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Inequities in Healthcare

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Inequities in Healthcare
Health inequities are avoidable inequalities in health between groups of people within countries and between countries. These inequities arise from inequalities within and between societies.
Geographic-based inequity
There has been inequity in healthcare due to the geographic differences. For example, Costa Rica has demonstrable health spatial inequities with 12-14% of the population living in areas where healthcare is inaccessible. Examples of health inequities between countries: * The infant mortality rate (the risk of a baby dying between birth and one year of age) is 2 per 1000 live births in Iceland and over 120 per 1000 live births in Mozambique. * Women in Afghanistan have a lifetime risk of maternal death of 1 in 11, while a woman in Ireland has a risk of 1 in 17 800. * A child born in Malawi can expect to live for 47 years while a child born in Japan can expect to live 83 years.
Income-based inequity
Socioeconomic status is both a strong predictor of health, and a key factor underlying health inequities across populations. Examples of income-based inequity are: * In the State of Virginia, a diagnosis of diabetes was reported among 13.7% of the lowest income Virginians, compared to 4.5% of those with the highest income. * In low-income countries, the average life expectancy is 57, while in high-income countries, it is 80.
Gender-based inequity * In India, gender is a significant determining factor in health. Gender inequities in health start in early childhood, as many families provide better nutrition and care for boys than girls. According to the WDR report, women in developing nations experienced greater mortality rates than men when comparing developing nations to more developed nations.
Racial-based inequity
Health inequities between African Americans and whites have been studied the most. According to the Centers for Disease Control: * African American men die on average 5.1 years sooner than white men while African American women die 4.3 year sooner than white women and they face higher rates of illness and mortality. * In the state of Virginia, the infant mortality rate for Black Virginians was 2.4 times greater than for White Virginians and the life expectancy for White Virginians was 78.6 years, compared to 73.4 years for African Americans.

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