Premium Essay

Industrial Relation as a Field of Study

In: Business and Management

Submitted By emem
Words 3064
Pages 13
INTRODUCTION
The term "Industrial Relations" has developed both a broad and a narrow meaning. Originally, industrial relations was broadly defined to include the totality of relationships and interactions between employers and employees. From this perspective, industrial relations covers all aspects of the employment relationship, including human resource (or personnel) management, employee relations, and union-management (or labor) relations. Since the mid-twentieth century, however, the term has increasingly taken on a narrower, more restricted interpretation that largely equates it with unionized employment relationships. In this view, industrial relations pertains to the study and practice of collective bargaining, trade unionism, and labor-management relations, while human resource management is a separate, largely distinct field that deals with nonunion employment relationships and the personnel practices and policies of employers. Both meanings of the term coexist in the twenty-first century, although the latter is the more common.
ORIGINS
The term "industrial relations" came into common usage in the 1910s, particularly in 1912 upon the appointment by President William Taft of an investigative committee titled the Commission on Industrial Relations. The commission's charge was to investigate the causes of widespread, often violent labor conflict and make recommendations regarding methods to promote greater cooperation and harmony among employers and employees. Shortly thereafter, the term gained even greater saliency in the public mind due to the wave of strikes, labor unrest, and agitation for "industrial democracy" that accompanied the economic and political disturbances associated with World War I. As a result, by the beginning of the 1920s universities began to establish industrial relations centers and programs to conduct research and train students in...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Foxconn

...Industrial Relations in China :A Case Study of Foxconn Suicides Abstract As globalization affected the whole world, the contradiction between leaders and labors has become a world-wide problem. In China, a series of employees’ suicides attracted the public and media’s concentration to consider this problem. A Taiwanese electronics corporation, is acting as the protagonist in this issue and now earning an internationally notorious reputation of running sweatshops. This paper analyze the cause of ongoing trend of exploitation of workers in China with the example of Foxconn, and examine the reasons behind those suicides from the perspective of management, workers and related laws. Based on the fundamental information of China, to illustrate my own analysis about this case from ethical and legal point, and to criticize Foxconn’s management strategy, industrial relations and the gaps of Chinese laws. Keywords: workers’ exploitation, China, Foxconn, suicides, inustrial relations 1. Introduction 1.1 Background and significance of the topic With the rapid development of Chinese economy and the increasing globalization of business competition, the various types of enterprises in China have been booming development, rapid increases in the number and size of foreign investment in China to hire to do business, and further reform of state-owned enterprises increase, the private sector, the number and the number of employees of private enterprises in recent years, is......

Words: 1432 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Industrial/Organizational Psychology Paper

...Industrial/Organizational Psychology Samantha Trudeau PSY/435 March 26, 2012 Kristi Zimmerman Industrial/organizational psychology is an area of study that has been studied since the early times of psychology (Spector, 2008). At first, industrial/organizational psychology only concentrated on the industrial side of the field. The industrial side of this field dealt with management part of businesses and placed emphasis on human resources. On the other hand, the organizational side of the spectrum is concerned with improving workplaces and working conditions. However, as this area of study has grown over time it has began dealing with the full spectrum of industry and organization. Organizational/industrial psychology is explained as an applied field that concentrates on the development and application of scientific principles to the work environment (Spector, 2008). A more practical view of industrial/organizational psychology is that it is used to improve the quality of the work environment for the employees and to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of employee behavior in that environment (Barnes-Holmes et. al., 2006). The ancestry of industrial/organizational psychology begins in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s. It was at this time that the early psychologists were attempting to combine psychology with the organization of business’s (Spector, 2008). There are two scientists in particular that are...

Words: 913 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Hr Negotiation Process

...1. Labour or Industrial Relations. The term labour relations, also known as industrial relations, refers to the system in which employers, workers and their representatives and, directly or indirectly, the government interact to set the ground rules for the governance of work relationships. It also describes a field of study dedicated to examining such relationships. The field is an outgrowth of the industrial revolution, whose excesses led to the emergence of trade unions to represent workers and to the development of collective labour relations. A labour or industrial relations system reflects the interaction between the main actors in it: the state, the employer (or employers or an employers’ association), trade unions and employees (who may participate or not in unions and other bodies affording workers’ representation). The phrases “labour relations” and “industrial relations” are also used in connection with various forms of workers’ participation; they can also encompass individual employment relationships between an employer and a worker under a written or implied contract of employment, although these are usually referred to as “employment relations”. There is considerable variation in the use of the terms, partly reflecting the evolving nature of the field over time and place. There is general agreement, however, that the field embraces collective bargaining, various forms of workers’ participation (such as works councils and joint health and safety committees) and......

Words: 2478 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Critically Evaluate Best Fit and Best Practice of Human Resources Management

...Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal Equality and diversity in employment relations: do we practise what we preach? Jane Holgate Sue Abbott Nicolina Kamenou Josie Kinge Jane Parker Susan Sayce Jacqueline Sinclair Laura Williams Article information: To cite this document: Jane Holgate Sue Abbott Nicolina Kamenou Josie Kinge Jane Parker Susan Sayce Jacqueline Sinclair Laura Williams, (2012),"Equality and diversity in employment relations: do we practise what we preach?", Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, Vol. 31 Iss 4 pp. 323 - 339 Permanent link to this document: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02610151211223021 Downloaded on: 01 December 2014, At: 02:26 (PT) References: this document contains references to 46 other documents. To copy this document: permissions@emeraldinsight.com The fulltext of this document has been downloaded 3118 times since 2012* Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF LEICESTER At 02:26 01 December 2014 (PT) Users who downloaded this article also downloaded: C.W. Von Bergen, Barlow Soper, John A. Parnell, (2005),"Workforce diversity and organisational performance", Equal Opportunities International, Vol. 24 Iss 3/4 pp. 1-16 http:// dx.doi.org/10.1108/02610150510788033 Vidhi Agrawal, Vidhi Agrawal, (2012),"Managing the diversified team: challenges and strategies for improving performance", Team Performance Management: An International Journal, Vol. 18 Iss 7/8 pp. 384-400......

Words: 10252 - Pages: 42

Free Essay

Industrial Relations Systems

...soon after returned to the USA to further their education, he entered Marin Community College in California in 1931 because prestigious four-year universities were reluctant to take a student from such a little known high school.1 He transferred to the University of California at Berkeley, where he received a degree with highest honors in 1935 in northern California. He later transferred to the University of California, Berkeley, the same University which turned down his application for enrolment and graduated with a bachelor's degree in 1935 with highest honors. It was during his studies at Berkeley, that he met his fiancé’ Dorothy Emily Webb. The two got married on 6th July 1937. Dunlop continued studies at the University where he earned his PhD in Economics in 1939, delivering the dissertation “Movements of wage-rates in the business cycle”.2 In 1937, he went to Cambridge University, England, to study under the British economist John Maynard Keynes whose ideas were so influential and revolutionary; that a school of thought was developed called Keynesian economics which serves as a sort of benchmark that defined virtually all economists who came after him. During their stay there, Dunlop and his wife shared a...

Words: 4916 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

Psychology in the Business World

...Psychology in the Business World: The Opportunities and Challenges for a Psychology Major 1. Background of the Study 2.1 How can psychology be defined? Ciccarelli and White (2012), defines psychology as the “scientific study of behavior and mental processes”. Merriam-Webster dictionary (2014), on the other hand, defines psychology as “the science of mind and behavior”. It generally is a field that revolves about how and why a living thing act and behave and the processes in the mind that comes with the behavior. The American Psychological Association (2014) furthermore defines psychology as a study concerning the mind and behavior of the human being, involving everything from how the brain functions to why a certain person behaves. Basically, psychology is a field that studies human and their behavior with the goal of analysis on the mind as to why their behavior is such. 2.2 What are the uses of psychology in the business world? Psychology can be used in the business world by means of helping the employees achieve their optimum performance level and still be happy about their job (Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc. [SIOP], 2014). Psychologists work in the human resources department, in the managerial department, in the administration, and more. It is use to develop and utilize an employee’s ability to perform even better at his job. Psychology is used to ensure harmony amongst the people in the organization. It is also......

Words: 4224 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Papers

...Industrial Organizational 1 Industrial Organization Industrial organizational Psychology paper University Of Phoenix Stacey Dixon 2 What is I/O Psychology? And what purpose does it have in the industrial world? This is the question of many. I/O Psychology is Industrial-Organizational psychology which is a study that has only been in existence for the last century. I/O psychology was acknowledged during the industrial revolution. In the early 1900s, the I/O psychologist were not interested in the satisfaction of the employees. The study was primarily for the operators to be productive as possible. It wasn’t until a I/O psychologist named Harry Landburger ( 1924-1932) became interested in the work conditions of the employees and how it affect them. But the true studies were known as the Hawthorne studies that date back to the early 1900s It was the first application to businesses and then came world war I and II in (1917- 1918) This was a selection of the people that they recruited and had to place. Hawthorns studies took affect in (1930) were it impacted the work environment and the interpersonal interactions on work behaviors. Emerging latter into the employment of legislation in the 1960’s and then Civil rights act in 1964. Psychologist used their knowledge during the World War I and II. These two wars were conflicts that occurred with out the United States being prepared. Psychologist put there wisdom together and test individuals so that......

Words: 753 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Human Resource

...background since ancient times. Traditional HR it separate functions such as staffing, training and development, compensation, safety and health, and labor relations were created and placed under the direction of human resource manager or executive. Large firms might have had a manager and staff for each HR function that reported to the HR executive. The HR president worked closely with top management in formulating corporate policy. Today, HR tasks are often performed differently than they were even decade ago. “As more and more companies use alternative means to accomplish HR tasks, the role of traditional HR manager has changed. HR is now involved more in strategic HR, focusing more on the bottom line of organization and leaving the more administrative tasks to technology or others”, Mondy, R., & Mondy, J. (2012). Human Resource Management, page 39. It has reached its peak in approach and structured practices. There has been a vast change in the implementation compared to system followed at earlier days. Although field of HRM is a comparatively recent development, its roots can be traced back to different phases. Trace the phases of evolution of human resource management. The historical development of human relations knowledge applied to job setting warrants some attention in any book about human relations. Any history of the application of systematic knowledge about human behavior to the job must use some arbitrary...

Words: 1348 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Industrial/Organiational Psychology

...Industrial/organizational psychology is an area of study that has been studied since the early times of psychology (Spector, 2008). In the beginning industrial/organizational psychology put all of its emphasis only all the industrial side of the field. With only concentrate and on the industrial side of the field did not work well with the management side of the business; so a lot of emphasis was placed on human resources. If you look at the other side of the field, the organizational side puts on improving workplaces and work conditions. As psychology began to combine the two fields; they field began dealing with the full spectrum of industry and organization. Industrial/organizational psychology is explained as an applied field that concentrates on the development and application of scientific principles to the work environment (Spector, 2008). A more practical view of industrial/organizational psychology is that it is used to improve the quality of the work environment for the employees and to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of employee behavior in that environment (Barnes –Holmes et. al., 2006). Industrial/organizational psychology dates back to the late 1800’s and early 1900’s. It was at this time that the early psychologists were attempting to combine psychology with the organization of business’s (Spector, 2008). Two scientists that were both professors at universities Huge Munsterburg and Walker Dill Scott were accredited with the founding studies of......

Words: 711 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ppaer

...also economic and social research funding councils in most European Countries. However, nowhere in this documentation, as far as I can tell, is any definition offered of ‘socio-economic research’. For the purposes of the RESPECT project, however, it is necessary to have some sort of functional definition. This short discussion paper is designed as the first step towards the development of such a definition. As the project develops, this definition will be tested in relation to the actual practices of socio-economic researchers, whose activities, qualifications and professional affiliations will be profiled as part of the project’s work. In the meantime, a brief survey of projects described as socioeconomic research projects indicates that they cover a very broad range in relation to the backgrounds and qualifications of the researchers, the methodologies used and the subject matter addressed. It is clear that drawing a clear boundary around these projects that will distinguish them from other fields of endeavour, is likely to be extremely difficult, if not impossible. The word ‘society’ (and hence the prefix ‘socio-’) applies in its broadest sense to all human activity. There will therefore inevitably be...

Words: 2527 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Industrial Relations

...1. INTRODUCTION Industrial relations has become one of the most delicate and complex problems of modern industrial society. Industrial progress is impossible without cooperation of labours and harmonious relationships. Therefore, it is in the interest of all to create and maintain good relations between employees (labour) and employers (management). Concept of Industrial Relations: The term ‘Industrial Relations’ comprises of two terms: ‘Industry’ and ‘Relations’. “Industry” refers to “any productive activity in which an individual (or a group of individuals) is (are) engaged”. By “relations” we mean “the relationships that exist within the industry between the employer and his workmen.” The term industrial relations explain the relationship between employees and management which stem directly or indirectly from union-employer relationship. Industrial relations are the relationships between employees and employers within the organizational settings. The field of industrial relations looks at the relationship between management and workers, particularly groups of workers represented by a union. Industrial relations are basically the interactions between employers, employees and the government, and the institutions and associations through which such interactions are mediated. The term industrial relations have a broad as well as a narrow outlook. Originally, industrial relations were broadly defined to include the......

Words: 3918 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

M.A. Social Work Syllabus Bhu

...M.A. Social Work (Previous) FIRST SEMESTER Paper S1: 01 History and Philosophy of Social Work - 50 Paper S1: 02 Psychosocial Dynamics of Human Behavior - 50 Paper S1: 03 Methods of Working with People: Micro-Approaches - 50 Paper S1: 04 Social Welfare Administration - 50 Paper S1: 05 Research Methodology - 50 Paper S1: 06 Man & Society - 50 Paper S1: 07 Concurrent Field work three days in a week - 50 Total - 350 SECOND SEMESTER Paper S2: 01 Approaches and fields of Social Work - 50 Paper S2: 02 Human Growth and Development - 50 Paper S2: 03 Methods of working with People: Macro Approaches - 50 Paper S2: 04 Management of NGO’s and Disaster Relief Services - 50 Paper S2: 05 Statistics and Computer Application - 50 Paper S2: 06 Dynamics of Socio-Political Institutions and Organizations - 50 Paper S2: 07 Concurrent Field work (three days in a week) -50 Total - 350 M.A. in Social Work (Part-I) Preamble: 1. There shall be six theory papers of 50 marks each and field work of 50 marks as paper seventh out of 50 marks, 38 marks shall be devoted to semester paper and 12 marks shall be fixed for class/home assignments. 2. The format of the theory paper shall be the same as it is being following by the university. 3. Evaluation procedure shall be as per university norms. FIRST SEMESTER Paper S1: 01 History and Philosophy of Social Work (50) Unit – I  Meaning, objectives and scope of social......

Words: 14601 - Pages: 59

Premium Essay

Dunlop Theory

...Using the Dunlop Theory as your based for explanation to discuss Malaysian Industrial Relation development to the current time. What is Industrial Relations? Industrial relations is a multidisciplinary field that studies the employment relationship. Industrial relations is increasingly being called employment relations or employee relations because of the importance of non-industrial employment relationships, this move is sometimes seen as further broadening of the human resource management as synonymous with employee relations. Industrial relations is used to devote the collective relationships between management and the workers. Traditionally, the term industrial relations is used to cover aspects of industrial life as trade unionism, collective bargaining, discipline and grievance handling, industrial disputes and interpretation of labor laws and rules and code of conduct. The History of Malaysian Industrial Relations Malaysian became incorporated into expanding European capitalism from the early sixteenth century. This inclusion evolved through mercantilism (1500-1850s) driven by Portuguese and the Dutch, colonialism driven by the British (a850s-1930s and 1945-1957) and the Japanese (1941-1945), post-colonial industrialisation (1960s) and ethnonationalist economic development (1971-present). A productive market economy was built during British colonialism with the establishment of capitalist plantation and mining export industries, based on immigrant Indian......

Words: 1538 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Human Resource Managem

...personnel management. Thus, the paper identifies the historical developments and their impacts on HRM, outlines the development and functions of HRM, explains the differences between HRM and Personnel Management, evaluates ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ approaches to HRM, illustrates how diversity is an issue in Human Relations (HR) practice and finally considers HRM as an international issue. It concludes with a discussion about ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ models of HRM and its implications for the human resource manager. INTRODUCTION The term "human resource management" has been commonly used for about the last ten to fifteen years. Prior to that, the field was generally known as "personnel administration." The name change is not merely cosmetics. Personnel administration, which emerged as a clearly defined field by the 1920s (at least in the US), was largely concerned the technical aspects of hiring, evaluating, training, and compensating employees and was very much of "staff" function in most organizations. The field did not normally focus on the relationship of disparate employment practices on overall organizational performance or on the systematic relationships among such practices. The field also lacked a unifying paradigm. HRM developed in response to the substantial increase in competitive pressures American business organizations began experiencing by the late 1970s as a result of such factors as globalization, deregulation, and...

Words: 4678 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Industrial and Organizational Psychology Paper

...Industrial and Organizational Psychology Paper Janeen Tipton PSY/435 September 3, 2012 Saakshi Malik Industrial and Organizational Psychology Paper In the realm of science there are many fields of psychology; clinical, abnormal, child development and industrial psychology. Out of those, industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology not only deals with the individual, but also the organizations that such individuals may be employed at. It is theorized that the early development began in 1885 but to better understand the development one must have a clear view of what an I/O psychologists is and what their main objectives are as well as how research and statistics play a crucial role. Industrial and Organizational Psychology Industrial and Organizational psychology (I/O) psychology is the study of organizations and how scientifically-based solutions to human problems in the work place (American Psychological Association, 2012, p.1. para. 1). Such areas that I/O psychologists would have knowledge due to some form of training done at the doctorial level are: • Assessment methods • Job Analysis • Career Development • Job Evaluation, Performance, and Work Motivation • Business Skills (American Psychological Association, 2012, p. 1) There are services that an I/O will and can provide to the company/organization for which one is employed. These services include aiding with the hiring process by......

Words: 1282 - Pages: 6