Premium Essay

India's Demography

In: Other Topics

Submitted By deepypie
Words 2113
Pages 9
India, the second most populated country in the world is an extremely diverse, multi lingual and culturally pluralistic nation. It comprises of various religions, cultures, cultures within cultures and people from different strata of society living together. However, India has had an unstable colonial past and it is still growing and developing economically, socially, politically and culturally. Currently, it is faced with poverty, illiteracy, and infant mortality, underdevelopment, overpopulation and corruption. In spite of that, India is one of the world’s fastest growing economies and is finding its place on the Global stage. Demography plays a vital role in determining a country’s stand in terms of economic, social and cultural development. Currently, the major theme in Indian demography is its transition. In my paper, I will discuss India’s demography and analyze the various reasons for why it is such. I will also talk about the consequent implications the current demographic characteristics have on Indian society. India gained its independence from the British Empire on 15th August, 1947. What followed immediately after independence was the beginning of a tragic, violent and turbulent phase in India’s history. India was partitioned into two nation states – India and Pakistan. There were mass migrations, voluntary and involuntary, from one country to another. It was one of the largest migrations to be recorded in human history. An estimated 14.5 million people migrated within four years, mostly, along religious lines (Bharadwaj, Khwaja & Mian). Most of the Muslims migrated from India to Pakistan and many Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India from Pakistan. This large scale migration set the precedent for India’s current demographic conditions. As stated above, India is currently the second most populous country after China, with an...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Demography

...On this score India does not look too different from many other developing countries. Bangladesh's dependency ratio is 0.7, Pakistan's 0.8, Brazil's 0.5. | Your views on this article | What is different about India is the prediction that it will see a sharp decline in this ratio over the next 30 years or so. This is what constitutes the demographic dividend for India. India's fertility rate - that is, the average number of children a woman expects to have in her life time - used to be 3.8 in 1990. This has fallen to 2.9 and is expected to fall further. Since women had high fertility earlier we now have a sizeable number of people in the age-group 0-15 years. Benefits of demography But since fertility is falling, some 10 or 15 years down the road, this bulge of young people would have moved into the working-age category. And, since, at that time, the relative number of children will be small (thanks to the lowered fertility), India's dependency ratio would be lower. It is expected that, in 2020, the average age of an Indian will be 29 years, compared to 37 for China and 48 for Japan; and, by 2030, India's dependency ratio should be just over 0.4. This can confer many benefits. First is the direct benefit of there being a rise in the relative number of bread-winners. Moreover, with fewer children being born, more women will now join the work...

Words: 1581 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Something to Do with Population

...PROGRAM ON THE GLOBAL DEMOGRAPHY OF AGING Working Paper Series Population Dynamics in India and Implications for Economic Growth David E. Bloom January 2011 PGDA Working Paper No. 65 http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/pgda/working.htm The views expressed in this paper are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the Harvard Initiative for Global Health. The Program on the Global Demography of Aging receives funding from the National Institute on Aging, Grant No. 1 P30 AG024409-06. 1 Population Dynamics in India and Implications for Economic Growth1 David E. Bloom Harvard School of Public Health January 2011 Keywords: Age structure China-India comparison Conditional convergence Demographic dividend Demographic transition Economic growth Economic growth in India Policy reform Population health Population of India Abstract Demographic change in India is opening up new economic opportunities. As in many countries, declining infant and child mortality helped to spark lower fertility, effectively resulting in a temporary baby boom. As this cohort moves into working ages, India finds itself with a potentially higher share of workers as compared with dependents. If working-age people can be productively employed, India’s economic growth stands to accelerate. Theoretical and empirical literature on the effect of demographics on labor supply, savings, and economic growth underpins this effort to understand and forecast economic growth in India. Policy......

Words: 12409 - Pages: 50

Premium Essay

Cmie

...Business Beacon : Assignment 1/30/2009 Thakur Institute of Management Studies & Research, Kandivali (east). Mumbai. Sanjaykumar Anganu Yadav PG- Finance Roll No: 62 1) Answer to question one is stated on the chart or the figure mention that the India’s population in segment. Steps • Population & Demography • Population Census • Total Population • Age-Group Wise. Selected the Age Group of 15-19 to 35-39 Compared the same with the Age Group of 60 & above. Clicked on the Frequencies Annually. Executed the command NEW. The major population lies in the age group between 15-19 to 35-39 and the small amount of population in the age group of above 60. 2) Extracting the weekly inflation rate for the entire year of 2008, Steps for the above are • Price • Domestic prices • Wholesale price index. • Clicking on the weekly frequency • Execute Command NEW. • Select columns and click on generate charts • Click on YoY change in terms of percentage. • Frequency Weekly. 3) Steps for the Answer • Transport & Communication • Railways • Revenue Earnings • Enter output date as 01/03/2003-31/03/2007 • Execute Command NEW. 4) Steps for the Answer • Click on Foreign trade in Indicators. • Click on Rupee trade, imports and then on petroleum crude. • Mention L24 in time series slot. • Click monthly and then New. • Now select the entire...

Words: 439 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Urbanisation in India

...URBANISATION IN INDIA: A DEMOGRAPHIC REAPPRAISAL R. B. Bhagat Department of Geography Maharshi Dayanand University Rohtak-124001, India Introduction: The United Nations estimates indicate that at mid 1990s, about 43 per cent of the world population lived in urban areas. With the urban population growing two and a half times faster than its rural counterpart, the level of urbanisation is projected to cross the 50 per cent mark in 2005. United Nations projections further show that by 2025, more than three- fifth of the world population will live in urban areas (U. N. 1993). The growth rate of urban population of developing regions has been declining recently. It was estimated to be 3.9 per cent per annum during 1980-85, which declined to 3.79 per cent per annum during 1980-85, 3.62, and 3.43 during 199095 and 1995-2000 respectively. The decline in the rate of urbanisation is also continuing in developed regions of the world. As a result, some of the European countries have experienced negative urbanisation during 80s ( U. N. 1993 ). However, the continued absence, namely, adequate data on rural to urban migration in most developing countries as well as on natural increase in rural and urban areas separately precludes attribution of the slowing down of urban growth in most of the countries to any single demographic process. It reflects the effects the host of factors like the relatively week expansion of urban industries and price shifts unfavourable to manufactured goods,......

Words: 6028 - Pages: 25

Free Essay

Women Health in India: an Analysis

...Kamalapur1 and Somanath Reddy2 1 Women’s Studies, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga-06, Karnataka, INDIA 2 Social Work, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga-06, Karnataka, INDIA Available online at: www.isca.in, www.isca.me Received 29th August 2013, revised 21st September 2013, accepted 5th October 2013 Abstract If health is defined ‘as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’, it follows that existence is a necessary condition for aspiring for health. The girl child in India is increasingly under threat. In recent decades, there has been an alarming decrease in the child sex ratio (0-4 years) in the country. Access to technological advances of ultra sonography and India’s relatively liberal laws on abortion have been misused to eliminate female foetuses. From 958 girls to every 1000 boys in 1991, the ratio has declined to 934 girls to 1000 boys in 2001. In some states in western and north western India, there are less than 900 girls to 1000 boys. The sex ratio is at its worst in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Gujarat, where severe practices of seclusion and deprivation prevail. Often in contiguous areas in these states, the ratio dips distressingly below 800 girls to every 1000 boys (RGI, MOHFW, UNFPA, 2003). Annexure I gives the child sex ratio in different states and union territories of India as per the 2001 census. The Present paper analysis the Nutrition and women health in......

Words: 3864 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

New Era

...International Conference on Technology and Business Management March 28-30, 2011 India’s Demographic Dividend - Issues and Challenges Arun Ingle P B Suryawanshi inglearun@gmail.com pbsurya@gmail.com Pad. Dr. Vitthalrao Vikhe Patil Foundation’s Institute of Business Management and Rural Development, Ahmednagar 1. Introduction India is transforming demographically, in which the population of a nation slows down and life expectancy increases, participation of women in labor force and rate of saving increases. India has its own issues like illiteracy, income disparity, gap between haves and have-nots; etc. This study explores demographic dividend in case of India by studying issues and challenges, the policies to be implemented and lessons to be learned from countries like Japan, Ireland and Thailand. By 2025, India will have over 65% population under working class. This is a unique window of opportunity for deploying resources. This study explores the benefits to be realized and the policies to be implemented; now India is well poised for becoming a super economic power. As all developed nations will have older population by 2026, as their population is aging. It means if India can take the advantage of this situation, by proper deployment of resources, by converting the human potential in to engine of economic growth. This period of demographic dividend is an opportunity for overall growth; it’s not the guarantee for improving the standard of living. This window of......

Words: 4794 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Population

...ESSON 2: POPULATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT UNIT I: POPULATION  LESSON 2  ‘POPULATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT’ - Dr. Anupama Rajput Studying this chapter should enable you to understand:  * Theory of Demographic Transition * Demographic Profile of India * Population Growth and Economic Development * Population Policy of India Introduction: The size and composition of a country’s population can exert a powerful influence on a country’s development. The population size, composition, and distribution influence the range of industries a country can support and the pool of talent that are available in the country.In size of population, India is the second largest country in the world after China, constitutes 2.4 per cent of the world’s land area and supports 16.25 per cent of the world’s population. The population growth in India has proved to be more an obstacle to its development efforts rather than a contributory factor in economic growth.  Theory of Demographic Transition: The theory of demographic transition states the impact of economic development on the population growth of a country. The earliest systematic discussion on the theory of population growth is provided by Malthus in 1798. Malthus stated that population growth always exceeds the growth of means of subsistence and warned that the uncontrolled population had to be corrected by nature which would be very painful. Economists however, argued that the population growth is a transitory......

Words: 5546 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Book

...WORKING P A P E R Demographic Trends, Policy Influences, and Economic Effects in China and India Through 2025 JULIE DAVANZO, HARUN DOGO, AND CLIFFORD A. GRAMMICH WR-849 April 2011 This product is part of the RAND National Security Research Division working paper series. RAND working papers are intended to share researchers’ latest findings and to solicit informal peer review. They have been approved for circulation by RAND National Security Research Division but have not been formally edited or peer reviewed. Unless otherwise indicated, working papers can be quoted and cited without permission of the author, provided the source is clearly referred to as a working paper. RAND’s publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors. is a registered trademark. Preface In this paper we compare the recent and likely future demographic situations in China and India and their implications. This is a background paper for the chapter, “Population Trends in China and India: Demographic Dividend or Demographic Drag?. in the RAND report, China And India, 2025: A Comparative Assessment, MG-1009OSD, by Charles Wolf, Jr., Siddhartha Dalal, Julie DaVanzo, Eric V. Larson, Alisher R. Akhmedjonov, Harun Dogo, Meilinda Huang, and Silvia Montoya, and contains some of material referenced therein. The RAND report was done under the sponsorship of the Office of Net Assessment with the objective of understanding how China and India will compare to......

Words: 23169 - Pages: 93

Premium Essay

Implications

...NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES IMPLICATIONS OF POPULATION AGING FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH David E. Bloom David Canning Günther Fink Working Paper 16705 http://www.nber.org/papers/w16705 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 January 2011 Support for this work was provided by the Program on the Global Demography of Aging at Harvard University, funded by Award Number P30AG024409 from the National Institute on Aging. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute on Aging or the National Institutes of Health. The authors thank Marija Ozolins and Larry Rosenberg for their assistance in the preparation of this paper. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research. NBER working papers are circulated for discussion and comment purposes. They have not been peerreviewed or been subject to the review by the NBER Board of Directors that accompanies official NBER publications. © 2011 by David E. Bloom, David Canning, and Günther Fink. All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. Implications of Population Aging for Economic Growth David E. Bloom, David Canning, and Günther Fink NBER Working Paper No. 16705 January 2011 JEL No....

Words: 15223 - Pages: 61

Premium Essay

Population Growth Research Papers

...------------------------------------------------- Population growth From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The estimated size of human population from 10,000 BCE–2000 CE. 'Population growth' refers to the growth in human populations. Global population growth is around 80 million annually, or 1.2% p.a. The global population has grown from 1 billion in 1925 to 7 billion in 2012. It is expected to keep growing to reach 11 billion by the end of the century. Most of the growth occurs in the nations with the most poverty, showing the direct link between high population growth and low standards of living. The nations with high standards of living generally have low or zero rates of population growth. Australia's population growth is around 400,000 annually, or 1.8% p.a., which is nearly double the global average. It is caused mainly by very high immigration of around 200,000 p.a., the highest immigration rate in the world. Australia remains the only nation in the world with both high population growth and high standards of living. Population[1] | Years Passed | Year | Billion | - | 1800 | 1 | 127 | 1927 | 2 | 33 | 1960 | 3 | 14 | 1974 | 4 | 13 | 1987 | 5 | 12 | 1999 | 6 | 12 | 2011 | 7 | 14 | 2025* | 8 | 18 | 2043* | 9 | 40 | 2083* | 10 | * UNFPA United Nations Population Fund estimate 31.10.2011 | Contents   [hide]  * 1 Determinants of population growth * 2 Population growth rate * 3 Excessive growth and decline * 4 Human......

Words: 4029 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Government Plans

...Chapter: Government Plans Programme & Policies Topic: INDIA, G 20 AND THE WORLD (PART -1) Introduction Second World War was definitive in redistribution of the world power. Authority of United States of America was established and after a prolonged cold war with the other waning super power, USSR, the power slowly shifted towards the western democracies led by US. Japan was quick to recover too and through its technological innovations & business practices soon became a formidable force despite its relatively smaller area, population and insignificant military prowess. Economic might had become the new centre of gravity and formations like G6, a club of the rich, involving US, Japan France, Germany, Italy and UK emerged in 1975. Origin of G-20 After the second world war, free from occupation and external aggression countries like India and China, initially stayed aloof addressing their own domestic concerns, building their nations. It took some time for these countries to integrate themselves in the world economy. Meanwhile they continued to grow rapidly in terms of population, a factor that they could later leverage when they would start to open up. Slowly even with relatively lower per capita GDP but a big enough population and favourable age structure their overall impact in world economy could no longer be ignored. In the meantime, Developed countries were at their peak. The way in which business would be done was changing world over. Spurred by the......

Words: 8495 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Final

...There are a lot of things that are not certain in our lifetime. Where we will go, what we will do, how we will handle certain situations. The one thing that is certain is death of species and all living things including humans. But, with death comes life and with life comes more life. More life means growth in numbers in communities, whether small or big, suburban or city. With the vast growth in numbers that means the earth has to supply more of our resources for the numbers. This also means that there has to be more areas we need to clean out for more of our supply, more animals we need to kill off in order to keep our shelves filled with food, more natural resources that will not be replenished as time goes on which allows us less opportunity in the future. Human population can become a problem in the future depending on how fast growth continues, which brings the environmental problem of resource consumption and energy conservation in to play. According to my research, the rate of human population has peaked since around the early 60’s. With us obviously sharing our earth resources such as water and food we have shared to be more than a third of what we have used since then. This only shows that we will use more as time progresses. This problem is not only affecting our supply but our climate, loss of species to even resource extraction. The world’s population is believed to reach a level eventually that there will not be enough resources to sustain life......

Words: 1870 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Reasoning for Differences of Life Expectancy Between Men and Women

...Differences 1 Reasoning for differences of life expectancy between men and women Latesha Mays Dr. Davis SOCI 402 May 9, 2006 Differences 2 Reasoning for differences of life expectancy between women and men In most countries the life expectancy at birth of women is longer than that if men. Historically it has been assumed that this was generally due to biological reasons. But on the basis of my graveyard data which consisted of 50 cases of people from High Point North Carolina, tables and graphs, the relationship between race, gender, and average age of death are summarized with four empirical generalizations that I got from the data. I will only present three to adequately summarize the data because only three have similar commonalities to express why women live longer than men. The first empirical generalization was on the basis of the gender table. The data showed that males have a 36 percent average age of death and females have a 64 percent average age of death and therefore males have 28 percentage points lower average age of death than females. The second empirical generalization was on the basis of the race and gender graph. In this graph females had a higher median age of death than any other category. The last empirical generalization expresses a graph that shows the data of race and sex. The data showed that white females have a significantly higher median age of death than men and black......

Words: 1836 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Health Care Issues in the United States

...Health Care Issues in the United States The health care system of the United States has change in many different ways during the last century. It has evolved from a system which lacked technology and knowledge of medical science, to a nation full of the vast wealth of medical technology and how it applies to its community. Due to the rapid growth, health care has become a significant force “The nation’s health care system has increasingly moved to center stage, drawing the attention of many Americans and our nation’s politicians.” (Torrens & Williams, 2009) With all of this attention and government interaction, it is no wonder why our nation strives to improve and rationalize the health care system. While there are many aspects to discuss in terms of improvement, this paper will attempt to explain how health care is affected by behaviors, economics, and social structure. Also, it will discuss the three stages of medical technology, major trends in population demographics, as well as the most important trends in mortality over the past century. Behavior, Economics, and Social Structure The behavior or involvement of the public, economics and social structure are three aspects that greatly affect the health care system in the U.S. Behaviors or individual involvement of the nation has significantly impacted the health care system of the past as well as present day. Health care and medical science during the early stages of the health care development can be best......

Words: 1402 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Miss

...Evaluate the effectiveness of the DTM as a means of predicting future population Demographic transition refers to the transition from high birth rates and death rates to low birth and death rates as a country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system. This is typically demonstrated through a demographic transition model. The theory is based on an interpretation of demographic history developed in 1919 by the American demographer Warren Thompson. Thompson observed changes (transitions) in birth and death rates in industrialized societies over the previous 200 years. Most developed countries are in stage 4 of the model; the majority of developing countries have reached stage 3. The major (relative) exceptions are some poor countries, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa and some Middle Eastern countries, which are poor or affected by government policy or civil strife, notably Pakistan, Palestinian Territories, Yemen and Afghanistan. The DTM was first observed in the two centuries preceding 1950 in what are today’s economically developed countries. Prior to this, these developed countries experienced high death rates matched by high birth rates, resulting in a stable population size. But then improving living standards and public health measures, such as the public health acts, caused death rates to drop, followed by a gradual drop in birth rates, which by the 1970s matched the death rates again. Between the decline in the death rates and drop in birth......

Words: 1882 - Pages: 8