Premium Essay

Importance of Pharmacology

In: Other Topics

Submitted By barakoti
Words 398
Pages 2
Palliative care nursing works with individuals and families facing a life limiting illness. They will cover many areas, work at many levels and have many different responsibilities. Palliative care nurses work within the interdisciplinary team, but will often coordinate care in consultation with clients, their carers and other team members.
Staff in palliative care has been found to have increased stress when mechanisms such as social support, involvement in work and decision-making, and a realistic work-load are not available. The stress that exists in palliative care is due in large measure to organizational and societal issues, although personal variables were also found to have an influence. Staff stress and burnout in palliative care has been demonstrated to be less than in professionals in many other settings. However, other studies have noted suicidal ideation, increased alcohol and drug usage, anxiety, depression, and difficulty in dealing with issues of death and dying.
The increasing gap between what we value and what we do as a result of health care reforms, such as mainstreaming and increased economic pressures, increases the potential dissonance between our capacity to deliver care according to our core values and the reality of our practice world, a dissonance that is difficult to fight against while the tyranny of niceness is operant. The value of being nice or good is lived out in palliative care through the central value of the good death and understanding the challenges to our ability to deliver the good death is critical to understanding stress in palliative care nursing.

Dissonance between the values of palliative care and the values of society and social reactions to what palliative care nurses and the work environment in palliative care is becoming increasingly mainstreamed, adding new pressures of workload that threaten the provision of…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Importance of

...Between the 12th and 19th centuries, feudal Japan had an elaborate four tier class system. Unlike European feudal society, in which the peasants (or serfs) were at the bottom, the Japanese feudal class structure placed merchants on the lowest rung. Confucian ideals emphasized the importance of productive members of society, so farmers and fishermen had higher status than shop-keepers in Japan. At the top of the heap was the samurai class. The Samurai Class: Feudal Japanese society was dominated by the samurai warrior class. Although they made up only about 10% of the population, samurai and their daimyo lords wielded enormous power. When a samurai passed, members of the lower classes were required to bow and show respect. If a farmer or artisan refused to bow, the samurai was legally entitled to chop off the recalcitrant person's head. Samurai answered only to the daimyo for whom they worked. The daimyo, in turn, answered only to the shogun. There were about 260 daimyo by the end of the feudal era. Each daimyo controlled a broad area of land, and had an army of samurai. The Farmers / Peasants: Just below the samurai on the social ladder were the farmers or peasants. According to Confucian ideals, farmers were superior to artisans and merchants because they produced the food that all the other classes depended upon. Although technically they were considered an honored class, the farmers lived under a crushing tax burden for much of the feudal era. During the reign......

Words: 1404 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Pharmacology

...Sarah Gray @02668478 Intro to Pharmacology Case Study 4 Chapter 41 The Furosemide (Lasix) which lessen the fluid volume by escalate the amount of electrolytes and water that the kidneys are getting rid of. When there is less fluid volume the blood pressure will go down. Since her blood pressure is decreasing, the rate of her heart beat will decrease, diminish the amount of work that the heart has to do, and lowering how much fluid has built up in the lungs. The nurse needs to know how fast Furosemide (Lasix) should be given, how it work with other intravenous liquids, and what Lasix’s concentration is. The Foley catheter was ordered so it would accurately measure how much fluid was being released due to the Lasix (furosemide). The nurse should look at her blood pressure, respirations, temperature, pulse, pulse ox, and pain. He or she should also look for sluggishness and unsureness which are signs of hyponatremia; hyperkinesis, uncontrollable muscle spasm, easily upset which are symptoms of hypochloremia; thromboembolism which can be indicated by pain in lower extremities, migraine, inability to breathe, change in level of consciousness, and pain in chest. The nurse needs to let the prescriber know that all though the client’s potassium level was normal it was low in the normal range at the time the labs were drawn, Lasix can cause a drop in potassium, chloride, and sodium. He or she also needs to find out if the patient is currently on a regimen containing......

Words: 529 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Pharmacology

...heartbreaking to see the devastation that cancer brings to a family unit. The most challenging part of treating cancer for my friend’s son is seeing the psychological, physical and mental deterioration that occurs to a young body going through cancer treatment. Although he is taking the chemotherapy well, he has lost the ability to walk and his extensive vocabulary is down to three simple words. He has states of acute psychosis that are hard for his parents to deal with. David’s father is a CRNA and his mother a CVICU nurse, even at their level of expertise this it is unbearable at times to know everything about a disease yet have no control on its effects to your child. I know I have strayed away from the question, but wanted to stress the importance of why ACS exists. The American Cancer Society is the nationwide, community-based, voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer as a major health problem by preventing cancer, saving lives, and diminishing suffering from cancer, through research, education, advocacy, and service (American Cancer Society, 2013). ACS provides education and support in every way possible. The challenges of fully understanding a disease processes like cancer are extensive. Like David’s case, many cancers are not an overnight acute event that is treated quickly. Treatments for different types of cancers can take years and have many different stages. There are a wide array of treatments available and many different routes of......

Words: 1545 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Pharmacology

...Pharmacology. 1. A drug, given as a 100-mg single dose, results in a peak plasma concentration of 20 μg/mL. The apparent volume of distribution is (assume a rapid distribution and negligible elimination prior to measuring the peak plasma level): A. 0.5 L. B. 1 L. C. 2 L. D. 5 L. E. 10 L. Answer: D 2. A drug with a half-life of 12 hours is administered by continuous intravenous infusion. How long will it take for the drug to reach 90 percent of its final steady state level? A. 18 hours. B. 24 hours. C. 30 hours. D. 40 hours. E. 90 hours. Answer: D 3. Which of the following results in a doubling of the steady-state concentration of a drug? A. Doubling the rate of infusion. B. Maintaining the rate of infusion but doubling the loading dose. C. Doubling the rate of infusion and doubling the concentration of the infused drug. D. Tripling the rate of infusion. E. Quadrupling the rate of infusion. Answer: A 4. A heart failure patient shows digoxin toxicity. She received 125 mcg as standard dose. Serum levels were reported to be 2ng/mL (2 mcg/L). Target therapeutic level is 0.8ng/mL. What dose should she receive? A. 25 mcg. B. 50 mcg. C. 75 mcg. D 100 mcg. E. 125 mcg. Answer: B 5. The addition of glucuronic acid to a drug: A. Decreases its water solubility. B. Usually leads to inactivation of the drug. C. Is an example of a Phase I reaction. D. Occurs at the same rate in adults and newborns. E. Involves cytochrome P450. Answer: B 6.......

Words: 976 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Pharmacology

...PHARMACOLOGY STUDENT NAME: DATE HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT #1: Complete the following questions after reading Chapter 3: Drug Administration. Fill in the Blank: Complete the following sentences using the correct key term. 1. Drugs administered into the GI tract are given via the enteral route. 2. A good example of an intradermal injection is a PPD test. 3. Drugs applied directly on the skin are administered via the topical route. 4. Drugs applied topically to the skin or mucous membranes exert a local effect 5. Drugs that distribute throughout the body exert a systemic effect. 6. Drugs that come as an emulsion must be shaken well before administration. 7. An enteric coating resists the acid environment of the stomach. 8. A solid drug dispersed within a liquid is called a suspension. 9. Administration of a drug into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) uses the intrathecal route. 10. Sublingual tablets are placed under the tongue. 11. A tablet placed between the cheek and gum in the mouth is an example of buccal administration. 12. A drug compressed or molded into a specific shape is called a tablet. 13. An intravenous drug is administered directly into the bloodstream. 14. A sustained release tablet is formulated to release a drug slowly over an extended period. 15. A drug encased in a hard or soft gelatin container is known as a capsule 16. A syrup is a concentrated solution of sugar in water. 17. The technique of instilling drugs into a muscle uses......

Words: 415 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Components of Pharmacology

...Components of Pharmacology Stacy Maryland Liberty University Online Pharmacology Pharmacology is the study of drugs; manmade, organic, or endogenous, and their application and physiological effect(s) most specifically on the central nervous system (CNS). The Doweiko text succinctly describes a pharmaceutical as that which is responsible for, “changing the biological functions of target cells through chemical action” (2015, p. 16). Drugs both licit and illicit, are largely classified as depressants, hallucinogens, opiates, and stimulants, come in myriad forms, allow for multiple avenues of consumption, and have inherent side effects. When developing, dispensing, or using a drug, it is necessary to understand the aforementioned, as well as its half-life, effective and lethal doses, potential interactions, and consequences of abuse or misuse. What is desired from a drug is its optimum effect or highest potential, which is contingent on its bioavailability and a rather complex process of being metabolized in the body. All substances have an effect on the body known as its half-life. Drug half-life, divided into three categories: distribution half-life, therapeutic half-life, and elimination half-life. It essentially refers to a compound’s effectiveness, duration of effect, and time in the body, respectively (Doweiko, 2015, p. 23). Every drug has a preferred effect. This intended outcome is referred to as its prime or desired effect. As previously stated, each of these...

Words: 876 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Pharmacology

...CHAPTER 1: Pharmacology is defined as the STUDYING OF DRUGS, THEIR USES, AND THEIR INTERACTIONS IN LIVING TISSUE The physician must have permission from the FDA to dispose of any outdated medications. FALSE What government agency or agencies control prescription or legend medications? A AND C (DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENCY AND FDA) Drug testing is done on which of the following before being named an Investigational New Drug? ANIMALS The physician must keep which of the following records when using drugs found on the DEA list of scheduled medications? ALL OF THE ABOVE The FDA is a division of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES The person(s) with the responsibility for obtaining information and keeping records of all drugs used by a patient (both prescription and over-the-counter medications and herbs) is/are the A AND B (PHYSICIAN AND MEDICAL ASSISTANT) Prescription pads make wonderful notepads and paper for ordering blood tests and X-rays. FALSE OTC means OVER THE COUNTER Who dispenses medications? PHARMACISTS CHAPTER 2: Anaphylaxis is a possible allergic response with any medication and may be fatal. TRUE Which of the following are considered the major drug actions? DEPRESSION, STIMULATION, IRRITATION, DEMULCENCE The amount of drug circulating in the body is called the drug’s BLOOD LEVEL Recombinant DNA technology uses artificially manipulated DNA segments for transfer from a cell of one species to a......

Words: 1605 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Pharmacology

...medications simultaneously, this can cause a risk for a drug interaction. The effects of the drugs can increase or decrease, or produce a new type of effect that neither produced on its own. The combination of one drug with another can result in altering the metabolism of either or both drugs, resulting in toxity (Olson, J., 2006). References Grand Canyon University. (2011).Lecture1. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from Grand Canyon University. BIO-316VPharmacology for Health Care Course web site: http://angel.gcu.edu/angel1uploads/Content/BIO316v Mosby/Elsevier. (2009). Mosby medical dictionary (8th ed.). By Mosby, Inc. ISBN 0323052908 Olson, J. (2003). Clinical pharmacology made ridiculously simple (3nd ed.). Miami, Fl: MedMaster, Inc. ISBN 978-0-94-0780-76-7...

Words: 1011 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Pharmacology of Hypertension and Hyperlipidemia

...complications and further progression of hypertension that could lead to a heart problem (Katzung et al., 2015). Hyperlipidemia is prevalent in hypertension (Ames). Drug intake can be crucial as there are many drug to drug interactions. These should always be taken into consideration by the physician and should also prescribe proper dosing in relation to comorbidities that a patient may be suffering from. Behavior, specifically patient compliance, is also very crucial because there are adverse effects that may occur due to a missed dose or complete cease of intake due to temporary relief of symptoms may result into the progression of the disease. REFERENCES: Katzung, B., Masters, S. & Trevor, A. (2015). Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 12th edition. Ames, RP. Hyperlipidemia in hypertension: causes and prevention. PubMed. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1927888...

Words: 698 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Pharmacology of Aliskiren

...The Pharmacology of Aliskiren, and its Safety and Efficacy in the Treatment of Hypertension Kiandra Arnold PHM 813, Summer 2015 Hypertension is a common condition in which blood pressure in the arteries is elevated. A number of conditions can cause blood pressure to spike, but in hypertension there is a chronic elevation of blood pressure. There are two types of hypertension; primarily (essential) and secondary hypertension. 90-95% of patients have essential hypertension, which is a form with no identifiable underlying cause. Essential hypertension can be treated with drugs in addition to lifestyle changes. The remaining 5-10% of hypertensive patients have secondary hypertension, that is caused by an indefinable underlying condition such as renal artery disease, thyroid disease, primary hyperaldosteronism, pregnancy etc. Patients with secondary hypertension are best treated with drugs that alleviate the underlying disease or condition, however they still may require antihypertensive drugs. This paper will focus on essential hypertension since it is more common ( Jackson 2015) . Decreasing cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, or central venous pressure can reduce arterial pressure. Therefore, antihypertensive drugs either reduce blood volume(which reduces central venous pressure and cardiac output), reduce systemic vascular resistance, or reduce cardiac output by depressing heart rate and stroke volume. One particular class of anti-hypertensive drugs;...

Words: 1416 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Pharmacology

...23 Olayemi et al., Journ. Pharm. Sci., March, 2008, Vol. 7 No. 1, P. 131– 138   Fig. 2: Rice starch X 40 Mag Fig. 3: Wheat starch X 40 Mag 110 100 C u m m u la t iv e f r e q u e n c y ( % ) 90 80 70 maize rice wheat 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Particle size (µm) Fig. 4: Cummulative particle size of the local maize, rice and wheat starches. 136 Olayemi et al., Journ. Pharm. Sci., March, 2008, Vol. 7 No. 1, P. 131– 138   Ibezim, E. C., Ofoefule, S. I. Omeje, E. O., and Odoh, U. E. (2008). Performance of starch obtained from Dioscorea dumetorium as disintegrant in Sodium Salicylate tablets. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 2(3). pp. 052-058. CONCLUSION The characterisation of these starches shows rice starch with the lowest cohesiveness would be the starch of choice when good flow ability is desirable. It also shows that rice starch could be a better tablet disintegrant. These findings would be useful in the handling of these starches and in their use as pharmaceutical excipients in the production of powders, tablets and other relevant drug delivery systems. Itiola, O. A. and Odeku, O. A (2005). Packing and cohesive properties of some locally extracted starches. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 4 (1): 363-368. Itiola, O. A., Odeniyi, M. A. and Adetunji, O. A. (2006). Compression, Mechanical and Release Properties......

Words: 3350 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Pharmacology Brochure

...What is Sertraline and what is it indicated for?Sertraline is a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI). It is indicated for a variety of conditions which include:Major Depressive DisorderPanic DisorderObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)Social Anxiety (Social Phobia)Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) * Unlabeled Use(s): * *Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) | | | Talk to your doctor todayContact UsPhone: 1-800-123-4567 Email: zoloft@gmail.com Web: www.zoloft.com | | | 123 Depression HwySad City, USA | | | | | | Are your dishes piling up in the | Sink? | Pharmacology 103] | | Maybe Sertraline can help…How Does Sertraline Work?It Inhibits neuronal uptake of serotonin in the CNS, thus potentiating the activity of serotonin. Therapeutic Effect(s): * Antidepressant action. * Decreased incidence of panic attacks. * Decreased obsessive and compulsive behavior. * Decreased feelings of intense fear, helplessness, or horror. * Decreased social anxiety. * Decrease in premenstrual dysphoria. | | | Some Adverse Effects Include:Some side effects can be life threatening. If you have any of the following seek medical attention immediately-Blurred Vision -Seizures-Fever, sweating, confusion-Fast or irregular heart beat-Abnormal bleeding or bruising-Hallucinations-Suicidal thoughtsIMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION: Suicidality......

Words: 379 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Importance

...IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION IN MODERN WORLD In the modern city, education is essential for every child. Education is a preparation for students before entering the society. School play the important role in educates and provoke the talent of the young generation to become a successful person in the future. Parents pinned their hopes, ambitions, and dream on their children. With this in mind, many parents try their best to let their children enroll in high qualification school. High qualification school will provide the good learning facilities, good learning atmosphere and environment to students. According to the historical record, the famous Chinese philosopher Mencius moved home three times due to his mother wants Mencius to improve his education. Besides, Kautilya, he is a philosopher, royal adviser, professor of economics and political science in India. He sufficient emphasis on the importance of education. Another key thing to remember that even a poor family also insists that send their children to school to get an education. In this day and age, provides a good education to every child is a contentious issue. Hence, the three discussion of the importance of education in the modern world is to change people’s life , to improve personal development and to innovative and improve technology. The importance of education is to change people’s Life. According to Anonymous (2012), education not only to get a job and also let people to leading a better future......

Words: 760 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Pharmacology Case Study

...University of Phoenix Material Pharmacology Case Study Analysis Worksheet Read the University of Phoenix Material: Pharmacology Case Study. Write a 350 word response to each of the following questions. The use of your textbooks or scholarly sources is recommended. Format any references consistent with APA guidelines. 1. What are two interventions that would help this couple take the correct medications at the correct times and on the correct days? An intervention that would help the couple with medications is one of the grown children can move closer to their parents. The child can monitor the couple more to ensure medication is taken correctly and at the right times. Another intervention to assist the couple is to have the medication measured out for the entire week. The family can do that. The insulin can be premeasured in the syringes and labeled with the time it is to be taken. The pills can be put in a medicine container or egg box that is labeled for the different days of the week. The process would start over on Sunday. Having a medication calendar can assist the family in taking the right amounts. The family can have a bell that goes off during the day when it is time to take medicines. Education is the key for the family to know and understand the importance of medication management. The grandchild and other children should learn about all the medication both parents take and what time it is taken. The process needs to be a team's effort, not just the......

Words: 1643 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Pharmacology

...Pharmacology is the study of the physical, biological and chemical actions of drugs (Bryant & Knights, 2011). In the practice of medicine, drugs are used to diagnose, treat or prevent disease so for the registered nurse in a clinical setting, the knowledge of pharmacology plays a huge importance in their role of medication administration. Pharmacology knowledge allows the nurse to carry out safe medication administration, monitor medication actions, educate patients, and act legally and ethically within the pharmacological parameters. This knowledge is also vital for the nurse practititioner in their role of nurse prescribing. Pharmacology plays a huge part in these roles for the nurse. This essay below will elaborate on the importance of pharmacology for the five reasons of safe medication administration, monitoring of medication actions, patient education, legal and ethical aspects of pharmacology and the nurse practitioner. Firstly, safe medication administration. To administer drugs safely it is the nurse’s responsibility to have knowledge of the prescribed medications as well as their therapeutic and non therapeutic effects. Knowledge of the medications include, knowing its approved drug name and classification, correct dose and route of administration. A medication may have as many as three different names- a chemical name, a generic (proprietary) name and a trade name (Crisp & Taylor, 2011). A chemical name refers to the chemical makeup of a drug, a generic name is......

Words: 1344 - Pages: 6