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Influence of Service Charters on Service Delivery

In: Business and Management

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Public Policy and Administration Research
ISSN 2224-5731(Paper) ISSN 2225-0972(Online)
Vol.3, No.6, 2013

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Influence of Performance Contract on Public Service Delivery in
Kenya: Study of Registration of Persons Kericho District
1.

Thomas Gekonde
School of Law Mount Kenya University, P.O Box 2591, Eldoret-Kenya
Tel: +254 721 206 387, Email: t.gekonde@yahoo.com
2.
Dr Pamela Ochieng,
Associate Dean Mount Kenya University
School of Post Graduate Studies, P.O. Box 2591, Eldoret, Kenya.
Tel: + 254 722 577 037, Email: pamco23@yahoo.com
3.
Professor Elim Lokapel
Principal Mount Kenya University, P O. Box 2591, Eldoret, Kenya
Tel: + 254 728-885-012, Email: elokapel@yahoo.com
Abstract
The study sought to investigate on the influence of performance contract on public service delivery in Kenya with specific reference to the department of registration of person in Kericho District using 2011 – 2012 public service delivery period as the base line. The study adopted a descriptive research design on a sample size of 222 respondents who were identified and selected through purposive and random convenient sampling techniques from a target population of 2040 respondents. Data collection was done by use of questionnaires as well as observation schedules. Collected data was sorted, cleaned, coded and analyzed by the aid of statistical package of social scientist programme (SPSS). Study findings were contently analyzed and presented in form of tables and figures. Based on the study findings, it was concluded that performance contract had positive influence on public service delivery as a tool of customer satisfaction by achieving service delivery timelines, rendering of quality and effective services, increase of production in service delivery by achieving the discussed and agreed targets as well as serving as an avenue of transparency and accountability in service delivery. The study recommended that service delivery period (production of identification documents) be increased upwards from the current 28 waiting working days from the date of application also the processing and production of national identification cards be decentralized. As well capacity building in performance contract to all officers deployed in department of registration of persons be encouraged at the same time legalizing the use and application of performance contract to make it more formidable to all.
Key words: Performance contracts, service delivery
1.1 Background Of The Study
In the opening verse of the 1980s, there were social, political and economic discontent amongst members of the public all over the world including Kenya due to inadequate and in effective public service delivery coupled with un transparent and un accountable modes of delivery. Equally service delivery providers were uncomfortable in rendering the same effectively as required due to poor remunerations, stagnation/lack of promotions, political patronage as well as poor and inadequate working conditions.
In 1989 the World Bank and the international monetary fund (IMF) demanded for drastic changes to be undertaken in various public service delivery entry points all over the world including Kenya. The said changes related to accountability, transparency, and effectiveness in public service delivery and that any lending from the said institutions to the needy countries were begged on the stated key elements as pointed out and acknowledged by kettle (2000).
During this period which is referred to as the period of revolution and renaissance in the public sector, various governments introduced new techniques and systems of service delivery including the introduction and preparation of strategic plans, introduction of public service delivery charters and placing of public service delivery officers on performance contract with an aim of working in private sector way and shifting from process to result oriented Balgun (2003),
Kervasdou(2007) pointed out that performance contract were introduced in various countries all over the world so as to guide public delivery officers to shift their mind sets towards market economies whereas Hartley(2006) stressed that performance contract were introduced to change effort of works from process to result. Same view was pointed out by Guest D (2007) as well Hope (2002).
In Kenya performance contracts were first introduced in the public sector in 1989. However, its use was shortlived as they lacked political patronage and viewed as foreign owned. However, as from 2006 to date the government of Kenya effectively adapted performance contract as its guiding tool of public service delivery 1

Public Policy and Administration Research
ISSN 2224-5731(Paper) ISSN 2225-0972(Online)
Vol.3, No.6, 2013

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GOK performance contract steering committee (2005). Officers deployed in all government ministries and public service delivery departments such as registration of persons were placed on performance contract appropriately with the following objectives in mind. To make public officer offer effective and efficiency services to the public, to make public officers accountable and responsible, to introduce a performance oriented culture, to link rewards to measurable performance, and to provide objective evaluation of service delivery officers- Kobia and Mohamed (2006) as well as Trivedi (2006) and Obong’o (2009).
2.0 Literature Review
Performance contract is a freely negotiated agreement between the government acting as the owner of the agency and the management of the agency to undertake and accomplish the discussed and agreed targets within a given time frame-GOK (2005).
According Greilling (2005) as well as Obongo (2009) performance contract specifies mutual performance, obligations, intentions and responsibilities between two parties. Various studies on the influence of performance contract on public service delivery have been carried out since its inception in France in the 1960s pointing out on the influence of performance contract on public service delivery such as public sectors performance management committee of France (2008), Hood (1991), Mulgan and Alpury (2003) Musa (2001) OECD (1999) as well as Kobia and Muhamed (2006).
Study findings of the public sector performance management committee of France (2008) established that the adoption of performance contract in France’s public sector had re engineered the efforts of public service providers particularly in the transport sector of roads and railways in which the railway and road network were well maintained and improved. Officers working in the environmental sector had ensured environmental sustainability as well performance contract guidelines had enabled the collection and improvement of government revenue from 45-60%.
The organization for economic operation and development (OECD, 1999) pointed out that the adoption and use of performance contract amongst their member’s states had created an atmosphere of efficiency, effectiveness transparency and accountability in public service delivery particularly in Spain and Belgium’s social sectors.
Hood (1991) as well as Mulgan and Alpury (2003) stressed that the introduction and use of performance contracts had greatly improved public service delivery both in Britain and America, particularly by rendering quality service to the public.
Trivedi P (2006) established that the introduction and eventual use of performance contract in Africa particulary
Kenya had created an atmosphere of effectiveness, transparency and accountability in the public sector a factor which attracted donor countries to have confidence in Kenya; same view was pointed out by Musa (2001) in
Swaziland.
Study findings of Kobia and Mohamed 2006 established that the adoption and application of performance contract in Kenya’s public sector paved way to efficiency, effectiveness, achievability of targets, transparency and accountability in public service delivery. Mutahura (2007) acknowledged that the introduction and use of performance contract in Kenya had created a high level of efficiency and accountability paving way to an increment of Kenya’s gross domestic product (GDP) by 6.1%
It is worthy to note that performance contract created such a positive influence on public service delivery due to the introduction of rewards accorded to the excellent public service delivery officers after achieving and exceeding their discussed and agreed targets within a given time frame. To this end the government of Kenya through various accounting officers had put in place a bonus of one month’s basic salary upon the attainment and exceeding of the discussed and agreed targets (GP 247) A and B revised (2008). Armstrong (2009) stated that rewards are forms of recognition, acceptance and motivation to hardworking officers. Same view was acknowledged and pointed out by Thompson (2002) as well as Brown (2005) who stressed on total rewards in terms of recognition promotions or pay increase to hardworking officers so as to attract them work hard in realizing the objective of performance contract of effectiveness, efficiency, transparency, and accountability in public service delivery.
3.0 Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
The researcher adopted descriptive research design. According to Orodho (2002), the said design is used in the preliminary and exploratory studies to guide and assist a researcher when gathering the desired information. It summarizes, presents and interprets study findings for the purposes of clarification - Mugenda and
Mugenda(1999) pointed out that descriptive research design determines and reports the way things are.
3.2 Target Population
Borg and Gall (1989) stressed that target population refers to all members of a real of hypothetical set of people, events or objects to which a researcher wishes to generalize the outcome of the recent study. Therefore, the

2

Public Policy and Administration Research
ISSN 2224-5731(Paper) ISSN 2225-0972(Online)
Vol.3, No.6, 2013

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study’s target population was 2040 respondents who consisted of 2000 new applicants for national identity cards, and 40 registration of persons officers, of which 20 were stationed at the District level and 20 at the National level(Nairobi, capital city of Kenya) being the centre of processing and producing national identity cards.
3.3 Sample Size of the Study
The researcher adopted a sample size of 10% of the target population which translated to 200 new identity cards applicants and 2 registration officers in the processing and production office (Nairobi). However, (20) 100 % of the respondents deployed at the District level (Registration Officers) were targeted (researcher 2012). Kombe and Tromp (2009) pointed out that a sample size of 10% was ideal because the same represents the characteristics the of entire group, findings from the same could be generalized to a larger population and every respondent had an equal opportunity to participate in the exercise.
3.4 Data Collection
The researcher used primary and secondary services of data collection. Secondary source of data collection emanated from the District registration of persons officers records on the number of persons (applicants) registered at the District level during the 2011, 2012 public service delivery period. Primary source of data were obtained by use of questionnaires and observation schedules. Questionnaires were administered to the respondents and collected same day as planned while observation schedules were completed as and when identity cards applicants sought for their identity awards. According to Orodho and Kombo 2002 as well as
Gray 1992, use of questionnaires were advantageous because they covered many respondents at ago, administrative friendly, gives respondents freedom of choice and expression and were non biased both to the researcher and respondent. Before the actual study period, data collection tools(questionnaires) were tested and re-tested in similar working environmental conditions where minor amendments and corrections were made to ensure of their reliability(Mugenda & Mugenda,2003). At the same time, the correctness, fluency, flow and neatness of the questionnaires were assessed by the researcher’s supervisors and colleagues to ensure of their validity as data collection instruments.
3.5 Data Analysis
After the collection of data, the researcher carried out data sorting where collected data was well arranged with an aim of identifying and sorting out raw data, which according to Obure (2002) is the Genesis of error detection and corrections due to mix up of data. Data editing was done by reading through the field questionnaires as well as observation schedules with an aim of spotting any error which might have occurred. Collective data was coded and edited appropriately based on the administered questionnaire and thereafter processed by statistical programmes for social scientists (SPSS). Data entry was done by keying of data as per the assigned codes, cleaned and final checks made for accuracy purposes and completeness, which was then submitted to the SPSS processor for data computation and release of results which yielded qualitative data. According to Gray (2004) qualitative data provides effective and rich descriptions as well as explanations demonstrating the chronological and flow of events. Processed data was shown in form of percentages and presented in form of tables and figures for public information and consumption.
4.0 Study Findings
The study focused in establishing on the influence of performance contract on public service delivery with reference to officers (respondents) attitude to work, customer care services, timeliness, quality and work output, improvement of public services, identity cards applicant’s attitudes on service given, duration taken to process and produce identity cards as well as problems experienced by customers in the registration of persons offices
(centre of research)
4.1 Officers/Respondents Attitude to Work
The study sought to find out on the attitude of officers towards performance contract when attending to and serving their customers at their work stations. Study findings established that 14(70%) of the respondents agreed that performance contract had guided them to handle customers in their offices well with 3(15%) strongly agreeing with the idea and one (5%) strongly disagreeing. However, 2(10%) of the respondents were not sure as shown in figure 1. The researchers aimed at finding out on the influence of performance contract on customer care services in the registration of persons offices. The said services include to timely attention to customers, officers behavior, checking and retrieving Id cards and giving advice related to registration among others. Study finding established that 14(70%) of the respondents were of the view that performance contract had enabled th3em to change their minds sets and serve their customers effectively. As pointed out by Hartley(2000) as well as Guest(2007). At same time 4(20%) of the respondents strongly agreed with the idea with 1(5%) disagreeing as shown in the figure 2.
4.2 Influence of Performance Contract on Public Delivery In Terms Of Timeliness, Quality of Work And
Increase Of Output
One of the key objectives of performance contract as per Kobia and Mohammed (2006) was to guide officers,

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ISSN 2224-5731(Paper) ISSN 2225-0972(Online)
Vol.3, No.6, 2013

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render services timely, effectively and efficiently to the public and produce a performance oriented culture in the public in terms of output and quality work. The study sought to find out on the influence of performance contract on public service delivery in terms of timeliness, quality of work and output. study findings pointed out that 14(70%) of the respondents were of the view and had strongly agreed that the same had guided them to serve their customers timely, offer quality services and increase the number of persons registered with 5(25%) agreeing with the idea but 1(5%) strongly disagreeing as shown in table 1.
4.3 Achievement of Set Objectives, Targets and Improvement of Service Delivery
As pointed out by the World Bank IMF (1989) quality services coupled with effectiveness and efficiency as well as accountability was a must for various countries to attract dollar aid. As various officers were placed on performance contract in Kenya and particularly in the department of registration of persons, the researcher focused in establishing on the role of performance contract in the achievement of set objectives, targets and improvement of service delivery and particularly the extent to which the same had been achieved. From the study findings, it emerged that 3(15%) of the respondents were of the view that objectives, targets and improvement of service delivery had been achieved to a very great extent with 8 (40%) pointing out that the same had been achieved to a great extent and the same number to some extent. However, 1, (5%) of the respondents disagreed with the idea as shown in table 2.
4.4 Influence of Performance Contract on Identity Cards Applicants
The department of registration of persons in their performance contract service charter had pointed out that new applicants for identity cards in rural districts were required to take 28 working days to receive their identity cards from the date of application. The researcher wanted to find out on how long it had taken for the said applicants to receive their identity cards. From the study findings, it emerged that 121 respondents (64.5%) had taken more than two months (between 60-120 working days) 47(23%) having taken a period of 210 days with 24 respondents (12%) having taken more than 150 days as shown in table 3. Indeed this was the researchers problem statement of the study thus delay in receiving national identity cards timely within 28 working days from the date of application as per the department’s’ service charter.
4.5 Services Given By Registration of Persons Officers
As already mentioned herein, performance contract were introduced with an aim of guiding officers to offer quality and efficient service to people and change their mindsets to results Balgun (2003). services offered by officers include but not limited to receiving and guiding customers, perusing and certifying their application supporting documents, carrying out actual registration, making online inquiries as well as receiving and issuing out ID cards .The researcher focused in establishing the ratings given by respondents on the services offered by the registration of person’s officers in their duty stations. Study finding pointed out that 34(17%) of the respondents received excellent services, 72(36%) were of the view that they received very good services whereas
92(46%) of the respondents were of the view that they received very good services despite of delay in receiving applied id cards timely with 2(1%) pointing out that services given were poor as shown in table 4.
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations
In conclusion the purpose of the study was to investigate on the influence of performance contract on public service delivery in Kenya being a study of the department of registration of persons (Kericho District). Based on the study findings, it was realized that the use and application of performance contract in the public sector had a positive influence towards public service delivery particularly in terms of meeting timelines, rendering quality services to the customers and increasing work output. As well, performance contract had re-engineered the efforts of public officers by working hard to achieve the set objectives of the department in terms of transparency, effectiveness, efficiency and accountability at work places.
On the strength of the study objectives, the researcher recommended that the timelines specified in the department’s service charter of receiving new processed ID cards within 28 working days from the date of application be reviewed upwards to avoid unnecessary complaints from stake holders. The processing and production of identity cards be decentralized to the regional levels. The government to plan well and arrest problems and other challenges related to public service delivery in order to realize and enhance efficiency and effectiveness in public service delivery. The legal provisions under which performance contract operates is silent hence the researcher recommends for the legalization of the same so as to make it more formidable as a new tool of public service delivery.
6.0 References
Armstrong M. (2007), Armstrong’s Handbook of human Resource management practice. 2nd edition (employees and rewards) published with Kogan page, printed by Kogan page 120 pentonville road London.
Borg, W.R. & Gall, M.D. (1989), Education Research: An Introduction. 4th ed. New York: Longman.
Brown D. (2005), Reward strategies from intent to impact, published by CIPD, Printed in London

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Public Policy and Administration Research
ISSN 2224-5731(Paper) ISSN 2225-0972(Online)
Vol.3, No.6, 2013

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Gray,D.E(2004), doing Research in the Real World, London: Sage Publications
Government of Kenya (2003), Strategy for performance Improvement in the Public Service, published by
Performance contract steering improvement committee, Printed by Government Printer Nairobi.
Government of Kenya, GP 247A & B Revised (2008), Published by Performance Contract steering Committee,
Printed by the Government Printer Nairobi
Guest D. (2007) Human Resource Management towards New Psychological Contract, Published by Boxal
Oxford University Press, Printed in London.
Hope, K.R. (2001) The New public Management: Context and Practice in Africa, International Public
Management Journal, Vol, 4, No.2
Kobia and Mohammed (December 2008) Africa association for public administration and management – Kenya experience with performance contract, published by Kobia and Mohammed, printed in Nairobi Kenya.
Mugenda, O. & Mugenda, A (1999). Research Methods: Qualitative and Qualitative Approaches. Nairobi: Acts
Press
Obure M.J. (2002), Handbook on data analysis using SPSS, Nairobi. M&O Data Experts Training and
Consultants
Orodho J.A.(2002). Techniques of Writing Research Proposals and Reports in Education and Social Sciences.
Nairobi: Masola Publishers
Orodho(2003), Research methods, published by Masola publishers, printed Nairobi
Thompson P. (2000), Total reward, Published by Thompson foundations, printed by IPD London.
Trivedi P. (2006), Performance Contract Evaluation, Published by Invoid Bank and printed in New York.

Figures and tables on the influence of performance contract on public service delivery
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%

%

30%
20%
10%
0%
Agreed

Strongly Agree

Strongly Disagree

4.1 Figure 1: Influence of performance contract on public service delivery and officer’s attitude on performance contract as per public service delivery
Source: Field Data

5

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ISSN 2224-5731(Paper) ISSN 2225-0972(Online)
0972(Online)
Vol.3, No.6, 2013

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80%
70%
60%
50%
40%

%

30%
20%
10%
0%
Agree

Strongly
Agree

Not Sure

Strongly
Disagree

4.2 Figure 2: Influence of performance contract on customer care services
Source: Field Data(2012)
4.2 Table 1: Influence of Performance Contract on the Improvement of Service
Delivery in the Department
Frequency
Percentage
Strongly Agree
14
70
Agree
5
25
Strongly Disagree
1
5
TOTAL
20
100
4.3 Table 2: Extent of Improvement of Service Delivery
Extent
Frequency
Percentage (%)
Very Great Extent
3
15
Great Extent
8
40
Some Extent
8
40
Not at all
1
5
TOTAL
20
100

4.4 Table 3: Number of days/months taken by Applicants before receiving their ID cards Duration
Frequency
60-120 Days
129
5-7 Months
24
Not Received Over 7 47 months TOTAL
200

Percentage
64.5
12
23.5
100

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Table 4.5: Applicant’s Ratings of Services given by Registration Officers
Ratings
Excellent
Very Good
Good
Bad

Frequency
34
72
92
2

Percentage
17
36
46
1

TOTAL

200

100

7

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