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India

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India
India urbanized rapidly. The urban population in India at the beginning of the 20th century was about 25.8 million constituting 10.8 % of the total population in 1901. The problem with urbanization arose when the definition of urban center could not be standardized in the first Census which was conducted after gaining independence and also because of massive rural-urban migration which occurred due to partition of the country. The highest level was noted during 1970 (3.8%). It increased to 286.1 million comprising 27.8 % of the total population in 2001. The average annual growth rate of the urban population was 2.37 % in 2001. There was a slight decrease in the period of 2005-2010, and annual growth rate was 2.31%. However, with the beginning of 2011, the situation changed to 2.76%. It is predicted that this number will only increase. Industrialization started with the help of first Prime Minister. It was a key to alleviating poverty. Thus, India gave priority to heavy industry and neglected agriculture. The government was allowed to regulate all basic business decisions. Beginning of 1980 brought mild trends of deregulation together with economic reforms and liberation of trade and financial policies. In 1991, there was adopted a major reform program. The government promoted competitive economy and foreign investments. Global integration was encouraged with a significant reduction in the usage of important tariffs and licenses. In 1993, trade was completely free. An average import tariff of 71% was reduced to 40%.
Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal and a former capital of British India. It is one of the biggest cities and its major ports. It is also the dominant urban center of eastern India. Bengali is the dominant language. The density of the population is extremely high. In fact, overcrowding had reached virtually intolerable proportions. It is obvious as Kolkata experienced a high rate of population growth for more than a century. More than four/fifths are Hindu. Muslims and Christians are the largest minorities, but there are also Buddhists and Sikhs. The city has an acute housing storage. About three/fourths of the housing units are used for dwelling purposes only. In fact, Kolkata is projected to provide better job opportunities than most other cities. Job potential is high in the city.
Mumbai is also known as Bombay. It is a capital state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and it is situated on the west coast of the country. The city is a commercial and entertainments capital of India. It houses India’s Hindi Bollywood and television industry. Living in the city is more expensive than in Kolkata. Despite that Kolkata is the cultural center with a number of art events, exhibitions, music concerts and other cultural activities. People in Kolkata seem to be friendly, whereas people in Mumbai are more interested in making money. Bangalore is the capital of the Indian state of Karnateke. It is situated in the South of the country on Deccan Plateau. The city is well known as the hub of India’s information technology sector. It is among the top 10 preferred entrepreneurial locations in the world. It is a home to many well-recognized education and research institutions in India. In fact, it is the second fastest growing metropolis, the main economic and cultural hub in India. Bangalore is known to be the Silicon Valley of India as it has the position of the leading IT explorer.

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