Free Essay

Individuals with Disabilities Act

In: Other Topics

Submitted By ga32907
Words 2128
Pages 9
A. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (IDEA), is a federal special education law and was signed into law in June 1997. The IDEA pledges that each child with a disability as well as students who need special education services has the right to a free proper public education, with the least restrictive environment. Below are the six components that are included in the IDEA. They include;

1 Free Appropriate Public Education(FAPE): In this component, the IDEA pledges that all students with a disability must be provided at a no cost public education services that is appropriate to his or her special needs within the public school system.

2 Least Restrictive Environment is the second component. This component ensures the student will receive a free appropriate public education with the least restrictive environment. It also contends the IDEA’s beliefs, that educating students within the general education population as well as the general education curriculum is the first priority that the IEP team must consider.

3 Individualized Education Program (IEP) Is the third component. This component will make certain that child with disabilities will be given the suitable as well as the individualized education. The IDEA states that after evaluating the information that is gathered, the IEP group will prepare a written document stating the special educational services available to the student. The steps involved in the IEP procedure include the testing of the student to uncover the present level of the student; after the testing has been completed the IEP team will set annual goals this would also include instructional objectives. Once the testing has taken place and annual goals have been set forth the IEP team will decide what educational services would best benefit the student. The IEP team will also decide at what degree the student may possibly participate in general education program. In the final step the IEP team will design the services and determine the length of delivery. Finally once all the above steps have taken the IEP team will monitor the student. The IEP goal is to fulfill the exceptional educational needs of each student with disabilities (Lain, 2004).

4 Procedural dual process Is the fourth component. The protection includes all information and decision making are provided to the parents. The parents have the right to inspect all educational records, as well as obtain an independent evaluation, also to be given prior notice of the evaluation process and placement of the student, plus the parent may request an impartial hearing if dissatisfied with the results from the IEP team. The parents can also request due process to resolve disagreements between all parties involved (Lain, 2004).

5 Nondiscriminatory assessment articulates that a child must be measured by a multidisciplinary team for the suspected diagnosed disability by examinations that are neither ethnically nor linguistically biased. The students are required to be given numerous types of test, these test will be given by skilled individuals. One single test is not allowed.

6 Parent participation: In this last component it is the opinion that the education of children with disabilities is made more efficient by strengthening the parent’s participation within the special education process. IDEA expects the parent’s contribution during the special education practice; this would include equal decision making between the parent and the IEP team. The parents also have also the right to receive notice to any changes in regards to IEP assessment such as the evaluation (Gargiulo, 2011).

B. Key Components of the IDEA reauthorization

1 Congress enacted the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments Public law 99-457 on October 8, 1986 this agenda was enacted to better serve young children. These amendments are identified as the early Intervention Amendments PL99-457 it signifies that all children three to five years of age have right to use Free Appropriate Public Education (Gargiulo, 2011).

2 In 1990 PL101-476 the Educations for all Handicapped child Act was in passed into law. This was a label change of the special education rule to those with Disabilities; it was also described as the first person act. In this regulation the purpose was to be categorized as children first and their disability second. Instead of students being labeled as disabled students; they are now referred to as students with learning disabilities. The PL101-476 IDEA also mandated transition services as well as to include social work with rehabilitation services for students, furthermore legislation acknowledged Autism together with traumatic brain injury in the separate disability categories. In addition the assembly revoked states protection from lawsuits for violating IDEA (Gargiulo, 2011).

3 In 1997 Public law105-17 Amendments to IDEA was passed. The IDEA was reorganized to include four main parts. Two of the changes included conduct of the disabled student, if the student brings a weapon to school or has illegal drugs and or creates a serious risk, the student could possibly be removed from their present placement after a due process. Less serious behavior concerns demonstrated by the student with a disability should be conducted comparable to students without disabilities. The other changes to include are the student active involvement in the IEP process, as well as the transition planning. This would begin at the age of 14 instead of 16 years of age. General education teacher are to be included in the IEP process as well as an emphasis on assistive technology and annual goals of each student. Other important change included adding visual impaired students and a category of developmental delayed was added when describing a child 3-9; this is the judgment of the state and local agencies. Finally the IDEA requisite schools to institute performance goals to help appraise the school progress (Gromisch, 2011).

4 Individuals with disabilities education improvement act PL 108-446 passed into law in 2004 The law has a profound effect on the general education teachers as well as the special education educator; this is due to the improvements efforts that includes assessments, standards and accountability, mainly due in part to the no child left behind act The changes included the IEP process. It states that that short term objectives goals no longer exists for the majority of students. There are a small percentage of students where these short term goals are still required. These involve students who are taking alternate assessments aligned to alternate achievement standards. The IEP now incorporates a statement of the student’s present-day academic level as well as their functioning performance. The IEP report must also include the progress the child is making towards their annual goals. Certain members of the IEP team can be excluded from the IEP meeting if the school members’ area is not being discussed in addition there are new provision in place to allow video conferencing and or calls as optional means of participation. Once the IEP is established the IDEA will allow changes to be made to the IEP with a written modification. The IEP team doesn’t need to meet for the redrafting of the modification. Transition services were changed from 14 to 16 and are updated yearly. Under the modifications school districts are allowed to develop a multi-year IEPs with the parents consent. In regards to due process and the procedural safeguard notice a copy will be distributed upon the initial referral then once a year there after. Parents have two years in which they can execute their due process rights. If the parent feel their child learning rights are being unfulfilled they must file a complaint with the school. The school must respond to the complaint within ten days and the school must meet with the parents and members of the IEP team in fifteen days after the complaint has been filed. The parents must attend a mandatory resolution session before due process can takes place. If false information has been filed by the parents or if it is determined to be frivolous accusations, and or irrational demands, the parents may be billed for the schools attorney fees. Students should stay put in their current educational placement pending the appeal this is important to the student to make certain the child receives free appropriate public education. A student is permitted to receive services necessary to allow them to be given a free public education during the period in which they are in the alternative educational setting. The burden shifted now the parents’ reasonability to prove their child’s behavior was a direct correlation caused by their disability. Before it was the burden of the school to prove the behavior was resulting in a disciplinary action (Gargiulo, 2011).
Summarization of the IDEA guidelines along with the incorporation of four interventions
C. When a student isn’t capable of completing assignments, is missing homework assignments consistently, has behavior problems, or has other areas of difficulty and after the teacher has exhausted various adjustments within the classroom without success; this is when the general education teacher should decide to investigate further in answering why the student is having difficulty in class (Gromisch, 2011). The Child would then be recognized as possibly needing special education and related services. The teacher may possibly call for a pre-referral. The pre-referral team commonly known as the study team consists of general education teachers and other professional. The purpose of the study team is to cultivate alternative instruction strategies intended to accommodate the specific needs of the student. If this action is unsuccessful the study team would request a referral. The referral is a written request to evaluate a student to establish if a disability is present. Once the referral is in place the next step is the assessment. At that time parent consent is necessary under IDEA. The assessment is the process in gathering information with regards to the student’s strengths and weakness. The IDEA requires the use of a multidisciplinary team. The multidisciplinary team is responsible in establishing the assessment package that will assess cognitive, academic, plus any particular area of concern noted on the referral. The school psychologist and other professionals who are responsible for evaluating the student have a variety of assessments test that will accurately reflect the student defects. One test that given is the Norm- referenced test compares the student performance with that of a representative sample of children. The students that are the sample must be the same in chronological age to be correctly contrasted to the student who is being tested. Another test that is given is the Criterion–Reference assessment. The test compares student performance on a particular task this allows to see the performance of the student. This test will identify a specific skill that the student has mastered as well as identifying what skills would need further instruction. This test is helpful in the instructional planning for the student. The evaluator will compile a depiction of the students’ aptitude. The multi-disciplinary team will determine where the student is eligible to receive special education services according to specific state criteria. If the child is deemed in need of special education services the multi-disciplinary team will construct an IEP. Every child that is determined to require special educational services must have a individualized education plan. This plan is specially designed instruction to meet the need of the child. The individualized education program (IEP) is a plan intended to deliver special educational services suitable to the individual needs of the child. The IEP team includes the parent, teacher, a special educator, and a spokesperson from the school district. If appropriate, the student may be present at the IEP meeting. The IEP will instruct the student’s current performance, goals, plus special education and related services. It will also consist of transition services needed, goals including the annual progress of each goal. IDEA 2004 requires the IEP team to develop measurable annual goals while also highlighting exposure to the general education curriculum. The IEP purpose is to provide a long range path for the student’s educational agenda (Gargiulo, 2011).

Gargiulo, R. (2011). Special education in contemporary society: an introduction to exceptionality. (fourth ed.). sage publication, inc. DOI: Special Education in Contemporary Society: An Introduction to Exceptionality
Gromisch, E. (2011, march 24). Steps to refer for special education evuluation. Retrieved from[->0]/
Lain (2004, august 24). Idea:breakdown of its components, amendments,andreferral process . Retrieved from[->1]

[->0] - Gromisch,%20E.%20(2011,%20march%2024).%20Steps%20to%20refer%20for%20special%20education%20evuluation.%20Retrieved%20from%20http:/
[->1] -

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (Idea)

...Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Diversity and Inclusion FDT 4/5 Natalie C. Miller May 4, 2012 Western Governors University   Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Before Congress enacted the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, an underserved number of children in the United States living with disabilities received a fair education. The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (PL 94-142) enabled states to provide for and improve the availability of an education for individuals with disabilities. Renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (PL 101-476) or IDEA in 1990 (Allen and Cowdery, 2009) the amended Act authorizes a Free Appropriate Public Education for children with disabilities from birth to 21 years of age. Since 1990, amendments to IDEA now include changes to how the Individualized Education Programs are implemented; funding is appropriated; identification and determination of children with disabilities; due process procedures for parents of children with disabilities; and the effectiveness of educational services for children with disabilities. This paper will summarize the various changes to IDEA since the acts inception, and the guidelines and steps needed to create an IEP. Six Key Components of the Original 1975 IDEA The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1975 mandates states and public schools provide a “Free-Appropriate Public Education” to......

Words: 4538 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

History of Special Education

...By: Kenyata York December 5, 2012 SPE 526 ABSTRACT Individuals with disabilities have the same passion, drive, determination and ambitions of traditional students. Students living with disabilities are just as capable of learning and retaining information just like traditional students in the classroom. In today’s society, there are an abundance of laws and regulations that are in place to protect and educate individuals with disabilities. However, the idea of educating individuals with disabilities was not always a positive and fair thought in the United States. Throughout history, the laws and regulations for students with disabilities have been created to establish equality and opportunity for educational advancement. Some of the laws and regulations include the creation of the Education for Handicapped Act (EHA), the Individual with Disability Education Act (IDEA), and legislation to have teachers trained to work with students who are “mental challenged” and deaf. Individuals with disabilities have the same passion, drive, determination and ambitions of traditional students. Students living with disabilities are just as capable of learning and retaining information just like traditional students in the classroom. In today’s society, there are an abundance of laws and regulations that are in place to protect and educate individuals with disabilities. However, the idea of educating individuals with disabilities was not always a positive and fair thought in the......

Words: 1530 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Procedures for Participation of Students with Disabilities in Virginia’s Accountability System

...Students with Disabilities in Virginia’s Accountability System A Guide for Educators and Parents Virginia Department of Education Updated April 2010 Table of Contents I II Definition of Students with Disabilities ………………………………………….. Description of Assessment Program A. Standards of Learning (SOL) Program ……………………………………….. B. Virginia Grade Level Alternative (VGLA) …………………………………… C. Virginia Substitute Evaluation Program (VSEP) …………………………….. D. Virginia Alternate Assessment Program (VAAP) ……………………………. APPENDIX………………………………………………………………………..   Virginia Department of Education Procedures for Participation of Students with Disabilities in Virginia’s Accountability System This document provides information about the participation of students with disabilities in the assessment component of Virginia’s Accountability System. Students with disabilities may participate through the Standards of Learning (SOL) assessments, the Virginia Grade Level Alternative (VGLA), the Virginia Substitute Evaluation Program (VSEP), or the Virginia Alternate Assessment Program (VAAP). Included in this document are guidelines for determining how students with disabilities participate in the Virginia Assessment Program, procedures for providing testing accommodations, and documentation requirements. I. Definition of Students with Disabilities Students with disabilities in the Commonwealth of Virginia include identified students under the Individuals with Disabilities......

Words: 1573 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

History of Special Education

...those with disabilities important or relevant in the classroom. Therefore, disabled students did not receive fair or equal treatment. Over the past century teachers, governments, and families have worked to create laws and regulations to ensure that students with disabilities have fair and equal treatment in schools. This paper will discuss the history of special education and law and acts that were created to help the field. In addition, current and future challenges of special education are also examined. Keywords: special education, No Child Left Behind, Individuals with Disabilities Education According to the United States Department of Education there were 6 million children from the age of birth to 21 that received special education services in 2009-2010 (Department of Education). In addition, since the federal government started reporting child data in 1977 the percentage of students receiving special education services has doubled from 23.8% to 42.3%. With encouraging statistics like those mentioned it seems like the United Sates has always been innovators of special education. However, this is actually not the case. When the founding fathers of education established the foundations of school, individuals with special needs were not considered. In fact, individuals with disabilities have historically been discriminated upon and have struggled for acceptance (GCU, 2010). Educational institutions even promoted the exclusion of children with disabilities (GCU, 2010)...

Words: 1693 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Thehistory of Special Education

...Laws Associated with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Latrena Y. Haynes Grand Canyon University: SPE - 526 March 05, 2014 Abstract Special education is a type of education for students with special needs. The term is usually abbreviated as SPED which can also mean Saving People Every Day. This includes people who are different from normal people whether they are a baby, toddler, young adult, or an adult. This includes people who have a disability who are often overlooked at because of their disability. This also includes people who just want the same treatment and an education given to them as a normal or regular person. This paper will explore the history of education and the laws associated with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). It will also discourse the current and future challenges that the laws have on special education. The History of Special Education and the Laws Associated with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) The history of special education started back a long time ago in the 1900s when people was going to court versing the other to fight for an education for students with disabilities. Children with disabilities were overlooked and not accepted by the general population (Heward, 2009). No matter when they born or where they was born, if they had a disability then discrimination always occurred. Back in the days, educating a child with a disability was unheard of.......

Words: 1560 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Case Study - Student with Special Needs

...Needs Essay Introduction Beginning in the mid-2000s, more than six million kids ages between six and twenty-one were receiving special education and other needed special services through the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that was implemented starting in 1997. This was a twenty-five percent increase from 1993, where approximately 4.8 million children were getting special necessities. In today’s society, students who have disabilities are offered attention that is different from students who do not have disabilities in public schools and the court system. Before 1975, an administrator could refuse special services to student with disabilities if they did not exist. In 1975, Congress passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA). In addition, Congress also reauthorized the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 1990. Both of these acts allowed disable students the opportunity to obtain a quality education, as well as prepared them for a future career and living on their own (GCU Lecture Notes 2010). The following essay identifies a problem that happened within a school regarding a disable student. It summarizes the problem and provides a thorough examination of reactions of the perceptions and conventions of those individuals involved in the problem. Finally, it discusses how this situation was handled in the court system. Forest Grove School District v. T.A. (2009) On September 11, 1985, T.A was welcomed......

Words: 1210 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Special Education's History an education, regardless of disability. However, children with disabilities have not always had that right provided to them. Research and knowledge-based evidence throughout the last century has greatly changed educators’ opinions and positions on special education. A key point that will be discussed in this essay is the enactment of the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA), as well as current and future challenges of special education. The initial creation and development of our educational system disregarded the needs of children with disabilities. Because of very limited educational options, most disabled children were either educated in their homes or their parents paid for them to attend expensive private schools (The History of Special Education in the United States, 2009). Through parent-formed advocacy groups the educational needs of children with disabilities were brought to the public’s eye in the early part of the 20th Century (The History of Special Education in the United States, 2009). In 1961, President John F. Kennedy awarded federal aid to the States through the creation of the President’s Panel on Mental Retardation (The History of Special Education in the United States, 2009). Shortly thereafter, in 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (The History of Special Education in the United States, 2009). This act provided funding to schools that enrolled children with disabilities, thus giving disabled......

Words: 1433 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Diversity and Inclusion Task 1

...Diversity and Inclusion Task 1 The six key components of the 1975 PL 94-142, Education for All Handicapped Children Act (now known as IDEA – Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) are: 1) A free appropriate public education (FAPE) This ensures that children with disabilities receive an education befitting their particular disability with no cost to the parent of guardian of the children. It also includes related services that benefit the children receiving special education due to their disabilities. 2) The least restrictive environment (LRE) This ensures that children with disabilities are given the highest level of education that they can perform in successfully. Children with disabilities will be placed amongst children without disabilities whenever possible. 3) An individualized education program (IEP) An IEP uses documentation to track the academic progress of students with disabilities. It is tailored specifically to meet the varying needs of each individual student. It consists of goals and instructional objectives that are updated annually, special services rendered for each child, and measurements starting with the child’s current level of academic functioning and continuing to monitor any progress made throughout their education. 4) Procedural due process This pertains to the rights of parents/ guardians. It includes confidentiality as well as the right to access any documentation pertaining to their child. It also......

Words: 822 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Guided Notes

...SPED3100 Chapter 1: Perspectives on Disability Note: Guided notes are submitted in D2L before class and must be a minimum of 3 pages. Raymond, E. B. (2012). Learners with mild disabilities: A characteristics approach. (4th Ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. 1. Distribution of Disabilities a) Source: From 28th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2006 (Vol. 1, p.41) by U.S. Department of Education, 2009, Washington, D.C.: USDOE i. Specific Learning Disabilities: 46.4% ii. Speech or Language Impairments: 18.8% iii. Intellectual Disabilities: 9.3% iv. Emotional Disturbance: 7.9% v. Other Health Impairments: 8.4% vi. Other disabilities combined: 9.2% 2. Studying High-Prevalence Disabilities a) High-prevalence disabilities include learning disabilities, mild intellectual disabilities, emotional or behavioral disorders, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorder i. All are served by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act b) Students with ADHD typically have another disability, as well c) 50% of students in special education have learning disabilities, while 10% have intellectual disabilities, and another 10% have emotional disorders d) Students may display a variety of difficulties, issues, and behaviors that cause identification and classification to be difficult e) It is important to provide services for students based on their individual characteristics than......

Words: 1580 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Attitude, Legislation, Litigation

...Attitude, Legislation, Litigation Mandi Leon SPE: 226 Ashley Barkel 10/28/2013 Over the years there have been people who are scared of those who have disabilities, with these scares many people who had disabilities were looked upon as if they were monsters. Since people were scared of people with disabilities, the 1650 Connecticut code was implemented which would mean that the developmentally delayed were not allowed to wed and horrible things were done to them up to and including sterilization. As a society we have come a long way from that. Now there are laws that protect these individuals from such horrifying things, some of the legislations are called the ADA (American with Disabilities Act), IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), and IEP (Individualized Education Program). Currently with all of these available resources our exceptional students have an advantage more now than they ever have. The expectations of teachers to be able to teach these students the skills that are necessary to survive in this modern world are being threatened by the current government issues, putting our special educational needs in danger. Now with all this knowledge and, when people encounter other individuals with disabilities they are no longer scared of them. There is more understanding and compassion for them. Our disabled children now have a voice where they did not before. Many years ago our special children that were in need of more than......

Words: 1042 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Teaching Children with Special Needs

...other children, must have the opportunity to go to school. The term special needs or children with special needs refers to individual learners whose needs arise from physical, emotional, sensory, behavioural and intellectual conditions that have a long-term adverse effect on their ability to access the regular education facilities. This includes individuals with various disabilities such the mentally retarded, the hearing and visually impaired, and the learning disabled individuals. In the olden days, children with special needs had their education mainly in the few segregated special schools spread across the country. However, owing to the fast growing number of individuals with disability, it is now common to find a good number of them in the regular schools in the various communities. The result was that educationists began exploring various educational arrangements including mainstreaming, integration and inclusion that could bring together both disabled and non-disabled individuals in the same classroom to pursue the same school curriculum. Inclusive education is a concept that allows pupils with special needs to be placed in the regular or mainstream classes to be taught by mainstream teachers. Inclusion, which is the most current perspective in education, is the combination of pupils with and without disabilities in one classroom. Thus pupils with special needs are placed in regular classes and are taught by a general class teacher.......

Words: 2161 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Special Education Laws

...A. 1. Free and Appropriate Public Education This mandate states that every child, abled and disabled, must be provided a free and appropriate public education. (Gargiulo, 2006) 2. Least Restrictive Environment This mandate states that if a mainstream classroom is conducive to a child’s individual needs they must be educated with children without disabilities. Every effort must be made to be inclusive of a child with disabilities in a regular classroom setting alongside children with disabilities. (Gargiulo, 2006) 3. Individualized Education Plan Upon identification of a child’s disability, an individualized education plan (IEP) must be written. These IEP’s must be updated or developed annually by a team of professionals, with input from the parents and, if appropriate, the student. The IEP must include measures of the student’s current educational level, identifiable goals for the year, methods in which evaluation of goals will occur, specific special education services needed, level of mainstream inclusion or reasoning for exclusion from mainstream class, changes necessary in comparison to mainstream education, projected timeline to initiate services and/or duration of services, and annual evaluation of progress made by student on the IEP. (Gargiulo, 2006) 4. Procedural Due Process This mandate is designed to ensure that parents and students, if appropriate, are involved in each aspect of their education. This ensures that parents are......

Words: 2060 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Attitude, Legislation and Litigation

...Litigation The education of students with disabilities has changed over the years. During the B.C. era students with disabilities were consider a disgrace, were shun by society, and the Greek philosopher Aristotle openly declared, “As to the exposure and rearing of children, let there be a law that no deformed child shall live“(Hardman, Drew, & Egan, 2009, p. 4) When children with disabilities were denied access from the public school system, they were taught separately from the general population and were placed in isolated special education classrooms. Through most of the history of public schools in America, services to children with disabilities were minimal and were provided at the discretion of local school districts. Until the mid 70’s, laws in most state actually allowed schools to refuse enrollment of students with disabilities; while on the other hand some students with special needs were admitted to the public school system and placed in regular classroom but did not receive the required special services, while other were served in special programs that were considered inadequate. The views of the way students with differences should be taught and treated have changed as people have become more open minded. Now children with learning disabilities who were once receiving no education are now receiving special funding and programs especially for those individuals with learning problems. Thanks to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and its amendments of 1986 and......

Words: 1065 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Social Policy

...Essay 1 Our nation pursues the ideal that what we look like or where we come from should not determine the benefits or burdens that we bear in our society. Unfortunately, for African Americans, one of the largest minority groups within the United States, this is not a reality. In fact, life has been altered from the moment their lives began as an individual of color. Today, many people tend to remember the victories of African Americans that include abolition of slavery, desegregation, the civil rights movement, and the right to vote before women. People tend to forget the centuries of ugly racism, oppression and violence. The times of slavery, Jim Crow laws, lynching and segregation along with the hardship of having no political voice. Many disregard that for every social policy throughout history with what appeared to be an open door, just became another obstacle for Blacks and step up for Whites. Social policies and government programs have neglected and shortchanged African Americans for decades. Today, African Americans continue to face economic, social and health disparities within society when compared to its white counterparts. African Americans are struggling with unemployment and poverty. According to Fletcher (2013) in 2012, the black unemployment rate was 14.0 percent, 2.1 times the white unemployment rate (6.6 percent). This rate is higher than the average national unemployment rate of 13.1 percent. For those African Americans who are employed, many are......

Words: 2401 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Movers and Shakers in Education

...Movers and Shakers in Education In today’s education system there have been many individuals and acts that have helped develop, advance, and reform the education system to what it is today. The American education system has come a long way from the one room school house to parents having a choice to whom or where they send their child to school. A few of the influential people or acts are Horace Mann, John Dewey, Maria Montessori, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. [pic] Horace Mann was an education reformist. He was a politician from Massachusetts that served in the state House of Representatives and Senate. In 1937, he served as Secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education. Mann is credited with being the “Father of the Common School Movement” (Good, 2008). Most states have adopted the version of the school system that Massachusetts had especially for the normal school to train educators. Horace Mann while he was Secretary of the Board of Education in Massachusetts he traveled to every school in the state. In 1838, Mann created the Common School Journal and it targeted public schools and its problems. He had “six main principles (a) the public schools and its problems, (b) education should be paid for, controlled, and sustained by the public, (c) education will be best provided in schools that embrace a variety of backgrounds, (d) education is non-sectarian, (e) education must be taught by the spirit, methods, and discipline...

Words: 1064 - Pages: 5