Premium Essay

Industrial/Organiational Psychology

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By doogie
Words 711
Pages 3
Industrial/organizational psychology is an area of study that has been studied since the early times of psychology (Spector, 2008). In the beginning industrial/organizational psychology put all of its emphasis only all the industrial side of the field. With only concentrate and on the industrial side of the field did not work well with the management side of the business; so a lot of emphasis was placed on human resources. If you look at the other side of the field, the organizational side puts on improving workplaces and work conditions. As psychology began to combine the two fields; they field began dealing with the full spectrum of industry and organization. Industrial/organizational psychology is explained as an applied field that concentrates on the development and application of scientific principles to the work environment (Spector, 2008). A more practical view of industrial/organizational psychology is that it is used to improve the quality of the work environment for the employees and to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of employee behavior in that environment (Barnes –Holmes et. al., 2006).

Industrial/organizational psychology dates back to the late 1800’s and early 1900’s. It was at this time that the early psychologists were attempting to combine psychology with the organization of business’s (Spector, 2008). Two scientists that were both professors at universities Huge Munsterburg and Walker Dill Scott were accredited with the founding studies of industrial/organizational psychology. These two scientists were both interested the employee selection and application of psychological testing on the subject of the particular industry.

An engineer by the name of Frank Gilberth and a psychologist by the name of Lillian Gilberth took industrial/organizational psychology a giant jump forward in technological applicability after the binding their...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Employee Attitude

...EMPLOYEE ATTITUDES AND JOB SATISFACTION Lise M. Saari and Timothy A. Judge This article identifies three major gaps between HR practice and the scientific research in the area of employee attitudes in general and the most focal employee attitude in particular—job satisfaction: (1) the causes of employee attitudes, (2) the results of positive or negative job satisfaction, and (3) how to measure and influence employee attitudes. Suggestions for practitioners are provided on how to close the gaps in knowledge and for evaluating implemented practices. Future research will likely focus on greater understanding of personal characteristics, such as emotion, in defining job satisfaction and how employee attitudes influence organizational performance. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. “Happy employees are productive employees.” “Happy employees are not productive employees.” We hear these conflicting statements made by HR professionals and managers in organizations. There is confusion and debate among practitioners on the topic of employee attitudes and job satisfaction— even at a time when employees are increasingly important for organizational success and competitiveness. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to provide greater understanding of the research on this topic and give recommendations related to the major practitioner knowledge gaps. As indicated indirectly in a study of HR professionals (Rynes, Colbert, & Brown, 2002), as well as based on our experience, the......

Words: 8034 - Pages: 33

Premium Essay

Psychology

...Industrial/Organizational Psychology 1 Industrial/Organizational Psychology Crystal Bell PSY/435 Instructor: Dr. Simone Senhouse University of Phoenix June 16, 2012 Industrial/Organizational Psychology 2 Industrial/Organizational Psychology In the mead of a strike and management, psychology has studies ever since infancy in psychology itself (Spector, 2008). In the start, Industrial and organizational psychology was completely worried with the strike side of the mead in which concentrated on the organizational features of trade and highlighted individual resources- as contradicted to the management side, in which is worried with the reform of work conditions of the workforce, still, as the mead has expanded over the years, it was brought to contain the full bands of colour of the industry and management. Therefore, Industrial and organizational psychology was explained as, “a related which is distressed with the growth and a formal request of experimental principles to the workforce.” (Spector, 2008, p.5). on the empirical level, the ambition of the industrial and organizational psychology is to, “ ameliorate the grade of the surrounding for the workers, as well as to raise the successfulness and methodically of the worker’s behavior in that surrounding” (Barnes-Holmes et, al., 2006, p.56). The concise distinctness and practical action of applying......

Words: 1115 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Industrial and Organizational Psychology Paper

...Industrial and Organizational Psychology Paper Janeen Tipton PSY/435 September 3, 2012 Saakshi Malik Industrial and Organizational Psychology Paper In the realm of science there are many fields of psychology; clinical, abnormal, child development and industrial psychology. Out of those, industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology not only deals with the individual, but also the organizations that such individuals may be employed at. It is theorized that the early development began in 1885 but to better understand the development one must have a clear view of what an I/O psychologists is and what their main objectives are as well as how research and statistics play a crucial role. Industrial and Organizational Psychology Industrial and Organizational psychology (I/O) psychology is the study of organizations and how scientifically-based solutions to human problems in the work place (American Psychological Association, 2012, p.1. para. 1). Such areas that I/O psychologists would have knowledge due to some form of training done at the doctorial level are: • Assessment methods • Job Analysis • Career Development • Job Evaluation, Performance, and Work Motivation • Business Skills (American Psychological Association, 2012, p. 1) There are services that an I/O will and can provide to the company/organization for which one is employed. These services include aiding with the hiring process by......

Words: 1282 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Organizational Psychology

...Organizational Psychology Michelle Brito Psych/570 December 23, 2013 Prof. Linda Whinghter Organizational Psychology The behavior that people experience in a workplace can be studied in organizational psychology. Organizational psychology is a sub-category to organizational/industrial psychology better known as I/O psychology. The I/O psychology is divided into two different groups. Each subject focuses on an essential part of the organization. There are two related discipline in organizational psychology, which are organizational behavior and Industrial psychology. Although both are similar to organizational psychology, each side has its differences. Research statistics are an essential part to an organizing development and problem solving. Organizational Psychology The study of organizational psychology understands the dynamics of people in a workplace. Organizational psychology uses scientific methods to understand the conduct of people who work in an organization setting (Jex & Britt, 2008). Rules, structure, and guideline aids employee to work as a group instead of working as individual towards a common goal. The purpose of organizational psychology is to help better employee’s performances, better fairness, and better the relationship between employees. The core of an organization is patterned human conduct (Katz & Kahn, 1978). The rules, structure, and guideline aids the employees to perform the task at hand and can also have a psychological effect.......

Words: 1243 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

What Is Organizational Psychology?

...What is Organizational Psychology? Organizational psychology has become a prominent necessity within companies all over the world, regardless of size. With the growing number of competitors providing similar services and stressful expectations of continued success, this position proves time and again to be one of crucial significance. Organizational Psychologists offer a corporation unbiased, fresh ideas in the area of improvement and advancement using various methods of analysis and research. The following paper will examine the field of organization psychology by defining, explaining the evolution, comparing and contrasting organizational psychology with related disciplines and analyzing the role of research and statistics. Defining Organizational Psychology Organizational psychology as defined by Jex & Brit(2008) is a “field that utilizes scientific methodology to better understand the behavior of individuals working in organizational settings” (p. 1). In the most basic terms, organizational psychology uses the scientific psychological principles and research methodology to study numerous topics that are vital to comprehending human behavior in different organizations. An applied field, organizational psychology is relevant to numerous work settings and applies research in the effort to increase productivity in the workplace. Organizational psychology focuses on specific conduct and behaviors employees exhibit on the job; particularly ones in need of......

Words: 1050 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Psy 435 Job Analysis

...Job Analysis Regina Page Industrial/Organizational Psychology University of Phoenix Sales merchandisers in the retail industry are individuals who closely work with a buyer to ensure that the products maximize and achieve the business’s sale plan as well as to maintain the perfect balance of the company’s financial objectives and the customer’s expectations. Sales merchandising involves a sharp analytical mind for careful planning and strategy. This individual is instrumental in the decisions regarding the various lines that are purchased, the quantities needed, setting the retail prices to maximize profit, and inventory control functions that allow for a continuous flow of goods. A sales merchandiser is required to perform analysis and research. Monitoring the organization’s weekly or monthly sales trend of goods allows the merchandiser to determine the proper stock levels that are distributed to each of the company’s stores. Since most stores purchase their inventory from multiple suppliers, this individual must maintain proper lines of communication with suppliers in order to maneuver the appropriate inventory to meet demands. Since the primary goal of the merchandiser is to maximize profits, it is essential that the individual holding such a position to have certain attributes. These attributes are communication skills, analytical skills, computer literacy an innate ability to thrive under pressure. Communication skills will allow the merchandiser to......

Words: 821 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Wwwwwwwwwwwww

...of organisational power Reference ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 9 1 Emily Durham | Strategies for increasing supervisors’ personal power through informal channels Executive summary This paper highlights the influence of power within the workplace. Different sources of power are discussed, as well as the consequences of having employees who possess more informal power than their supervisors. Recommendations are made to increase supervisors’ levels of personal power, which can be implemented at both the recruitment stage and through development of supervisors. Personal biography Emily Durham has a BA, majoring in Psychology and English, and is currently working towards gaining a BA (Hons) with a focus in Industrial, Work and Organisational Psychology. 2 Emily Durham | Strategies for increasing supervisors’ personal power through informal channels The effects of power within organisations Power can be defined as the ability to overcome adversity in the attempt to influence others’ behaviour and opinions, with the intention of obtaining desired results. 1 Organisational power merits attention, as those with the ability to impact colleagues and work outcomes have the potential to be a dominant force within the workplace. While many of the advantages of being powerful tend to be personal, for example encountering fewer social constraints from others2 or receiving more helpful behaviours from colleagues, 3 there...

Words: 2536 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Construct and Analyze Applicant Selection Protocol

...Construct and Analyze Applicant Selection Protocol For this assignment I will be conducting a job analyze for a plumbers position. I will be also making a selection protocol to recruit the right employee. In order to do a job analysis the methods that I will use will be the methods job components inventory, and position analysis questionnaire. Then compare it to the O*NET Online. Then I will construct an applicant selection protocol. In some aspects plumber are skilled labor that requires physical strength as well as a good knowledge of tools and a good mathematical base. The job components inventory contains five principles that a plumber should possess. Using the principle we will take the highest score of 80 points or more. The first principle is tools and equipment, this cover equipment from small tool to a trenching equipment. A plumber will us many small tools from a tape measure to a chisel in order to cut pipe to length , and make holes with a chisel in block in order to create an exit point. The applicant must be able to use drain machines. Must a good knowledge of chemical used and have knowledge of safety data sheet. The applicant should have a working knowledge of small tool use and safety The second principle is perceptual and physical requirements. In this principle strength and reaction time, and dexterity are needed. Plumbers require physical demands that can be......

Words: 1431 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Psych 435

...Industrial and Organizational Psychology Melissa Wojcik PSY 435 May 28, 2012 James Cunningham Industrial and Organizational Psychology The area of industrial and organizational psychology has been studied since the infancy of psychology itself (Spector, 2008). Originally, industrial and organizational psychology was concerned with the industrial side of the field that concentrated on the management aspects of business and emphasized human resources as opposed to the organization side, which is concerned with improving work conditions in the workplace. As the field has grown over the years it has come to include the complete range of industry and organization. Strictly speaking, industrial and organizational psychology is defined by “an applied field that is concerned with the development and application of scientific principles to the workplace” (Spector, 2008, p. 5). On the practical level, the aim of industrial and organizational psychology is to, “improve the quality of the environment for employees as well as to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of employee behavior in that environment” (Barnes-Holmes, 2006, p. 56). The concise definition and practical application of industrial and organizational psychology are only the capstone to an understanding of the length and breadth of the field. A full examination of the evolution of industrial and organizational psychology as well as an explanation of how research and statistics work throughout I/O psychology are...

Words: 1115 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

I/O Psychology

...Industrial Organization Psychology By: Christy Whitworth PSY/ 435 May 28, 2012 Frank Del Grosso Jr. Industrial Organizational Psychology Industrial/Organizational psychology (I/O) psychology is a branch of psychology of which places focus upon workplace behaviors, ways upon which an employer can retrain happy employees, motivated employees and increase employee productivity. A more accurate definition would include that I/O psychology applies to time proven methods that organizations place value and have true concerns upon the work place environment, dealing with anyone who has ever been employed, held a held a job for a significant period of time, or career (Spector, 2008). Describe the Evolution of the Field of I/O Psychology According to McMillan, Stevens, and Kelloway (2009), “Almost every account of the development of Industrial/ Organizational (I/O) psychology in the United States emphasizes the formative influence of the military and military requirements particularly during the World Wars it is cited as the catalyst that brought I/O psychology out of the closet of academia.” (pg. 283) The history of I/O psychology has two individuals credited with the start of the field, Hugo Munsterberg and Walter Dill Scott. Both Munsterberg and Scott were experimental psychologist, and university professors whom became involved with the application of psychology to problems within organizations (Spector, 2008). By Spector’s account I/O psychology is a twentieth......

Words: 783 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Employee Selection and Training

...Employee Selection and Training Industrial/organizational psychology plays an important role in selecting and training employees. I/O psychology works to improve the efficiency of organizations. One way that I/O psychology does this is during the hiring process. I/O psychologists begin the hiring process by reviewing the number of people needed for that specific job. Some tests I/O psychologists design assist in the recruitment process. For example a typing test may be created to make sure the person has the ability to type at a certain WPM without error. Tests like these help to sort through candidates so time and resources are not wasted interviewing unqualified individuals. I/O psychology is also used in training programs to assist in making the programs efficient. It is important to have a way to measure the success in training programs. Legal and ethical concerns are important in the hiring and training process to protect organizations and maximize their efficiency. Methods To Measure Success In Training Programs Ways or methods that are used in measuring the success of training programs include “forecasting and measuring costs, forecasting and measuring benefits, calculating return on investment, and making ROI (return on investment) work for you” ( ,1999). When it comes to forecasting and measuring costs, one must consider eight things. These include “design and development cost, promotional costs, administration costs and faculty costs” ( , 1999). Other......

Words: 1291 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Psychology in the Business World

...Psychology in the Business World: The Opportunities and Challenges for a Psychology Major 1. Background of the Study 2.1 How can psychology be defined? Ciccarelli and White (2012), defines psychology as the “scientific study of behavior and mental processes”. Merriam-Webster dictionary (2014), on the other hand, defines psychology as “the science of mind and behavior”. It generally is a field that revolves about how and why a living thing act and behave and the processes in the mind that comes with the behavior. The American Psychological Association (2014) furthermore defines psychology as a study concerning the mind and behavior of the human being, involving everything from how the brain functions to why a certain person behaves. Basically, psychology is a field that studies human and their behavior with the goal of analysis on the mind as to why their behavior is such. 2.2 What are the uses of psychology in the business world? Psychology can be used in the business world by means of helping the employees achieve their optimum performance level and still be happy about their job (Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc. [SIOP], 2014). Psychologists work in the human resources department, in the managerial department, in the administration, and more. It is use to develop and utilize an employee’s ability to perform even better at his job. Psychology is used to ensure harmony amongst the people in the organization. It is also......

Words: 4224 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Organizational Psychology

...Applying Organizational Psychology Organizational psychology utilizes scientific methodology to get a better understanding of people behavior who works in organizational settings. Organizational psychology has principles to help employees understand the behavior of the people working in organizational settings (Jex & Britt, 2008). The knowledge obtained from organizational psychology helps organizations to become more effective. Organizations are defined through defining characteristics, behavior patterns, and structures imposed on the perspective applicants. This paper will contain discussion of these principles within the recruitment process from both organizational and applicant perspectives along with how organizational psychology principles is used in the recruitment process, organizational socialization concept, and applying organizational psychology to organizational socialization. This paper gives personal insights of how they relate to work experiences. Organizational and Applicant Perspective of Recruitment Process According to Taylor and Bergmann (2006), organization’s recruitment process is toward green production. Employees and organization receive benefits that attract ideal employees because organizational recruitment has affected the reactions applicants have towards organizations and the job attributes associated with the positions such as salary and organizations locations. Organizational perspective of the recruitment process is that behavior...

Words: 1357 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Organizational Psychology

...Organizational Psychology is the science of psychology applied to work and organizations. It is a field of enquiry that spans more than a century and covers and increasingly diverse range of topics as the nature of work continues to evolve. The Field of Organizational Psychology focuses on increasing workplace productivity and related issues such as the physical and mental well being of employees. Organizational psychologists perform a wide variety of tasks, including studying organizational culture, employee attitudes and behaviour, organization effectiveness, individual performance management, employee well-being and conducting leadership and Team Development programme. The overall goal of this field is to study and understand human behaviour in the workplace. industrial-organizational-psychology-88 There are two elements to Organizational Psychology. The first element is often referred to as personnel psychology, which involves looking at how to best match individuals to specific job roles. Work in this area might include assessing employee characteristics and then matching these individuals to jobs in which they are likely to perform well. Other work would include training employees, developing job performance standards, and measuring job performance. The second element of Organizational Psychology is the organizational and is more focused on understanding how organizations affect individual behaviour. Organizational structures, social norms, management......

Words: 425 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Psychology Article

...The Relationship between Work Motivation and Job Satisfaction Research THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK MOTIVATION AND JOB SATISFACTION Nadia Ayub Department of Business Psychology Shagufta Rafif Department of Management College of Business Management, Karachi Abstract Numerous researchers investigated the relationship between job satisfaction and work motivation in diversified professions but none investigated bank managers in Pakistan. Therefore, the current study attempts to explore the relationship between work motivation and job satisfaction. Based on the literature review two hypotheses were formulated 1) There will be positive relationship between work motivation and job satisfaction, and 2) There would be a gender difference on the variable of work motivation and job satisfaction. To asses job satisfaction, “Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS; Spector, 1997)”, and for motivation, “Motivation at Work Scale (MAWS, Gagné, M., et.al, 2010)”, were used. The sample of the study consists of 80 middle managers (46 males; 34 females) from different banks of Karachi, Pakistan. A Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was calculated for the correlation between the work motivation and job satisfaction. In order to find out gender differences t test was computed. In conclusion, the findings of the study suggest that there was a positive correlation between work motivation and job satisfaction. Furthermore, there was a significant gender difference on the variable of work......

Words: 4314 - Pages: 18