itself as well as hotels, artisans, restaurants, transportation and even small souvenir shops. On the other hand, events and festivals can also have negative impacts and can do great harm to the future of an event in its host region. A problem a host community may have with events is the influx of people and being unable to cope, which may lead to traffic congestion, crime and vandalism. Added to this, community resistance to tourism, loss of authenticity, damage to reputation and inflated prices may also negatively impact a host community (Catherwood & Van-Kirk, 1992).
Festivals in the Caribbean
Every year, the islands of the Caribbean host hundreds of events and festivals. For example the very popular Junkanoo held in the Bahamas, Trinidad and Tobago Carnival, and Music festivals in St. Lucia, Barbados and Jamaica. Festivals and events take place year round in this region, so regardless of which country you visit and when you go, there is a good chance something exciting will be going on.
In the Bahamas, Bahamians love to get together and celebrate the things that make the islands special, such as food history and culture. December 26th and January 1st both Bahamians and foreigners line the streets to enjoy one of the most celebrated art forms in the Bahamas: Junkanoo!
Three o’clock in the morning, costumed dancers with astonishing energy line the street along with cowbellers, drummers, trumpeters, conch shell blowers and other musicians carrying or wheeling along sculptures or ‘lead pieces’ creating a compelling rhythmic beat. It’s amazing what Junkanoo does, it brings together the rich and the poor, the magistrate dances with the felon he may later prosecute and members of the Government make brief accord with parliamentarians in the opposition (Glinton-Meicholas, 1994).
Each and every year, the people of Trinidad and Tobago, living home and aboard, come together to celebrate what people called the “Greatest Show on Earth”. “Caribbean carnivals are based on the original Trini Carnival, as locals call it, which was introduced to the island in the 18th century by French settlers and their slaves” (Creekmore, 2011). This event can be described as an explosion of color, music and creativity with its massive masquerade bands, flamboyant costumes decorated with feathers and pulsating music.
In Jamaica, hundreds of fans both local and international flock to Montego Bay at the end of July each year for the Reggae Sumfest - the largest concert festival in the region. Top Caribbean bands have been joined in the past with international headlines such as LL Cool J, Mary J. Blige, Sean Paul, Rihanna and Nicki Minaj for a week of sonic celebration (Creekmore, 2011).

Special events and festivals bring locals and visitors together to celebrate the unique and special features of a community. When events and festivals are being planned, event planners should take into consideration a number of things to ensure the success of an event. Events and festivals create new bonds and strengthen the fabric of the community, while delivering measurable economic, social and even environmental benefits. Nonetheless, negative impacts can arise and pose threats to the host community and visitors as well. For example, some events can bright about overcrowding, dislocation of locals, and rising prices which may drive tourists away from a destination. As a result, greater attention should be placed on optimizing benefits and minimizing negative impacts.

Catherwood, D.W. & Van-Kirk, R.L. (1992). The complete guide to special event management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Creekmore, T. (2011). Caribbean festivals and events. Retrieved February 1, 2012, from and-events
Getz, D. (1993). Festivals, special events and tourism. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Glinton-Meicholas, P. (1994). How to be a true-true Bahamian. Nassau: Guanima Press.
Hall, C. (1992). Hallmark tourist events: impacts, management and planning. London: Belhaven.
McDonell, I., Allen, J. & O’Toole, W. (1999). Festival and special event management. Milton: Jacaranda-Wiley.
Ray, R. & Musgrove, J. (2009). Event management and sustainability. Cambridge: CBAI Publishing.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Topic 1. How Can Events Contribute to Destination Image Enhancement. Give Examples.

...Festivals and events are seen as a tool for raising awareness and as a catalyst in promoting a favourable destination image to potential tourists (Lertputtarak, 2012). The image of a destination can be enhanced by the success of an event (Baloglu & McCleary, 1999). In the words of “Lawson & Baud Bovy (1977), the concept of destination image is defined as the expression of all objective knowledge, prejudices, imagination and emotional thoughts of an individual or group about a particular location” (Dominique & Lopes, 2011, p. 307). Additionally, “other authors define the image as the sum of all beliefs, ideas and impressions that people associate with a destination (Crompton, 1979; Kotler, Haider & Rein, 1993)” (Dominique & Lopes, 2011, p. 307). This paper discusses the impact of events on destination image enhancement. Destination image is formed from several sources of information. Event information sources are the forces which influence the forming of perceptions and evaluations of a region’s characteristics. It will be argued, using the specific example of the ‘Exit’ event staged in 2000, that public exposure through extensive media coverage and word of mouth communications are the main elements that contribute to a positive destination image. Furthermore, it will be demonstrated how hosting events present an opportunity for marketers, as part of their strategy, to help position their destination and enhance their global image. As illustrated by the ‘Mardi Gras’ event......

Words: 1015 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...Tourism Management Event tourism: Definition, evolution, and research Donald Getzà Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, 2500 University Ave. N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4 Received 24 April 2007; accepted 31 July 2007 Abstract This article reviews ‘event tourism’ as both professional practice and a field of academic study. The origins and evolution of research on event tourism are pinpointed through both chronological and thematic literature reviews. A conceptual model of the core phenomenon and key themes in event tourism studies is provided as a framework for spurring theoretical advancement, identifying research gaps, and assisting professional practice. Conclusions are in two parts: a discussion of implications for the practice of event management and tourism, and implications are drawn for advancing theory in event tourism. r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Event tourism; Definitions; Theory; Research 1. Introduction Events are an important motivator of tourism, and figure prominently in the development and marketing plans of most destinations. The roles and impacts of planned events within tourism have been well documented, and are of increasing importance for destination competitiveness. Yet it was only a few decades ago that ‘event tourism’ became established in both the tourism industry and in the research community, so that subsequent growth of this sector can only be described as spectacular. Equally, ‘event......

Words: 22067 - Pages: 89

Free Essay

Festival Themes and Concepts

...There is a large and diverse range of types of festival within the industry, from music, to sport, to dance, to gaming. Each one can be categorised in a different way depending on their scale and form. The three main sectors that a festival will fit into are the government, community and corporate sectors. This essay will explore the differences between each sector and the sub sectors within each one. The large variety of stakeholders that are involved in events will be explored as well as their relevance to the different sectors. Social and economic impacts of festivals are vast and limitless; this essay will establish some of the effects that a festival has, both positive and negative. The biggest of the sectors within the festival industry is the government sector; corporations within this sector primarily create events for social, cultural, economic and tourism causes. The government sector mainly creates mega events; these are defined by Getz (2005) as ‘must see’ events that yield extraordinarily high levels of tourism, media coverage, prestige and high economic impact for the host community. Examples of such events are the London 2012 Olympic Games, the Millennium celebrations and the Queen’s Golden Jubilee; seemingly government sector events are those that are aimed at the general public and will often combine the celebration of a significant national anniversaries and events. Silvers (2004a) defines government and civic events as those that are comprised by or for......

Words: 2273 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Managing the Environment

... 14468477 Events Management Managing the Environment for Tourism and Events Individual Assignment Critically examine the extent to which venues and facilities are making efforts to mitigate environmental impacts. Martin Elliot-White/Chris Phelan Word Count:1830 Mitigation refers to the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases (, 2015), which effect the environment, this can be achieved in several ways, such as reducing waste left after festivals or using renewable energy. These aspects will be discussed in more detail during this assignment, as well as how tourism and event managers use Limits of Acceptable Change methodology when assessing environmental impacts and how to mitigate them. Venues and facilities, such as festival destinations or stages used at the festival, within events and tourism are making efforts to mitigate environmental impacts, for example the venue should use data which has been collected and analysed to identify and evaluate appropriate measures to mitigate environmental impacts and include them when development planning (Department of Regional Development and Environment, Executive Secretariat for Economic and Social Affairs, Organization of American States, 1991). With the use of a case study, this assignment will examine the extent of which venues and facilities are mitigating environmental impacts and what more could be......

Words: 2196 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Manly Brand Report

... a. Holt’s Theory of Cultural Branding b. Hall’s Tourism and Market System 4. Case Study Introduction 5. Brand Strategies 6. Critical Analysis of Brand Strategies 7. Recommendations 8. Conclusion Executive Summary This report was commissioned to examine the Manly Council case study and the strategies they use for their business and how they can relate to actual marketing theories and models. This research draws attention to the two strategies that Manly Council uses one of which is the beach and how they utilize this in enhancing the experience of tourists. Manly Council does this by placing eateries, shopping centers, services such as bike tours and aquariums and hosting annual events such as the International Jazz Festival. The Holt’s Theory of Cultural Branding where it states that brands are and can influence the societies culture fits into this strategy as Manly Council has created the ‘Surf City’ brand to align the values of its residents to create a beach culture for them to showcase to visitors. However in the strive for personal sovereignty is almost impossible through brands because cultural branding will force too many cultural icons for one to handle and time is short for one to reach sovereignty. Further research indicates that social media is also a tool used by Manly Council to increase brand awareness. The Hall’s Tourism and Market system, which signifies that a tourists experience is the main point of business......

Words: 3284 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

The Economic and Culture Impact of Wagner Ring Cycle in Adelaide 1998

...Special events have grown massively and contribute a lot of benefits to the host community. They provide a lot of recreational opportunities for local residents as well as assist in forming the tourism’s destination. As such potential contributions, government now involves in many festivals and special events to support and promote events as part of their strategies for economic development, infrastructure, and destination marketing. There are many types of special events but can be classify in categories: mega event, hallmark event, major event, and minor event. The duration of these events ranges from a single day up to many months in the case of World Expos. Special event produces a wide range of economic and social benefits for communities and regions. This economic and social impact will be assessed in this essay which focused on Wagner’s Ring Cycle held in Adelaide – South Australia in 1998. The Wagner’s Ring Cycle has economic impact as well as social impact to the host community. These impacts, which can be positive and negative, will be discussed particularly through the staging event that made a successful Australia's first original Ring Cycle. First of all, the economic impact is assessed by the information of the expenditure of the attendees and participants (spend how much and on what). The information is also obtained on “switching” for attendees and non-attendees in how much they would spend if the event had not been held in that area. The Wagner’s Ring......

Words: 1825 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

The Marketing Research

...A Study of Tourists on Attraction, Service Quality, Perceived Value and Behavioral Intention in the Penghu Ocean Firework Festival Wen-Chieh Hsieh, Lecture, Department of Leisure and Sport Management, Far East University, Taiwan ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to analyze the cognitive tourists for Penghu Ocean Firework Festival attraction situation. There is also analysis of attraction, service quality, and perceived value for behavioral intention. This study used questionnaires to the island of Taiwan to the Penghu ornamental Penghu Ocean Firework Festival targeting tourists, adopted the designated non-random sampling in the active site and proximity to downtown streets to investigate, a total of 593 valid questionnaires. The data were descriptive statistics and SEM (structure Equation modeling) analysis, this study found that: 1. Tourists Penghu Ocean Firework Festival is attraction cognitive highest "Want to feel the charm of the beauty of the sparkling fireworks." 2. Attraction directly service quality and behavioral intention positive effects. 3. Service quality direct positive effect on perceived value. 4. Perceived value have a direct positive effect on behavioral intention. 5. The attraction will through service quality indirect effects on perceived value. 6. The service quality will through perceived value indirect effects on behavioral intention. Based on these results, this study is not only to give the Penghu's tourism industry and government units......

Words: 2470 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Role of Malls in Dubai Shopping Festival

...Role of Malls in Dubai Shopping Festival Dubai Shopping Festival (DSF) takes place every winter with its mammoth array of discounts, competitions, prizes, fireworks and entertainment. DSF offers amazing shopping discounts, attracting holiday makers from around the globe keen on grabbing a bargain. Dubai Shopping Festival (DSF) started on February 15, 1996 as a retail event intended to revitalize retail trade in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. It has since been promoted as a tourist attraction. This yearly month long event is usually scheduled during the first quarter of the year, attracting about 3 million people to Dubai. It is the region’s largest and longest running shopping and entertainment extravaganza. DSF has had around 35 million visitors since 1996, who have spent close to Dh74 billion in shopping malls, airlines, hotels and entertainment outlets. In 2009 alone, visitors reached the 3.35 million mark and spent Dh9.8 billion in 32 days of the festival. During Dubai Shopping Festival, shops offer deep discounts on their merchandise, daily car raffles are drawn, and fireworks light Dubai’s night sky. Tourists from all around the world are lured not only for Dubai's tax free shopping, but also for all of the events that take place during the festival. In 2006, the festival was cancelled due to the death of Dubai's ruler, Sheikh Maktoum Bin Rashid Al Maktoum. In addition to Dubai Shopping Festival, Dubai also hosts Dubai Summer Surprises. Dubai is sometimes called the......

Words: 1723 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Traditional Events

...Abstract Traditional events and festivals have become increasingly important on tourism. The cultural events encourage cultural atmosphere, create recreational experiences, and generate revenues. The Bun Festival is a cultural event and attracts 60,000 people in 2009. In this dissertation, it studies the Bun Festival on Cheng Chau Island to investigate the visitors’ satisfaction experience and authenticity of the Bun Festival. The visitors’ perception on the Bun Festival will be found from a visitor survey. A survey is asked the visitors who have participated the Bun Festival before. The results present that although perceived authenticity of the Bun Festival is high, majority of visitors is not motivated by the tradition and culture, is not enough knowledge to analysis. The visitors are not antipathy for commercial of the Bun Festival, because they look for relaxation and entertainment. The recommendations for future development of the Bun Festival are suggested based the findings. Keywords: Cultural Tourism, Bun Festival, Visitors’ Perceptions of Authenticity 2 Table of Contents Abstract Table of Contents List of Illustrations Charter 1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 6 1.1 Background:..................................................................................................................... 6 1.2 Reason for Choosing This Topic:.....................

Words: 14823 - Pages: 60

Premium Essay

Impact of Tourism on Victoria Gozo

...trillion, an increase of 3.8% from 2010. A report from the UN World Tourism Organisation forecasts an estimated growth of the tourism industry of about 3.8% per year up to 2020. Tourism in the Maltese Islands has grown accordingly, with it being one of the main drivers of the Maltese economy. In this report, I will focus on the impact tourism has on Victoria, the capital city of Gozo, in terms of economy, environment, society and culture. Tourism Tourism deals with tourists, which represent the demand side and the tourist product, which represents the supply side. Alternatively, it could be seen as an exchange of goods and services between a consumer and a supplier. Tourism also interacts with different environments such as social, cultural, political, natural, economic and technological. Such impacts can be negative, positive or both. Furthermore these impacts can overlap meaning that a person in a community could be positively affected by the economic impact of tourism while another person in the same community could be negatively affected through the environmental perspective. Destination Area J. Child & co refer to a destination area as a place having characteristics known to enough 1 visitors to justify it as an entity independently attracting and motivating travel itself. Victoria has all the attributes necessary to be a...

Words: 3225 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Did the Financial Crisis Have a Catastrophic Impact on the Wine Tourism Sector in Italy

...Introduction While much of the focus may be on the United States, the recent financial crisis has impacted countries around the world and Italy appears to be one of the hardest hit in Europe. After decades during which the Italians as well as the international industrial, agriculture and financial sectors raked huge profits without investing anything in innovation and competitive interventions, now companies are claiming the state rescue and support. According to initial estimations made at the OIV (International Organization of Vine and Wine) Italy, the world's second-biggest wine producer after France with an output of about 4.5 billion liters per year, had in 2009 a decrease in domestically demand, price and export which reflects the effects of the world economic crisis. Average price of Italian wine dropped 20 percent last year with ordinary wine prices plunging 25 percent and special denomination quality wines losing 13 percent. In 2009, Italian wine sales to export markets, the United States and Britain, fell 7 and 10 percent respectively hammered by the crisis and advance of rivals from Chile, Argentina, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, according to UIV estimates based on data from Italy's statistics agency ISTAT (Istituto di Servizi per il Mercato Agricolo Alimentare). Tourism can be an important resource for an economy and Italy is the fourth highest tourist earn and fifth most visited country in the world, behind France (76.0 million), Spain (55.6......

Words: 2628 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Events Management

...Events Management Introduction Recent times have seen events turn into popular vehicles for regeneration of the urban areas and for economic growth and development as well as playing a massive role in reflecting the extensive changes that have taken place in culture and the society (Raj, Walters and Rashid 2008). As a result, the events industry has emerged and grown so large leading to some suggestions that the events management field should become a discipline of its own (Smith 2012). Many countries around the globe have seen growth in their events industries with the industry contributing handsomely to the respective country’s Growth Domestic Product (GDP). An event is a short-term organizational phenomenon that is bounded both in space and time that features in a calendar on a regular basis (Smith 2012). Despite the fact that events are temporary, Hede (2007) asserts that they are overseen by professionals that are well trained and operate in business networks that are very complex. Event managers always take into account the impacts associated with holding an event all through the planning process of the event as well as after the event. The minds of the policy makers and funding organizations are also taxed so as to justify whichever negative externalities and public spending associated with the event (Hede 2007). This paper aims to provide the reader with a detailed evaluation of the current level of understanding of event management and its impacts on the economy,......

Words: 2824 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Analysis of Event Industry

...-------------------------------------- 1 INTRODUCTION Brief definition of sustainability Economic impacts Social impacts Environmental impacts Political issues Natural disasters -------------------------------------- 1 ----------------------------------- 2, 3 ------------------------------------3, 4 ------------------------------------4, 5 ------------------------------------5, 6 -----------------------------------6, 7 CONCLUSION ------------------------------------- 8, 9 REFERENCE LIST --------------------------------------- 10 PURPOSE OF PAPER Discussing the positive and negative impacts on the growth of events industry, analysising the different explanations might have in the implications of this phenomenon. INTRODUCTION Over the last 20 years, the events industry has grown significantly. This phenomenon appeared might because events industry could bring a great deal of positive impacts on society, environment and economy. Events sustainability has played an important role in the increasing of events industry. However, it is predicted that there will be a growth of 5.5% per year through 2011 which used to be 6.2% since 2003, this slightly decline of growth rate might causes by the social, environmental, economical negative implications, the global political unrest and natural disaster can also create a negative impact to event industry. Brief definition of sustainability Events sustainability is consists of three parts which are social,......

Words: 1981 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Sustainable Tourism in Canada

...Sustainable Tourism in Canada Content 1. Canadian Tourism Industry……………………………………………………..1 1.1 Canadian tourism industry introduction…………………………………...1 1.2 Canadian tourism industry structure……………………………………….1 2. Sustainable Tourism Strategy…………………………………………………...2 2.1 What is sustainable tourism policy? ..............................................................2 2.2 Reasons of the establishment of sustainable tourism policy……………….2 3. Stakeholders……………………………………………………………………...3 3.1 Federal, provincial and territorial tourism organizations………………...3 3.1.1 Non-market behaviors deployed by tourism organizations…………4 3.1.2 Market behaviors deployed by tourism organizations………………6 3.2 National Parks and Provincial Parks……………………………………….7 3.2.1 Non-market behaviors deployed by National and Provincial Parks..7 3.2.2 Market behaviors deployed by National and Provincial Parks……..8 3.3 Transportation sector (Air, Rail way, Automobile, Cruise, etc.)…………..9 3.3.1 Non-market behaviors deployed by the transportation sector…….10 3.3.2 Market behaviors deployed by the transportation sector………….11 3.4 Accommodation, food and beverage sectors………………………………12 3.4.1 Non-market behaviors deployed by accommodation, food and beverage sectors……………………………………………………..12 3.4.2 Market behaviors deployed by accommodation, food and beverage sectors………………………………………………………………...14 3.5 Travel......

Words: 9417 - Pages: 38

Free Essay

Benefits of Multi-Stakeholder Groups for Participating in Gladmat Festival

...IN THE FOLLOWING SPECIALIZATION/SUBJECT: Festival and Event Management IS THE ASSIGNMENT CONFIDENTIAL? MSc in International Hotel and Tourism Leadership No TITLE: Benefits of multi-stakeholder groups for participating in Gladmat festival AUTHOR ADVISOR: Prof. Reidar Johan Mykletun Student number: 215519 ………………… 214504 ………………… Name: Ambassador Rezene Meretse ……………………………………. Muhammad Yahya ……………………………………. ACKNOWLEDGE RECEIPT OF 2 BOUND COPIES OF THESIS Stavanger, ……/…… 2013 Signature administration:…………………………… 2 Abstract This paper investigates the benefits of multi-stakeholders from participating in the Gladmat festival in Stavanger. The findings of this study can help festival and event managers to understand which major factors can attract group of stakeholders to the festival. It could help them to formulate policies, to offer suitable segment focusing on the marketing field. Stakeholder theory, the benefit segmentation theory, push and pull motivation theory, and Maslow’s hierarchy theory were applied to find the benefits of stakeholders for participating in the festival. Mixed method research have been used to collect the data, three qualitative studies and one quantitative study is carried out to explore and describe the benefits from the festival. The outcome from the qualitative shows owners benefits by positioning and marketing their product, supporting the local business, creating destination image and other factors. While, the......

Words: 31825 - Pages: 128