Free Essay

Industrial Revolution Changes

In: Historical Events

Submitted By bfeola1
Words 1351
Pages 6
William Feola Topic 4 Essay 2/23/2016

In the middle of the nineteenth century, European societies were going through tremendous changes due to politicization of the ordinary, helped by the French Revolution, and the Industrial Revolution. During these changes and challenges, intellectuals and political activists proposed different approaches to making society function better. Different bodies of thoughts were proposed and political organizations that supported different ideologies were created. These groups and organizations stemmed from liberalism, feminism, romanticism and Social Darwinism. These groups, the liberalists, feminists, romanticists and the Social Darwinists, had to try to cope with the rapid modernization of the west precipitated by the Industrial Revolution. In this essay we are going to talk about how each group was able to cope with the rapid modernization and how they were able to face the changes and challenges. First of all, we saw liberalism try to cope with the rapid modernization of the west precipitated by the Industrial Revolution. These liberals thought that human life and society could progress without having violent revolutions or relying on tradition. Non-violent approaches to changing society is called liberalism. The liberals during the time of the Industrial Revolution believed that individuals had the power to reason and that they are rational. In other words, it means they are capable of bettering themselves without destroying the society or resorting to other measures. The government should give individuals as much space and freedom in their pursuit of property and happiness and not interfere in the process. The liberals advocated limits on arbitrary authority of monarch, aristocracy, the church, extension of suffrage and equal protection under the law. When it came to economics, the liberals believed in the ability to have individuals pursue wealth peacefully. They didn’t think it was right for government officials to stand in front of the market and declare how much merchants should charge for certain things or how much shoppers should pay, they were absolutely against that. They thought the government should step aside and let the price be governed by the natural law of supply and demand. They believed that individuals would decide whether a certain good was worth having or if it was not worth having and that they would decide the price. Obviously they had to be well informed about the market and that way they would decide whether they would buy or not. This meant that the government had almost no role to play there except to protect the market from threats. The liberal economists thought that economic activities should be unregulated and that labor should be contracted freely. They thought that property should be unencumbered by feudal restrictions and that the goods should circulate freely, obviously bringing an end to the government granted monopolies and traditional practices of regulating markets. Not all liberals thought alike however. Some believed that government intervention would be okay in certain aspects of human life and that property should be owned by larger number of people who feel they have stake in society. Liberals, like one scholar of Bentham wrote, advocated social reforms like universal male franchise, regulation of factory conditions, prison reform, establishment of public education, etc. Liberals didn’t want to abolish private property, they actually thought society progressed when its members had the right to hold private property. They just wanted the government to empower its citizens and give each individual freedom and civil liberty because each individual would use it to improve themselves. This was the first non-Marxist ideology and this is how liberals coped with the rapid modernization of the west precipitated by the Industrial Revolution. Next, we saw feminism try to cope with the rapid modernization of the west precipitated by the Industrial Revolution. Feminism was another important component of nineteenth century liberalism. These feminists and their movement struggled for suffrage and the right to vote. The suffragists believed that the heart of the social problem was the male domination of society, which had made society more violent, aggressive, exploitative and sexist. These reforms were realized to a certain extent. We saw the Reform Bill passed and we saw the following liberal measures, secret balloting, trade unions, universal elementary education, and slum clearance projects recognized. These were products to improve worker’s lives by challenging the bourgeoisie domination of society. In 1900, the Labor Party was created to represent the workers. So we saw the feminist movement become a key component during the Industrial Revolution and they coped with the rapid modernization of the west by fighting for suffrage, rights to vote and they saw some reform. Also, we saw Social Darwinism try to cope with the rapid modernization of the west precipitated by the Industrial Revolution. In the middle of the nineteenth century, Charles Darwin published the very famous “Origin of the Species.” His main purpose and argument was to say that in the physical world, species evolve through the process called natural selection. In other words, ones that cannot adapt themselves to the changing environment will die and the ones who can will survive. The unfit dies, the fit survive and the species becomes better fit. Some liberals used this theory and said that human society is no different and that we should let the unfit fail and die. This idea as a whole is called Social Darwinism, which basically means that if you do not fit you should be allowed to perish. If you turn the argument around, you could say that the more fitting ones should rule over the less fitting people. The less fitting people will try to become more like the better ones and in the end society will become more fitting and really progress forward. If the government intervened and helped the less fitting, it would slow down society. According to Social Darwinism, the unskilled ones should be left alone so that they could learn to be more productive or just die. People who have survived and flourished in the industrialization are the selected ones. Thomas Malthus took it a step further, saying that if there were too many humans on here that there would be foot shortages and that we should have a strong and constant operating check on population from the difficulty of subsistence. This difficulty should be felt by a large portion of mankind. If you were the poor, unskilled workers, you would have suffer and learn how to not multiply uncontrollably. Lastly, how did Romanticism try to cope with the rapid modernization of the west precipitation by the Industrial Revolution? Well, Romanticism was used to buildup nationalist identities. Romanticism was the artistic trend that emphasized individual personality and character in art works instead of universality and rationality in human beings. They turned art, music, paintings, literature and even architecture into symbols of national culture, characteristic and personality. The Romanticists tried to cope with the Industrial Revolution by using art and other things to escape from reality. Realism was the polar opposite of Romanticism, which portrayed what was really going on while Romanticism portrayed an escape from the modern realities of the growth of the population, urban expansion and industrialism. So they coped with the industrial revolution by using various things to escape from reality. In conclusion, liberalism, feminism, romanticism and Social Darwinism all had different ways to try and cope with the rapid modernization of the west precipitated by the Industrial Revolution. These European societies and groups were going through tremendous changes due to politicization of the ordinary, helped by the French Revolution and of course the Industrial Revolution. Liberals tried to cope with it by trying to gain more freedoms for individuals, feminists coped with it by trying to gain more rights towards women’s suffrage and voting, romanticism coped with it by using their arts and other forms of expression to escape reality and Social Darwinism coped with it by trying to improve society by getting rid of the weak members of society. Obviously some of these reforms and ideas didn’t happen but these groups thought that these were good ways to cope with the rapid modernization brought on by the Industrial Revolution.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Industrial Revolution Social Changes

...known as the industrial revolution; however, a broad overlook of the era glazes over the difficulties that were experienced by the lower class factory workers. A change as major as industrialization has a massive impact on society. After the invention of the factory and the start of industrialized life, changes included: women struggling, working conditions deteriorating, child labor beginning, and family roles changing. Following industrialization, women experienced great difficulties in society. Factory wages brought many positive changes to the household but also had unforeseen dangers. The new jobs gave a family a stable income that...

Words: 738 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Political Changes During The Industrial Revolution

...Political changes were a major product of the Industrial Revolution. Politics changed by dividing into three main groups of political thinkers; the radicalists, the reformers, and the capitalists. Let's start off with the radicalists. This group of political thinkers believed that capitalism could only be defeated by a revolution and that industrial capitalism is the thing to blame for the horrific working conditions in the factories. Industrial capitalism is when capitalists use the power of the industry to produce goods on a much greater scale while making a large profit than was possible in the pre-industrial capitalism time. The main man in the importation of radicalism was a man named Karl Marx. Marx came to societies eye once his book, The Communist Manifesto, was written in 1848, with another German named Friedrich Engels....

Words: 813 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

How Did The Industrial Revolution Change America

...The industrial revolution in the 19th century changed the way America has grown. Many changes happened in industrial America during this time period. Advancements in new technology and a lot of immigrants moving to America helped America develop. The new technologies made business labor easier also transporting goods faster and more efficient. This was thanks to the invention of railroads and machinery. Businesses used railroads to transport products and materials around the country to make production more efficient. Also Business owners were able to use machines to lift materials and move materials around on assembly lines. The graph in document 5 shows that American industrial and agricultural between 1850 and 1900 changed. In 1850, only...

Words: 315 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

How Did the Industrial Revolution Change the Urban Environment in Industrializing Countries?

...The Industrial Revolution was a period of time from the 18th until 19th century when significant changes transpired, and these changes contributed to the economic, social, political, and environmental conditions of that time. A major turning point occurred in the history due to the Industrial Revolution, which positively changed lifestyle in various ways. Opposing that, these changes damaged the environment in industrializing countries, leading to major issues. This purpose of this essay is to describe the several environmental changes that occurred in industrializing countries during the Industrial Revolution. Urbanization occurred, starting in the UK, and then spread to America and different parts of Europe. The majority of citizens from the countryside migrated to town and cities, where they could find jobs in factories to support themselves and their families. According to Bulliet et al. (2009), London's population grew from 500,000 to 959,000 in a century, and then to 2,363,000 in the next 50 years. Similarly, New York City's population increased sixfold in 35 years, reaching 600,000. According to Merriman, an increase of 506,000 people occurred in Paris between 1801 and 1851 (p.577). Smaller towns united, creating megalopolises, including "the English Midlands, central Belgium, and the Ruhr district of Germany" (p.560). This rapid increase had consequences: firstly, cities and towns became overpopulated, which worsened the pollution. In urban cities, a number of......

Words: 586 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Industrialization After the Civil War

...the Civil War   Industrialization after the Civil War Introduction This paper discusses the effects the Industrial Revolution had on the economy, politics, and society. Also this paper will talk about five different groups affected by the Revolution. In addition, this paper reviews the effects the Industrial Revolution had on the average working American. The Industrial Revolution brought many changes to America as a whole; it seems as though no stone was left unturned. The Revolution affected everything in its path, including government, people, and way of life in general. Three Aspects of the Industrial Revolution Three aspects of the Industrial Revolution include society, the economy, and politics. The American economy began to change during the Industrial Revolution; this change was mainly due to the increase of productivity. Productivity increased by using the out work system. This system consisted of people completing jobs in their homes (Economic Growth and the Early Industrial Revolution). Another way the economy changed was through the factory system. This system allowed a large scale of work to be completed in one location (Economic Growth and the Early Industrial Revolution). Society was another aspect that changed through the Industrial Revolution. Society went through two major transitions during the revolution. One of the major changes was that many Americans left farming, and went to find jobs in factories (Shultz, 2014). Factories were where......

Words: 951 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Industrial Revolution

...Industrial Revolution – A step to new era The Industrial Revolution, which took place from the 18th to 19th centuries, was a period during which predominantly agrarian, rural societies in Europe and America became industrial and urban. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in the late 1700s, manufacturing was often done in people’s homes, using hand tools or basic machines. Industrialization marked a shift to powered, special-purpose machinery, factories and mass production. The iron and textile industries, along with the development of the steam engine, played central roles in the Industrial Revolution, which also saw improved systems of transportation, communication and banking. While industrialization brought about an increased volume and variety of manufactured goods and an improved standard of living for some, it also resulted in often grim employment and living conditions for the poor and working classes. The Industrial Revolution began over 200 years ago. It changed the way in which many products, including cloth and textiles, were manufactured. It is called a "revolution" beacuse the changes it caused were great and sudden. It greatly affected the way people lived and worked. This revolution helped to bring about the modern world we know today in many ways. The Industrial Revolution was a major change in the nature of production in which machines replaced tools and steam and other energy sources replaced human or animal power. The Industrial......

Words: 1010 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Industrial Revolution

...The Industrial Revolution The term Industrial Revolution refers to the social and economic changes that led to the transition from an agricultural and commercial society to a modern industrial one. This revolution relied on machinery instead of basic tools. This happened in Great Britain in the middle of the 18th century until the middle of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution spread to other parts of Europe as well as other parts of the world. The period of explorations from the 14th to the 16th centuries helped in laying the foundations for the Industrial Revolution. Because of the explorations and subsequently colonialism, gold and silver from the New World flooded Europe. Prices of commodities rose, industries bloomed and a money-based economy fully developed. The expansion of trade and the economy based on money led to the creation of financial and lending institutions. Thus, the necessary factors for the emergence of an Industrial Revolution had already been established in the 15thcentury. The term Industrial revolution does not imply that changes happened only in the industry. In fact, the rise in the number of factories, the economic changes and the new inventions in science all had a great impact in the lives of the people in Europe and even the whole world. THE RISE OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN GREAT BRITAIN From the 18th to the 19th centuries, Great Britain was the leading force in industry. It had large deposits of coal and iron. Because...

Words: 2414 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Industrial Revolution Report

...Report on Industrial Revolution 1. One of the most impactful inventions in the Industrial Revolution was the steam engine. This device invented by James Watt altered history because of it impact on transportation and factories. James Watt found that there was a way to produce steam from coal. Then he discovered that you could use that process to make engines and also use the steam to power numerous machines in factories. Because of his invention, automobiles were able to be created and the use of machinery was enhanced which was a key change in the industrial revolution. WIth cars introduced to the world, transportation took on a new dynamic along with trains and steam powered boats. The invention of mass production and factories was a key aspect to the industrial revolution also. Because an idea of mass production was invented, factories were established to enable mass production and this called for an increase in labor demands. Many workers were needed to fill positions in factories so a shift occurred in society. People moved towards the city because that’s where the jobs were and families were less connected because they no longer worked on farms together. Because machines and other agricultural inventions were made, more of the labor involved in processing food or crops was centered in factories and this was a huge change for people. It affected their lifestyles majorly and changed the structure of society in a way. 2. In the Industrial Revolution, the major......

Words: 1239 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

America Transformed

...America Transformed HIS 110 June 13, 2011 Abstract Some individuals have a curious thought of how Americans built their society. In this reading the reader will understand a historic timeline from 1780-1850. Learning the important information during certain years and how they overcome each event. The Agricultural Revolution of Europe started in the 1700’s; it was widely spread throughout Europe and America by the 1800’s. The results of the revolution, was the farming processes became more efficient, and productive due to several inventions, and discoveries. The Agricultural processes became faster, and less manpower is required in the field, as a result the population from the countryside had no means of supporting themselves. They were forced to move into the urban cities in search of factory jobs. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain during the 1700s. The term Industrial Revolution refers both to the changes that occurred and to the period itself. During the 1700s and early 1800s, great changes took place in the lives and labor of people in several parts of the world. These changes resulted from the development of industrialization and it started spreading to other parts of Europe and to North America in the early 1800s. By the mid-1800s, industrialization had become widespread in Western Europe and the northeastern United States. 
 America Transformed In 1781 Peace Commission occurred and what it meant was Congress appoints a Peace Commission......

Words: 1660 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Negative Impacts of New Imperialism and the Industrial Revolution

...The Industrial Revolution brought many changes that have increased the quality of life for the average person where industrialization occurred, such as Britain. One change in particular was the increase of food production (Duiker & Spielvogel, 2011, p.491), which has been a factor of increased population. A major event that changed due to the Industrial Revolution was Imperialism. Before the 19th century, Imperialism provided Europeans with spices from the East and opportunities to exercise missionary developments (Duiker & Spielvogel, 2011, p.544). After the 19th century, Imperialism was changed as a result of the Industrial Revolution, known as New Imperialism (p.544). The New Imperialism existed at its core to provide more raw materials for production and as a market for excess goods (p.544). Throughout this essay, reference to Imperialism is in relation to New Imperialism. Although Imperialism increased the quality of life for some, mainly the colonizers, there were major negative impacts to the colonized societies, including impacts that parallel that of the Industrial Revolution to their industrialized societies. The negative impacts include the destruction of cultures, the deterioration of environment, and the exploitation of people. During the Industrial Revolution, many people moved to the cities to work in factories (Duiker & Spielvogel, 2011, p.491), causing a decline in the rural culture. Moreover, the living conditions in the cities were extremely......

Words: 911 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Research Paper

...ANNOTATED SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR HISTORICAL INTERPRETATIONS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN Gerard M Koot History Department University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Allen, Robert C., The British Industrial Revolution in a Global Perspective, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Pp. viii, 331. Allen’s book is an excellent example of the persuasiveness of the new economic history. It is solidly rooted in statistical data and uses sophisticated methods of economic analysis but its analysis is presented in plain English. He argues that the first industrial revolution occurred in northwestern Europe because its high wages during the early modern period encouraged technological innovation. Although high wages were initially a consequence of the demographic disaster of the Black Death, they were reinforced during the early modern period by the economic success of the region around the North Sea, first, in European trade and manufacturing, especially in wresting the textile industry from the Italians, and then in world trade. According to Allen, the first industrial revolution took place in Britain instead of the Low Countries primarily because of Britain’s abundant and cheap coal resources, combined with the central government’s ability to use mercantilist policies and naval power to reap the greatest benefits from an expanding European and world trade. Once it had taken the lead from the Dutch, and defeated the French, Britain used its comparative......

Words: 27796 - Pages: 112

Premium Essay

Business History

...The Rise of Market Society in Europe and the Industrial Revolutions in Britain MGMT 1030 Schulich School of Business The Three Industrial Revolutions-General Features 1)First Industrial Revolution (1760s to 1840s) ➢ Led by Britain, with the United States, France, and Germany following several decades later ➢ Marked by increases in agricultural productivity, the development of new transportation methods such as canals, the rise of urban society, and the growth of the factory system ➢ Typical new products were steam engines and factory-produced items such as cotton textiles and ironware 2)Second Industrial Revolution (1840s to 1940s) ➢ Led by the United States, Britain, and Germany ➢ Marked by communication and transportation revolutions, the development of the telegraph, railroads, and the internal combustion engine, and the development of the modern corporate structure ➢ Typical new products were steel, chemicals, and a wide array of consumer goods such as automobiles and home appliances 3)Third Industrial Revolution (1950s to present) ➢ Led by the United States and Japan ➢ Marked by the rise of the service economy, international financial and trade transactions, and the introduction of the computer ➢ Typical new products were consumer electronics and a wide array of pharmaceuticals The Pre-Market Economy to 1700 1)Economic Society in the European Middle Ages A)The Manorial......

Words: 988 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...Introduction The fashion industry has undergone many changes within textile production.. The Industrial Revolution began in Britain towards the end of the 18th century. The Industrial Revolution was changing domestic work into factory work, this was transitioning the world on a new innovative way on how to produce and manufacture clothes. The use of machinery were replaced the old use of hand crafting garments. During the 18th century production, distribution and acquisitions were developed and also the development of steam power, this showed how clothes move from country to country. Fashion was able to become accessible to a large number of consumers, allowing more people to get garments that were produced in the factories. Isaac Singer was the man who created the world’s first sewing machine in 1851, New York. The objective of this essay is to demonstrate how ‘Fashion has reflected Social, Cultural, Political, Economic and technological changes since the Industrial Revolution.’ This essay will include how Social and Cultural changes have been made since the Industrial Revolution. Main Body Social Changes and Cultural Changes. Before the industrial revolution came along, most goods were made in small, cramped workshops or in the comfort of people's homes. This was called the domestic system, Factories were commonly built near rivers, so that water power could be used to run the machines. People started to leave the country and the farms to go into the main......

Words: 437 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Atlantic Revolutions

...“Wars and warfare changed very little in response to the Atlantic Revolutions and the Industrial Revolution” In response to the Atlantic Revolutions and the Industrial Revolution, wars and warfare have changed significantly. Each revolution changed not only how war and warfare was conducted but had a remarkable impact on the character of war itself. Both of the Atlantic Revolutions and the Industrial Revolutions shaped warfare by instigating the implementation of a sense of nationalism, advanced technology, and tactics. The Napoleonic Wars, American Civil War, and the Crimean War are very good examples of how the Atlantic Revolutions and the Industrial revolutions influenced wars and warfare. Nationalism, an emerging movement, became increasingly noteworthy throughout the Napoleonic Wars, which was derived from the Atlantic Revolutions. The industrialization period prominently impacted on the American Civil War by bringing about vast improvements in technology and transportation, which deemed to have a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the time. Enhanced technology and the evolution from pre modern warfare tactics are evident in Russia’s defeat by the British in the Crimean War. This again shows a direct correlation on how each revolution had a significant impact on how warfare is conducted. Throughout the Napoleonic period there was an immense surge in the numbers that armies were yielding. The growth in armies is parallel to the sense...

Words: 1562 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Industrial Revolution

...“Industrial Revolution” GKE Task 4 WGU Indiana The Industrial Revolution was the change from hand crafted products and small farming operations to machine manufactured products and large scale farms using more mechanical equipment. While the birthplace of the revolution was in Britain around 1760, one similar took place in America from 1790 to 1870. Britain had tried very hard to keep the monopoly on its industrial technology, however this couldn’t last forever. Some of the British saw the potential of profitable opportunities and took this knowledge abroad (Industrial Revolution, 2013) With any major change in a society has consequences. One social consequence of the Industrial Revolution was the division of social classes. Before, there were the very rich and the very poor. As factories and industry made production of goods more efficient, these goods were cheaper. People could now afford to buy everything they needed and still have money left over. They could now afford to enjoy leisure goods instead of only buying what they needed to survive. Thus, the emergence of the middle class. This class consisted of anyone with a decent job, shop clerks, accountants, managers and so on (Introduction to the Industrial Revolution). While the production of goods at a faster rate and larger quantity made them cheaper and more available had its advantages, the division of society had negative consequences as well. The use of technology on farms meant......

Words: 789 - Pages: 4