Free Essay

Influence of Social Factors on the Course of Hiv/Aids

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By sabatav
Words 2138
Pages 9
Influence of Social Factors on the Course of HIV/AIDS

An estimated 34.2 million people are infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) worldwide (http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/statistics.html). Currently there is no cure for HIV or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS); however, a combination of medication and good mental health may treat the disease (http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/hivaids/understanding/treatment/pages/default.aspx; http://aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/staying-healthy-with-hiv-aids/taking-care-of-yourself/mental-health/). Most of the individuals who are infected with HIV/AIDS experience depression and an increase in life stressors. However, positive social support and disclosure of HIV/AIDS status decreases stress, leading to better mental health (Hays, Turner, & Coates, 1992; Turner-Cobb et al., 2002). The major at-risk groups for HIV/AIDS are adolescents, gays, bisexuals, injected drug users, and minority women (Taylor & Sirois, 2011). In this paper, the influence of social factors on the course of HIV/AIDS is investigated. It is hypothesized that the influence of social support, such as emotional (receiving emotional comfort), informational (receiving information or advice on personal issues), and practical (counting on others for help) on mental health will mitigate the course and experience of HIV. Five empirical studies are explored in an attempt to demonstrate and support the hypothesis.
In a research article by Hay, Turner and Coates (1992), the relationship between three types of social support (emotional, practical, and informational), and depression was investigated using a cross-sectional study over a one-year period. It was hypothesized that social support satisfaction decreases depression. The sample consisted of 508 single bisexual and homosexual men, with a mean age of 40 years living in San Francisco. The participants were selected by multistage probability sampling, from 19 census tracts, with the highest accumulative incidence of AIDS in San Francisco. The results of this study supported the hypothesis that social support satisfaction was negatively correlated with depression over a one-year period. The results also indicated that there is a significant relationship between informational support and stress buffering. This may be due to the sharing of experiences that is associated with psychological well-being. For instance, informational support may be successful in buffering stress on an account of removing the patient’s feeling of loneliness. In addition it helps to reassure the patients of their current situation and help them develop effective coping strategies (Hay, Turner, &Coates, 1992). The strength of this study was its promotion of the importance of psychological health for HIV-infected individuals. On the contrary, one limitation of the study was its cross-sectional design; in other words there was no causal interpretation, resulting in the studies low internal validity. Another limitation was the sample used in the study. The majority of the sample consisted of Caucasian, college graduated, middle class homosexual and bisexual men. This sample does not represent the general population (Taylor & Sirois, 2011), thus resulting in its low external validity. Moreover, the study did not take into account the various sources of support; therefore, no relationship can be drawn regarding the effects between social support and the provider of support. For example, all variables being consistent, a sexual partner’s support may have more influence on the patient’s mental health than a relative’s support. In addition, confounding variables, such as social skills, and personality traits may have been a contributing factor to the relationship between social support and depression (Hay, Turner, &Coates, 1992).
Research conducted by Pakenham and Rinaldis (2001) also focused on social support and its effect on HIV/AIDS. A sample of 114 Australian homosexual and bisexual men with a mean age of 36 years participated in this study. These participants were self-selected from newspaper and newsletter advertisements in AIDS agencies. The results of this study indicated that there is a positive relationship between social support and social adjustment. Moreover, unlike Hay, Turner and Coast’s (1992) findings, Pakenham and Rinaldis’ (2001) found a significant relationship between emotional support (such as self-disclosure, intimacy, etc.) and coping with HIV/AIDS. The result confirms the hypothesis that those with high amount of social support experience less stress during the course of HIV/AIDS. A limitation to this study is its convenient sample. Due to these volunteers not being randomly assigned, their interest to participate in this study maybe a confounding factor. For instance, their personality may have been more extroverted, resulting in their rate of disclosure. Nonetheless, this study’s good sample representation increased the study’s external validity; since eighty-five percent of those who are infected with HIV/AIDS living in Australia are gay and bisexual men. Furthermore, the study’s use of multiple methods, and multidimensional manures of adjustment, resulted in an increase in the reliability of the study (Pakenham, & Rinaldis, 2001).
Using a multiple regression analysis method, Turner-Cobb et al. (2002) investigated the relationship between social support and the patient’s ability to cope with HIV/AIDS. It was predicted that social support would be linked to less mood disturbance. The sample consisted of 78 heterosexual males, and 59 heterosexual females with a mean age of 41 years, living in California. HIV positive patients with mental illnesses were excluded form the study. The results indicated that an increase in social support during a chronic illness decreases mood disturbance. Moreover, HIV/AIDS patients who had a large positive social network displayed a decrease in mortality compared to those who did not. Furthermore, the researchers claimed that social support enhances positive mood, resulting in the patient’s better ability to cope with the disease. However, negative support such as abuse and stigma had a strong positive correlation with HIV-related risk behaviour, such as injected drug use and risky sexual behaviour. One limitation of the study is its low internal validity. Due to the research being a cross-sectional study, there were no causal influences. Another limitation of this study is that it is not representative of the general HIV/AIDS population (Taylor & Sirois, 2011). This study consisted of only heterosexual male and female participants, and it excluded any participants with a mental illness; demonstrating the study’s lack of external validity. However, the inclusion of psychiatric patients who suffer from more psychological difficulties may have effected the internal validity of the study. Some of the strengths of this study include its strong evidence of the link between social support satisfaction and positive state of mind, and the selection of randomly assigned participants (Turner-Cobb et al., 2002).
In the next study the topic of stressful events in relation to early HIV progression is addressed by Evans et al. (1997). It was predicted that an increase in stressful life events would result in an increase in the risk of HIV disease progression. The results support the hypothesis that an increase in stressful life events increases the risk of HIV progression. A longitudinal study of 93 homosexual men with a mean age of 35 years, from urban and rural areas of Florida was conducted; through states’ health departments, advertisement in gay communities, and word of the mouth. A limitation to the study was its lack of external validity. The study contained a small sample size and was not representative of the population (Evans et al., 1997). For example, the sample excluded anyone who was younger than 18 and older than 51, had less than 10 years of education, and a history of drugs and/or mental illness. Another limitation was its shortage of causal inferences, due to its cross-sectional design. However, some of the strengths of this research include its longitudinal study, increasing its reliability. In addition, participants who had physical health problems, and were taking medication in relation to their immune system were excluded form the study; which increased the study’s reliability.
Finally, the topic of disclosure in regard to the patient’s mental health was addressed by Strachan, Bennett, Russo, and Roy-Byrne (2007). The sample consisted of 373 low-income psychiatric outpatients living is Seattle; the majority of which were single, Caucasian, homosexual and bisexual men. Participants were collected from an existing publicly funded program for low-income individuals who were affected by HIV/AIDS. The results indicated a significant positive relationship between the patient’s psychological distress and their CD4 cell counts (Starchan, Bennett, Russo, & Roy-Byrne, 2007). This finding is consistent with Evans’ et al. (1997) conclusion, that an increase in stressful experiences increases the risk of HIV progression. One limitation to this study is its lack of external validity; due to it being unrepresentative of the HIV/AIDS population, since it only consisted of low-income psychiatric patients, and its failure to mention the age range of participants (Taylor & Sirois, 2011). Another limitation to this study is that there was no causal influence, because of the study’s cross-sectional design. Additionally, confounding variables such as poverty and psychiatric problems may have played a role in the patient’s psychological distress. Also, the study failed to elaborate on different types of social support, as not all types of social support are positive. For instance, negative social support lead to stigma and discrimination, resulting in an increase in life stressors (Turner-Cobb et al., 2002). However, because this sample displayed a different population with a large sample size, using a mixed-effects random regression model it can be concluded that this study had a strong reliability (for this population).
Taken together, the results of the above studies indicate that positive social support helps buffer stress and depression, which in turn results in an increase in C4 cell counts, decelerating the progression of HIV disease (Evans et al., 1997; Hay, Turner, & Coates, 1992; Pakenham, & Rinaldis, 2001; Strachan, Bennett, Russo, & Roy-Byrne, 2007; Turner-Cobb et al., 2002). Additionally, there was a negative correlation between social support and risky behaviour, such as IV drug use, and risky sexual behaviour (Turner-Cobb et al., 2002). Although these five empirical studies generally had a good sample size, the studies would have had a stronger external validity if it had included adolescent and children infected with HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, more in depth interviews regarding the patient’s type of relationship with their support provider network should be addressed. For instance, the influence on a patient’s mental health may vary depending on, if the support comes from a relative or a sexual partner. Additionally, the factors that influence social support, and the best way to provide support could be addressed as well. These factors can aid future interventions for HIV/AIDS patients.
Nonetheless, it can be assumed from these five studies that those who disclose their HIV/AIDS status to their social network and receive positive support in return, have enhanced mental health, compared to those who do not; therefore they have a higher chance of surviving the disease due to the increase in CD4 cell counts (Evans et al., 1997; Hay, Turner, & Coates, 1992; Pakenham, & Rinaldis, 2001; Strachan, Bennett, Russo, & Roy-Byrne, 2007; Turner-Cobb et al., 2002).

References
AIDS.gov. (2012). HIV and mental health. Retrieved from: http://aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/staying-healthy-with-hiv-aids/taking-care-of-yourself/mental-health/
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). What about HIV around the world. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/statistics.html
Evans, D.L., Leserman, J., Perkins, D.O., Stern, R.A., Murphy, M., Zheng, B., . . . Petitto, J.M. (1997). Severe life stress as a predictor of early disease progression in HIV infection. Am J Psychiatry, 154(5), 630-634. Retrieved from http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/data/journals/ajp/3676/630.pdf
Hays, R.B., Turner, H., & Coates, T. J. (1992). Social support, AIDS-related symptoms, and depression among gay men. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(3), 463-469. dio:10.1037/0022-006X.60.3.463
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (2012). Treatment of HIV. Retrieved form: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/hivaids/understanding/treatment/pages/default.aspx
Pakenham, K.I., & Rinaldis, M. (2001). The role of illness, resources, appraisal, and coping strategies in adjustment to HIV/AIDS: The direct and buffering effects. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 24(3), 259-279.dio: 10.1023/A:1010718823753
Strachan, E.D., Bennett, W. R. M., Russo, J., & Roy-Byrne, P.P. (2007). Disclosure of HIV status and sexual orientation independently predicts increased absolute CD4 cell counts over time for psychiatric patients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69(1),74-80. dio: 10.1097/01.psy.0000249900.34885.46
Taylor, S. E., & Sirois, F. (2012). Health Psychology (Second Canadian Edition). Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
Turner-Cobb, J.M., Gore-Felton, C., Marouf, F., Koopman, C.,Kim, P., Israelski, D., & Spiegel,
D. (2002). Coping, social support, and attachment style as psychosocial correlates of adjustment in men and women with HIV/AIDS. Journal of Behavioural Medicine 24(4),
337-353. dio:10.1023/A:1015814431481

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Hiv/Aids

...The set of essays I read focused on three major aspects of HIV/AIDS social work: general group and individual therapy for HIV positive homosexuals, rehab for HIV positive people with substance abuse issues, and research and therapy for infants and children born and tested positive for AIDS virus. Each essay focused on what each social workers day was like on the job and what their cases entailed daily. In the first essay, the social worker is an HIV positive gay man who had lost his own partner to the AIDS virus. He continues to counsel other gay men in the same positions of dealing with the loss of loved ones and partners to the virus (Shernoff p.73-79). The second essay is about a rehabilitation clinic that houses HIV positive clients also dealing with substance abuse (Lorber p.81-87). The third focused on counseling children and babies that acquired the AIDS virus at birth because either of their parents were infected and had passed it on to them (Haggerty p.89-93). HIV/AIDS is a very taboo topic in our society. Usually it is stereotyped around only affecting gay men and women. I was motivated when reading these essays and seeing how there was no judgment passed and no discrimination. These social workers do an amazing job with helping clients understand and interpret technical medical diagnosis and offering emotional support for each client differently. I felt that the first essay hit me the most because after all he has faced, he continues to help others deal with......

Words: 768 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Hiv and Aids

...HIV and AIDS * Presenter: MAHMOOD AHMED | | Learning Objectives: * Origin of HIV * Lifecycle of HIV-1. * CD4 cell and host defense system. * Natural history of HIV-1 disease. * Immune responses to HIV-1 and mechanisms of immune evasion by HIV. * Drugs * Nursing care Origins of HIV * HIV similar to virus found in monkeys and apes called SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus). * To identify ancestry of HIV scientists have sequenced various HIV strains and compared them to various SIV strains. * HIV-1 is most similar to an SIV found in chimps and HIV-2 is most similar to an SIV found in a monkey called the sooty mangabey. * HIV-1 occurs in three different subgroups (called M,N and O) and each appears closely related to a different chimpanzee SIV strain. * Thus, it appears that HIV-1 jumped to humans from chimps on at least 3 occasions. * Most likely the virus was acquired through killing and butchering chimps and monkeys in the “bushmeat” trade. When did HIV move to humans? * Sequence data from several group M strains has been used estimate when HIV moved from chimps to humans. * Korber et al. (2000) analyzed nucleotide sequence data for 159 samples of HIV-1 strain M. Constructed a phylogenetic tree showing relatedness to a common ancestor of the 159 samples. * Extrapolating based on rates of change of different strains suggests that subgroup M probably infected humans in the early 1930’s. |......

Words: 2814 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Social-Cultural and Economic Factors Affecting the Vulnerability of Women to Hiv/Aids

...KENYA METHODIST UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND MEDICAL EDUCATION COURSE: BSC. HEALTH SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT UNIT: HCSI 225-HIV/AIDS * Cultural, social and economic factors that increase women’s vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Introduction Women, especially in sub-Saharan Africa not only have the highest HIV-prevalence rates, compared to men, but also are greatly affected by the social and economic constraints that prevent them from evading high risk situations. Context-specific factors associated with women’s vulnerability to HIV infection include: Cultural Norms Cultural norms often place a high value on motherhood; attach a negative stigma to HIV-infected women, and view women and girls as primary caregivers. This places a significant burden on them. Other cultural practices such as widow inheritance and female genital mutilation (FGM) also increase women’s risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. Polygamy and early marriages are also very prevalent cultural practices in some societies in the world and most especially in Africa. These setups in most cases disadvantage the women and put them at greater risk of contracting the virus and disease. Poverty Poverty sometimes prompts women to engage in risky behavior, such as exchanging sex for gifts, money or food. As a result, women are more vulnerable to contracting the virus because they are unable to negotiate safe sex. This behavior is commonly seen among transport routes as well as refugee camps,......

Words: 1752 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Hiv/Aids

...HIV/AIDS AWARENESS Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) brings a lot of cruel thoughts to an individual’s mind because of the amount of misconceptions about this disease. An example of this would be that there are a lot of people that will say you shouldn’t share a drink with someone who has HIV or AIDS because of the risk of contracting the virus, which is untrue. A person will not contract the virus from sharing a drink, or utensil or even from kissing. Another common misconception is that sharing a razor can also transmit HIV or AIDS. For hygienic purposes sharing a razor is not a good idea in the first place but you cannot contract HIV from doing so. With this being said there are facts about contracting this disease that is detrimental for individuals to know, such as this virus is mainly spread through sexual intercourse, whether it is oral, anal, or even vaginal. The HIV can also can be transmitted through the sharing of needles, as well as breast feeding. Misconceptions as the ones earlier described are becoming fewer in today’s society, but there still continue to be a a lack of knowledge about this disease pertaining to certain topics like; The history of HIV and AIDS, the signs and symptoms, the shocking statistics, how it is handled and effecting people in other countries and the treatments that are used. The documented history on AIDS started only 33 years ago and since the first diagnosed case in 1981......

Words: 2442 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Hiv and Aids

...HIV/AIDS INTRODUCTION At the beginning of the 20th Century it was believed by many, including the United States Patent Office, that there was nothing else to invent. Now, 100 years later at the beginning of the new millenium the ancient Egyptian philosopher is more relevant, "there is nothing new under the Sun". While HIV/AIDS may be a new disease, there is nothing new about a novel epidemic, which can potentially or actually decimate a population. In the late middle ages, the Black, now known as the Bubonic Plague, swept through Europe killing virtually half the population. It was introduced by a single or small group of rats that came to Italy abroad a trading ship from what is now Turkey. Small Pox transmitted by trade goods from the Hudson Bay Company wiped out entire Native American tribes. There are other examples of diseases accidentally introduced to a population that had no genetic immunity to them. Not to mention NASA's fear of an unbeatable super virus from outer space. Now as in previous diseases, one of the dangers of HIV/AIDS is not only in its plague proportions but also in the almost superstitious misunderstanding of the virus itself. In the treatment of all illness, it is necessary to understand the emotional, economic, psychological and sometimes even political impact that is brought about by the disease. This is particularly true with a disease that is as devastating and heretofore misunderstood as HIV/AIDS. AIDS is the punishment of God on sinners....

Words: 3533 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

The Role of Social Support in Coping with Hiv/Aids

...The Role of Social Support in Coping with HIV/AIDS The topic of HIV/AIDS is particularly relevant in a South African context due to the rate of infection in this country, as well as the government’s stance on HIV/AIDS policy. South has Africa has the highest rate of HIV infection in the world. The Mbeki regime’s policy has only recently been changed to increase the availability of antiretrovirals to those infected. While these antiretrovirals may be used to treat the virus itself, they are ineffective in dealing with the stressors associated with the virus. Indeed, it can be argued that environmental factors, specifically social support, have the greatest positive influence in this regard. This essay will consider whether this is the case by examining the role of social support in dealing with the HIV/AIDS diagnosis, related health decline and infections and the prejudice and stigma attached to said diagnosis. In order to do this, one must first examine the definition of social support. Thoits (1995) as cited in Mizuno, Purcell, Dawson-Rose, Parsons & The Sudis Team (2003 p.690) defines social support as “instrumental, emotional or informational assistance from significant others” and goes on to find social support “one of the major coping resources for people experiencing stressful life events or chronic strains.” “Significant others” is generally understood to mean partners, friends and family, but could also refer to traditional caregivers in a hospital environment.......

Words: 1218 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Hiv/Aids

...woman can become infected if she has unprotected penetrative sex vaginal or anal, with a man who has HIV. A woman having vaginal sex with a man who has HIV is 2-3 times more likely to become infected than a man would be if he had vaginal sex with an infected woman (HIV and AIDS). AIDS is also spread though sharing contaminated needles for IV drug use, transfusions of blood or blood products from a person with AIDS and children born to an infected mother. Many women in the U.S. have poor access to health care. In addition, women may not perceive themselves to be at risk for HIV infection. Because of this, symptoms that serve as a warning sign of HIV infection may go unheeded (Women and AIDS). Early diagnosis of HIV infection allows women to take full advantage of drug therapies for opportunistic infections, which can forestall the development of AIDS related symptoms and prolong life in HIV-infected people. (Women and AIDS) There are different theories as to the origin of AIDS. AIDS was identified as a new disease in 1981 (Sowadsky). HIV is believed to have originated in Africa sometime between the late 1940s and the early 1950s from the monkey AIDS virus SIV, (Simian Immudificiency virus) (Sowadsky). The two viruses are very similar and are transmitted the same way. However HIV only causes AIDS in humans, and SIV only causes AIDS in monkeys. The SIV virus is found in blood. HIV must have entered humans via monkey blood. This could’ve happened by humans drinking monkey......

Words: 566 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Hiv/Aids

...INTRODUCTION Psychosocial is a result of psychology and sociology Psychosocial development is how a person’s mind, emotions, and maturity level develop throughout the course of their lifetime. Different people will develop psychosocially at different speeds depending on the biological processes and environmental interactions. People living with HIVAIDS have specific psycho social issues they deal with. It is important to understand that the mind and the emotions have impact on their immune system and quality of life. Psychosocial support is an intervention that enhances the wellbeing of a person affected by life threatening events. Being healthy in this context is much more than the mere absence of disease or infirmity. A healthy person is the one who; * is socially integrated and accepted, has friends and a social network, and has a recognised and acceptable social status in the community * is socially competent; which means that he/she is able to cooperate with others and can also deal with pain, tension and conflicts * Can express feelings, has good self esteem and is confident, can manage stress and is able to make decisions. HIV disease is among the most devastating of illnesses, having multiple and profound effects upon all aspects of the bio-psychosocial and spiritual being. HIV as an illness affects the person first and foremost at the biological level in the form of an aggressive virus that compromises immunity. Every illness experience represents a......

Words: 1898 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Disparity of Healthcare for Aids/Hiv Patients

...Healthcare for AIDS/HIV Patients | Lana Iris English 12312/15/14 | Disparity of Healthcare with Patients with AIDS/HIV For the last thirty years AIDS/HIV has been a controversial topic, but more recently, the disease itself has not been controversial but the disparity in receiving proper care both in prevention modalities and active treatment for the disease. While the Obama administration has taken steps toward the elimination of these disparities through the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and Implementation Plan, there is still much work to be done. This brief highlights underexplored explanations for these disparities and outlines possible solutions to begin addressing them. Oftentimes, popular culture has offered unfortunately erroneous explanations for the stark racial disparate impact of HIV/ AIDS. The mass media, for example, has suggested that black men “on the down low” infect black women by secretly sleeping with male partners, acting as a bisexual “bridge” between gay and straight communities. But public health scholars have found little support for this theory. Many may assume that black people suffer from greater HIV prevalence because they are considered less sexually responsible than whites. Yet several studies have shown that black women and black men who have sex with men—the two groups most severely impacted by HIV/AIDS—have similar numbers of sexual partners and use condoms as often as their white counterparts. Thus, behavioral risk factors, while......

Words: 5868 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Hiv/Aids and Culture

...HIV/AIDS is a devastating disease that has killed thousands of people all over the world. It is one of the most widespread and devastating epidemics we are currently dealing with. Many factors about this virus contribute to making it spread faster, become deadlier, and leaves no one unaffected. HIV/AIDS reaches the young and the old, the rich and the poor, and those in developed and undeveloped countries. Education about the virus and how it is approached to different people also affects how it is spread, several cultural factors come into play as to how effective it is in preventing future contraction of the virus. The cultural perceptions of the virus also affect how the virus is researched and how medicines are developed for it. Religion also plays a role in how the virus is spread and can have an impact on how those who are researching the disease research it. The spread of HIV/AIDS is affected by several factors the main ones being the approach of education taken, cultural perceptions of the disease, and religion. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was first recognized as a disease in 1981 (Kshatriya, 2005, pg. 69). Before 1981 it was found in the Caribbean and in African countries but it wasn’t until those first cases in the United States were diagnosed that the disease was officially recognized. HIV/AIDS exploded in America in the early 80’s, and initially they thought that AIDS was a “gay disease” and called it GRID standing for “gay related immune disease”......

Words: 5319 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Hiv and Aids

...TABLE OF CONTENT PART 1 1. INTRODUCTION 2. HIV/AIDS age breakdown – South Africa (1998-2000) 3. Division of two organizations (education and mining sector) 4.1. Education sector 4.2. Mining sector 4.3. Gender breakdown 4.4. Provincial break down 4. Life expectancy 5.5. The potential impact on the demographic profile of the work in education 5.6. How HIV/AIDS affect the work in education 5.7. How HIV/AIDS influence my school as an organization 5.8. Should my school or my organization start to replace labour with technology: 5.9. To whom the department of education supply learners 5.10. What impact will HIV/AIDS have on educational labour bill 5.11. My organization start to employ people from abroad 5. Stigmatization 6. AIDS impact model (Aim) 7.12. Definition 7.13. Recruitments costs 7.14. Training costs 7.15. Health care 7.16. Formulating a sound HIV/AIDS policy 7.17. Establishing HIV/AIDS prevention support 7.18. Condom distribution 7.19. Provision sexual transmitted disease and other care 7.20. Counseling care and support for employees with HIV/AIDS 7.21. Education programme 7.22. Monitoring and evaluation PART 2 1.1. Introduction 1.2. HIV/AIDS awareness programs (step 1) 1.3. Voluntary testing (step 2) 1.4. Disclosing information 1.5. Outline the relationship...

Words: 6278 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Hiv and Aids

...What factors (determinants) may be contributing to or causing the problem? A socio-ecological assessment is critical in an intervention aimed at such an immense problem. In HIV/AIDS, many different factors at many levels form the context, interact, and come into play. Individual factors: Individual factors that contribute to HIV/AIDS include having multiple sexual partners, sexually transmitted diseases, not using a condom and not circumcising males (Auvert et al, 2001). Individual behaviour is largely determined by the social environment, such as community norms and values, regulations, and policies. Societal factor: Systemic discrimination. Stigma and discrimination also influence the spread of HIV/AIDS. Stigma creates barriers to the uptake of interventions to prevent HIV infection, treat it and give support to people living with the disease (Klein, Karchner & O'Connel, 2002; Hamra, Ross, Orrs & D’Agosrino, 2006, Parker & Aggleton, 2003). Issues such as promiscuity, homosexuality and blame tend to prevent people from disclosing their HIV status and seeking care. Prejudice against people with HIV/AIDS may mean people are denied their right to care. Interventions aimed at HIV/AIDS need to consider where there may be prejudice and how stigma-related factors interact at various levels. Socioeconomic and political factors: Inequities. HIV/AIDS is increasingly concentrated in the poorest and most marginalized societies (Kumaranayake & Watts, 1999; Buve, Kalibala & McIntyre...

Words: 651 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Role of Social Support in Coping with Hiv/Aids

...Social Anthropology Observations Chesney Ward- Smith Site D, Leslie Social Basic setting from the top stairs looking down- to my direct left there is a large tree as well as a parking lot which is semi- full. Further down on my left is a large concrete, grey building known as the Geographical Sciences building. It has about ten stories. This building is covered with ivy which has variants of greens, browns and reds in contrast with the grey concrete. In front of me are also four different coloured bins for recycling. They are red, blue, green and yellow. To my right is another concrete building, known as the Leslie Social building. It has five stories. There are glass doors which make it accessible from the side. To my immediate right, there is a small, round, little hut which is a cafe known as Bananazen. On the outside of it there are various pictures of fresh fruit. There are also many green, six- seater tables outside of the cafe which are covered by large white umbrellas. Looking straight ahead and down there are multiple levels of grey concrete stairs leading down to the avenue. There are also more tables. Overhead there are many concrete beams connecting the two buildings. They are literally joined together. These are very angular and run diagonally across the buildings. Observing with all my senses in detail Sight- This is a place of passing by and much human traffic in between lectures. During these times there are lines of people walking hurriedly to and......

Words: 1304 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Hiv/Aids

...HIV/AIDS Kristen McReynolds, Jovanna Guerrero-Cortes, Teresa Risien BSHS/302 April 30, 2012 Maxine Proctor University of Phoenix HIV and AIDS is a very vulnerable population that affects the global community on several aspects. HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV is not like most viruses whereas most viruses your immune system will fight the virus and get rid of it, the immune system simply cannot fight the HIV virus. HIV attacks several parts of the immune system and when it attacks too many cells the body cannot fight the infection anymore leading to the virus known as AIDS. AIDS stands for Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome. It is the final stage of the HIV infection and requires in depth medical treatment to prevent death from occurring in people who have the virus. Here we will discuss how the HIV and AIDS population affects the global community as a whole. The nature of the population is a key element that helps us to fully understand how the community is affected, as well as geographical statistics, who is affected by HIV/AIDS, and the impact the virus has on the population. As a community we must focus on Social issues, as well as some human service Macro intervention strategies. Geographic evidence shows that poor urban areas are more particularly affected by HIV and AIDS. Nowhere is this more evident than in Washington D.C. where the AIDS epidemic has been described as “the most complete example of a domestic urban......

Words: 1688 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Hiv/Aids in the Deep South

...HIV/AIDS in the Deep South Melony C. Haynes Baptist College of Health Sciences Abstract This paper examined HIV/AIDS in the Southern Region specifically the Deep South. Fundamental Causes and Proximate Factors were examined to explain and understand the high cases of HIV/AIDS in the Deep South. Poverty, lack of access to health care, lack of education, and prison policies were the reasons examined to explain the high cases of HIV/AIDS in the south. Populations at higher risk and why they are at higher risk were examined. These populations were: drug users, prisoners, African Americans, and women who experience domestic violence. HIV/AIDS in the Deep South HIV/AIDS at one time was considered a death sentence. There was not much information about the disease, much less a cure for the disease. However, there have been many strides made over the years. More money, time, and resources have been provided for the research of the virus. The research has identified how the virus is contracted and spread, as well as how it affects an individual’s body. The research also identified prevention methods and the medication that can be taken to treat the disease. Since the first cases of the disease in the late seventies to current day, the life expectancies of individuals are improving. For example Irvin “Magic” Johnson a famous ex-basketball player announced twenty years ago he was HIV positive. Very few people expected him to live this long because at that time......

Words: 2151 - Pages: 9