Free Essay

Influence of Zoroastrianism on Some Important Beliefs of Judaism and Christianity

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By lgreen49
Words 1873
Pages 8
Influence of Zoroastrianism on Some Important Beliefs of Judaism and Christianity

In order to have a greater understanding of current religions, it is necessary to have an understanding of past religions, even those of ancient times. From as early as 4000 BCE when mythical
Egyptian gods were recorded, to the writings of the New Testament in the last half of the first century
AD, to rejection of several teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic Church by Martin Luther, older religious beliefs have influenced those that followed. Over time, whether from divine revelation or self-proclamation, humans came to new understandings or found disagreement with established religions or belief systems. One lesser known religion that has had major influence on modern Judaism and Christianity is Zoroastrianism. Zoroastrianism is credited by many researchers and scholars as the first religion to present the concepts of monotheism (one supreme god), dualism (the concepts of good and evil), the apocalypse when good triumphs over evil (Satan), and the conscious choice of good over evil in order to be admitted to heaven as opposed to being banished to hell.

As with most religions, Zoroastrianism has a founder, Zarathustra (from the Greek), also known as Zoroaster. Mary Boyce in her work, Zorastrians, Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, says
Zoroaster lived in the area of ancient Persia (which includes today's Iran), some time between 1700 and
1500 BCE, but other sources date is life as late as the 6th century BCE. According to Richard Foltz in his work, Spirituallity in the Land of the Noble, the oldest evidence of him can be found in portions of the Avesta (scriptures) known as the “Gathas”, poems or verses which are believed to be the preserved words of Zoroaster himself. There is general agreement that priests compiled the Zoroastrian religious books between 224 and 651 CE. Also around 224 CE, Ardashir I, of the Sasanian dynasty, defeated the
Parthians becoming the ruler of Persia. During the reign of one Sasanian ruler, Shapur I,
Zoroastrianism was made the state religion. After the Muslim invasion of 637 CE, however,
Zoroastrianism virtually disappeared. Some Zoroastrian followers fled the country, many settling in

India, where there is now the largest Zoroastrian community in the world. There are still about 30,000 who practice Zoroastrianism in Iran today.
Religious practices in Persia before Zoroaster, were similar to Hindhu beliefs reflected in the
Vedas, including worship of “deavas” representing the powers and forces of nature – sun, moon, stars, earth, water fire and winds. It is from this religious base that Zoroaster takes exception when, according to Boyce, a revelation finally came to him leading him to the presence of Ahura Mazda.
After Zoroaster's encounter with Ahura Mazda, he made a startling departure from accepted beliefs by proclaiming Ahura Mazda to be the one uncreated God, existing eternally, and creator of all else that is good. Foltz states that the Avesta identifies Ahura Mazda is elevated above all other deities.
He is “the decisive Lord”, whose judgments are binding upon gods and humans alike. Daevas and men are to be mindful that he (not other gods) is the force which will hold them accountable for their oaths and covenants.

This concept of monotheism later appears with the advent of Judaism, which, as recorded in the
Old Testament, considers Yahweh as creator of the universe, Lord of all the world, creating evil as well as good. "Yahweh, He is God in heaven above and on the earth below; there is no other" (Deuteronomy
4:39) and "Yahweh is God; there is no one else" (1 Kings 8:60). Most scholars agree that Zoroaster's concept of monotheism had a definite impact on the Jewish definition of Yahweh. From an historical perspective, Jews and other exiles had been driven from their homeland and were under Babylonian control until the Persian King, Cyrus, defeated the Babylonians in 539 BCE. Cyrus freed the Jews and encouraged them to return home to rebuild their places of worship. From the exile until the destruction of the second temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE, the Jewish religion developed several teachings not found in earlier texts including the establishment of Yahweh as the one Lord of the World.
Christianity, an even later developing religion, also includes monotheism, the belief in the one
God the father, creator of the universe, reigning forever over man, as in several New Testament passages: "there is no God but one" (1 Corinthians 8:4) and "Now to the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only God" (1 Timothy 1:17). Although there is some thought that the trinity (Father, Son and Holy Spirit) is a more complex form of monotheism, there is general agreement that the one true
God has a multiple personhood, as illustrated in new New Testament passages such as John 10:30, where Jesus says, "I and the Father are one."

A second major departure from the teachings of the Vedas was Zoroaster's teaching of dualism.
The ancient Hindhu belief system was characterized by the law of cause and effect, following the path of righteousness and the desire for liberation from the cycle of births and deaths. Zoroaster, however, posited that the one god, Ahura Mazda, represented “good” and was opposed by Angra Mainyu representing “bad”. According to Boyce, harsh experience had convinced the prophet that wisdom, justice and goodness were utterly separate by nature from wickedness and cruelty and that Ahura
Mazda and Angra Mainyu are two in thought, word and act, the good and the bad. The majority of scholars agree that Jews borrowed and completed their own doctrine of personified evil or Satan from
Zoroastrianism. Thus in Judaism, Yahweh represented the good and Satan, the bad. In Christianity too, the concept of dualism is the ruling belief. The good and evil concept appears in later Christian beliefs with the one God representing the good and the fallen angel (the devil/Satan) who rebelled against
God, representing the bad.

Boyce explains that Zoroaster was the first to teach the doctrines of an individual judgment,
Heaven and Hell, the future resurrection of the body, the general Last Judgment, and life everlasting for the reunited soul and body. Zoroaster taught that when the world was created it was wholly good.
According to Zoroastrian myths, Angra Mainyu attacked the world and blighted all the good creation.
Ahura Mazda and the other divine beings rallied their forces to turn the malicious acts to benefit. Thus, after Angra Mainyu's first attack the world was no longer wholly good, but a blend of good and evil.
Angra Mainyu continued to attack, but, according to Zoroaster's new revelation, mankind shared the common purpose of gradually overcoming evil and restoring the world to its original perfect state. The glorious moment when this will be achieved is called 'Frashokereti'. When Frahokeriti occurs, history would cease and evil would then be utterly destroyed. Ahura Mazda and men and women will then live together forever in perfect untroubled goodness and peace. Ahura Mazda will then offer up the last sacrifice (after which death will be no more), and will confer immortality on the resurrected bodies of all the blessed.

Zoroaster's teaching of the beginning and end to human history is a profound break with earlier ideas which posited that the process of life, once started, was expected to continue forever if men and gods both did their part. Thus, the earlier concept of time as a never-ending circle was changed by
Zoroaster to the concept of time as linear, with a beginning and end. In both Judaism and Christianity, the end times (apocalypse) is a belief held today. Zoroaster also taught that there would be a messiah or savior figure, Saoshyant (“one who will bring benefit”), who would bring about the final renovation of the world, a concept that parallels with the messiah/savior figures in Judaism and Christianity. In
Judaism, one day the Messiah will appear on earth and there will be a day of judgment, the dead shall be called to life everlasting; the universe is not eternal, but was created by and will be destroyed by
God. In Christianity, there is a belief in the end of times where awaits the Last Judgment when the dead shall rise again, and the redeemed will enjoy life everlasting. Jesus also taught about the final judgment after resurrection and consignment of those found worthy into eternal heaven and delivery into an internal hell for those found unfit for heaven.

Related to the end times (apocalypse), is Zoroaster's perception that man must choose good over evil to be granted immortality by Ahura Mazda. Foltz states that, Zoroaster's concept of Ahura Mazda was not only as the Creator force, but he also attributed a purposefulness to Creation not present in earlier religious thought. Zoroaster's ethics emphasized human choice. Both good (asha) and bad (drug) existed in the world and it was up to the individual to take a position and actively embrace one or the other. Boyce states that Zoroaster seems to have been the first to articulate fully the notion of judgment upon death, where each person's good deeds would be weighed against their evil ones, following which the good people would ascend to the heaven presided over by Ahura Mazda and evil-doers would descend to a hell of suffering ruled by Angra Mainyu. Boyce states that this judgment, according to myth, occurred at Mount Hara on the fourth day after death. The deceased would cross a bridge. For the good, the bridge would grow wide and easy to cross, whereas for the evil it would become as narrow as a blade. The good would be met by a beautiful female spirit, Daena, who would accompany them to heaven. Wrongdoers would find a horrible, smelly hag, who would force them to plunge over the edge into the gaping mouth of hell. This concept of choice of good over evil appears in Judaism where, upon death, the soul goes to heaven (or to hell first if it has been sinful), and that one day the
Messiah will appear on earth and there will be a day of judgment, and the dead shall be called to life everlasting. In Christianity, upon death and according to its earthly deeds and its acceptance of the
Christian Faith, the soul enters heaven, purgatory (in some Christian sects) or hell. There it awaits the
Last Judgment when the dead shall rise again, the redeemed to enjoy life everlasting and the unsaved to suffer eternally. In both Judaism and Christianity, man must choose between good and evil (sin).
According to most scholars, this concept had its origin in Zoroaster's teachings.

What has been described here will no doubt seem familiar to many readers. The beliefs discussed appeared in Zoroastrianism first, and only later in other religions such as Judaism and
Christianity. The personification of an all-powerful creator god (Ahura Mazda) who is purely good, the personification of evil in the opposing being (Angra Mainyu), the judgment of the dead based on their choices while living, the expectation of a savior and a final cataclysmic battle in which good will ultimately triumph are all ideas that Judaism and Christianity acquired either directly or indirectly from
Zoroastrianism.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Zoroastrianism and Its Influences on the World

...Zoroastrianism and Its Influences on the World With a membership of about 200,000, the importance of Zoroastrianism is far greater than its numbers suggest. Closely related to Judaism, Christianity and Islam, its concepts of Satan, angelology, demonology, a deliverer, future life, paradise and judgment in these religions may have been directly or indirectly derived from Zoroastrianism. Founded by the Iranian prophet and reformer Zoroaster in the 6th century BC, Zoroastrianism contains both monotheistic and dualistic features. Its concepts of one God, judgment, heaven and hell likely influenced the major Western religions. History of Zoroastrianism The origins of the Zoroastrian religion are shrouded in mystery. The prophet Zarathustra, later referred to by the Greeks as Zoroaster, founded Zoroastrianism roughly between the 16th and 10th centuries BCE. Zoroaster's birth date is also uncertain and modern scholarship currently suggests he lived in northern or eastern Iran or nearby such as in Afghanistan or southern Russia. In Zoroaster’s thirties he had a revelation in which he saw an angel who told him that there is only one true god and that God’s name was Aura Mazda (Clark, 1998). It is certain that by the year 549 B.C.E., Zoroastrianism had become a major world religion. It was Cyrus the Great, first ruler of the Persian Empire, who ordained Zoroastrianism as the official religion of his state. It was this same Cyrus that liberated the Jews from the occupation......

Words: 3646 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Zoroastrianism

...Introduction Zoroastrianism, the ancient religion of Iran, was founded about 3500 years ago by the prophet Zarathushtra. He preached that Ahura Mazda, meaning “Wise Lord,” is the only omnipotent and omniscient God (Hay, 2007). Zarathushtra has been known in the West as Zoroaster, from the Greek transliteration of his name, thus the name Zoroastrianism. After the Arab’s invasion of Iran, the once popular religion was replaced by Islam and a handful follower of Zarathushtra fled from Iran to India to escape the persecution. They are known today in India as Parsis. Currently, there are approximately 250,000 people practicing Zoroastrianism, of which 80% live in India and the rest in various parts of the world including United States (Rivetna, 2002). Although Zoroastrianism lost its status as a popular world religion, its study and knowledge are very useful in our understanding of the development of religious thought in the ancient world and how some of its important beliefs and practices have parallels in other religions such as Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Hinduism. Keywords: Zoroastrianisn, Ahura Mazda, sadre, kusti Basic tenets of Zoroastrianism Jayaram (2000) discussed the Zoroastrian religion in his article “Main Beliefs of Zoroastrianism.” While Zoroastrians believe that Ahuramazda is the supreme, omniscient and omnipotent God (monotheism); they also believe in the existence of a number of divinities (polytheism) who represent His good qualities and who...

Words: 1456 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Religious Splits

...Religious Splits Christianity is the world religion with the greatest number of followers. The name Christian comes from the title given to Jesus of Nazareth – ‘the Christ’ which is a Greek word which means ‘Messiah’. Christianity began in Palestine in the 1st century CE as the claimed fulfillment of God’s promises to the Jews. There are many different types of Christianity practiced; the major division is between Western (itself divided into Roman Catholicism and Protestantism) and Orthodox Christianity. Christianity is a belief system that has had immense cultural and political consequences. Christianity comes from the life and teachings of Jesus (5BCE-30CE approximately), a Palestinian Jew. Worship is undertaken in buildings called churches. Entry in to the Christian Church is via Baptism and is usually undertaken when the person is a baby though denominations such as Baptists wait until the person is old enough to confirm personally their own Christian faith. In denominations where Baptism is the norm for babies, Confirmation is undertaken where the person personally affirms the vows undertaken for them when they were baptized as a baby. Christians believe worshipping in a group is important and this is usually called a service which takes place in a church on a Sunday (Christians believe that Jesus rose from the dead on a Sunday). Each denomination worships in a different way. Some may be only slight while others are more noticeable. The most important......

Words: 2821 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

The Secret Life of Satan

...Confucianism are nontheistic religions, that is, religions for which belief in God or gods is nonessential. While gods are not alien to either Taoism or Confucianism, belief in/of gods is not central to either tradition. What are a couple of other religions that can be called nontheistic religions? a) A few additional examples of some nontheistic religions are Agnosticism, Atheism, Buddhism, Secular Humanism and Scientology. 3. What is Paul Tillich's definition for religion, and why do Hopfe and Woodward consider its development too broad? a) Paul Tillich defines religion as, “that which is of ultimate concern”. Hopfe and Woodward consider the development of Tillich’s definition of religion too broad for a world religions course because a philosophical exploration of Tillich’s definition of religion, yields many an individuals personal belief of what is of ultimate concern hardly lending to the general understanding of popular or mainstream religions they hope to accomplish in this text. 4. Explain E. B. Tylor's theory concerning the origin and evolution of religion. What is animism, and to what, "ultimately" and "finally," did Tylor think it evolved? a) E.B. Tylor’s theory regarding the origin and evolution of religion is that primitive people developed a sense of other or soul from their experiences with death and dreams. Animism is the belief that nature, natural phenomena and the universe itself all possess some kind of soul. Tylor believes animism evolved into......

Words: 17463 - Pages: 70

Premium Essay

Religion in India

...Religion in India is characterized by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices. India is the birthplace of four of the world's major religions; namely Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. Throughout India's history, religion has been an important part of the country's culture. Religious diversity and religious tolerance are both established in the country by the law and custom. According to the 2001 census,[1] 80.5% of the population of India practice Hinduism. Islam (13.8%), Christianity (2.4%), Sikhism (1.9%), Buddhism (1.5%) and Jainism (0.4%) are the other major religions followed by the people of India. There are also numerous minor tribal traditions, though these have been affected by major religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity. The amount of diversity in the religious belief systems of India today, is a result of both the existence of many native religions and also, the assimilation and social integration of religions brought to the region by travellers, immigrants, traders, and even invaders and conquerors such as the Mughals. Zoroastrianism and Judaism also have an ancient history in India, and each has several thousands of Indian adherents. India has the largest population of people adhering to Zoroastrianism (i.e. Parsis and Iranis) and Bahá'í Faith in the world,[2][3] even though these religions are not native to India. Many other world religions also have a relationship with Indian spirituality, such as the Baha'i faith......

Words: 487 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Religion

...Chapter 8,9,& 10 1. Are Taoism and Confucianism truly religions argue both sides. Taoism and Confucianism are two very different religious traditions of ancient China. Both Taoism and Confucianism cannot clearly be explained as a religion with certain doctrines and rituals as other well –known religions. As religious and social forces, they have coexisted for centuries in China and have spread to other Asian regions. The name Taoism is taken from the title of the book called “Tao Te Ching, which translates to “the way of nature. Taoism is based on the ancient Chinese understanding of the universe. Historically, the origin of Taoist philosophy is unclear, but it is said that the founder of Taoism is Lao-tzu, who lived in the sixth century B.C.E. Taoism can be described in terms of its history and its effects on Chinese people, nut it cannot be clearly delineated as a religion with a certain body of doctrine and rituals of Chinese antiquity. Philosophically, for Taoism, the ideal life is one that is lived in harmony with the way of this shifting nature. By the early centuries of the Common Era, Taoism had been converted into a religion complete with gods, priests, temples and sacrifices. In the modern days, Taoism is mainly associated with charms, exorcisms and magical attempts to prolong life, in which there is a self-generating force called chi (rather than there being a Creator Deity). This force manifests two interplaying aspects: yin and yang. Yin is the dark...

Words: 3642 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Business

...A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems, and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.[note 1] Many religions have narratives, symbols, and sacred histories that aim to explain the meaning of life, the origin of life, or the Universe. From their beliefs about the cosmos and human nature, people may derive morality, ethics, religious laws or a preferred lifestyle. Many religions may have organized behaviors, clergy, a definition of what constitutes adherence or membership, holy places, and scriptures. The practice of a religion may include rituals, sermons, commemoration or veneration (of a deity, gods, or goddesses), sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trances, initiations, funerary services, matrimonial services, meditation, prayer, music, art, dance, public service, or other aspects of human culture. Religions may also contain mythology.[1] The word religion is sometimes used interchangeably with faith or set of duties;[2] however, in the words of Émile Durkheim, religion differs from private belief in that it is "something eminently social".[3] A global 2012 poll reports 59% of the world's population as "religious" and 36% as not religious, including 13% who are atheists, with a 9% decrease in religious belief from 2005.[4] On average, women are "more religious" than men.[5] Some people follow multiple religions or multiple religious principles at the same time, regardless of whether or not the religious principles they follow......

Words: 7947 - Pages: 32

Premium Essay

They Sold My Sister

...Unit 7 The Spread of Religions Section 1 Unit Materials Questions To Consider Question 1. How did Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam spread across the world, and why are they practiced so far from their origins? Question 2. How did these three major world religions change and adapt to diverse cultural circumstances? Question 3. Why did Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam emerge when and where they did? Question 4. How did Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam interact with, provide justification for, and conflict with various states and empires in Afro-Eurasia? The Big Picture How is this topic related to Increasing Integration? As Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam spread across the borders and frontiers of Afro-Eurasia, they integrated diverse peoples by means of a common religion. How is this topic related to Proliferating Difference? The spread of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam introduced new beliefs and practices to a wide variety of peoples. These beliefs and practices were often quite different from indigenous religions. In addition, indigenous beliefs and practices often changed the new religions as they adapted to local conditions. These changes frequently resulted in the development of different sects within the new religions. Unit Purpose ß Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam spread across borders and frontiers as a result of missionaries, pilgrims, and trade. Each of these three major world religions changed over time, and all served as elements of change in the......

Words: 2000 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Pestle Analysis

...area, the 2 most populous countries, and the most populous democracy in the world. The Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Bay of Bengal on the east, India has a coastline of 7,517 kilometres .It is bordered by Pakistan to the west, People's Republic of China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north, and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. India in the vicinity of Sri Lanka, Maldives, and Indonesia in the Indian Ocean. Home to the Indus Valley Civilisation and a region of historic trade area and vast empires, Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial & cultural wealth for much of its long history. Four major religions, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism originated country, while the Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam arrived in the first millennium of CE and shaped the region's diverse culture. The British East India Company from the early eighteenth century and colonised by the United Kingdom from the mid-19 century, India became an independent nation in 1947 after a struggle for independence that was marked by widespread non-violent resistance. India is a republic consisting of 28 states and 7 union territories with a parliamentary system of democracy. It has the world's 12th largest economy at market exchange rates and the fourth largest in purchasing power. Economic reforms since 1991 have transformed it into one of the fastest growing economies; however it still suffers from high levels of poverty, illiteracy, disease,...

Words: 2453 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Mgmt

...* Question 1 | |   | A _______ approach to the study of religion focuses on myths and doctrines.Answer | | | | | Selected Answer: |   theoretical | Response Feedback: | Good work | | | | | * Question 2 5 out of 5 points | |   | Interpretations which are hostile to the place/role of women are ________.Answer | | | | | Selected Answer: |   misogynist | Response Feedback: | Good work | | | | | * Question 3 5 out of 5 points | |   | _______ is referred to by such terms as God, Nirvana, Brahman, and so forth.Answer | | | | | Selected Answer: |   Unconditioned Reality | Response Feedback: | Good work | | | | | * Question 4 5 out of 5 points | |   | Interpretations which overly emphasize the role of men in religion are ________.Answer | | | | | Selected Answer: |   androcentric | Response Feedback: | Good work | | | | | * Question 5 5 out of 5 points | |   | A __________ approach to the study of religion focuses on acts of worship.Answer | | | | | Selected Answer: |   practical | Response Feedback: | Good work | | | | | * Question 6 5 out of 5 points | |   | ______ are sometimes viewed as attempting to invoke a sacred past by the performance of various specific acts.Answer | | | | | Selected Answer: |   Rituals | Response Feedback: | Good work | | | | | * Question 7 5 out of 5 points | |   | _______ is not easily defined and is......

Words: 6389 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Pestle

...Technological : 17 Legal : 18 Environmental : 19 6. Conclusion : 20 8. References : 21 Abstract In this term paper Pestle analysis of India. How Organization take the analysis for setup the offices or industry in India. In this analysis tell the environment of India. Factors of India. Government policy, literacy, privatisation, legal problem, technology use India, any many factors given below. Methodology For This term Paper I search articles on Websites, Journals, Newspaper, and Magazines. I study books for these topics. I also take help of faculty for preparing Term paper. I go thoroughly websites data. I also take help my friends and colgues. I study on proquest website article, journal. I read some other essays regarding this. India India, officially the Republic of India is a country in South Asia. It is the...

Words: 2856 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Globalization and Its Impact on Pakistan & Usa

...Project final MULTINATIONAL MANAGEMENT SUBMITTED TO: SIR FAROOQ HUSSAIN SUBMITTED BY: ZAHRA SALEEM L1S08BBAM0038 MARYAM PERVAIZ KHAN L1S08BBAM0137 GLOBALIZATION “Globalization in an increased unification of world’s economics through reduction of such barriers to international trade as tariffs, export fees, and import quotas. The goal is to increase material wealth, goods, and services through an international division of labor by efficiencies catalyzed by international relations, specialization and competition.”(Friedman 1999). Globalization is an unrelenting integration of nation states, consumer markets, and technologies to an extent that has never witnessed before. Now globalization has enabled the companies and individuals to reach out world faster, farther, deeper and cheaper than ever. Globalization has leaded us to increasing integration of markets, products or services, culture, ideas, and communication. There were two drivers of globalization. First is, by end of World War II, there was a downslope in barriers to flow of capital, goods and services on world wide scale. Second is technological shift in past 3 or 4 decades have resulted in dramatic development in information processing, transportation technologies and communication. Globalization is not a new phenomenon - for thousands of years, people and firms —have been buying from and selling to each other in lands separated by distances. But government and technological changes have promoted......

Words: 3093 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

A Good E-Book on Various Religions Across the World

...excerpts can be produced to meet your needs. For more information, contact Special Markets Director, Visible Ink Press, at www.visibleink.com or (734) 667-3211. Art Director: Mary Claire Krzewinski Typesetting: Graphix Group Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Renard, John, 1944The handy religion answer book / John Renard. p. cm. ISBN 1-57859-125-2 (pbk.) 1. Religions--Miscellanea. I. Title. BL80.2 .R46 2001 291--dc21 Printed in the United States of America All rights reserved 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2001004052 CIP Contents I NTRODUCTION ix ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xiii C HRONOLOGY OF MAJOR EVENTS xv GE N E RAL BAC KGROU N D DE FI N ITION S AN D M ETHODS . . . 3 History and Sources . . . Religious Beliefs . . . Signs and Symbols . . . Membership, Community, Diversity . . . Leadership, Authority, Organization . . . Personalities and Powers . . ....

Words: 245202 - Pages: 981

Premium Essay

Work

...Foundations: c. 8000 B.C.E.–600 C.E. Major Developments 1. Locating world history in the environment and time 1. Environment 1. Geography and climate: Interaction of geography and climate with the development of human society a. Five Themes of Geography – consider these 1. Relative location – location compared to others 2. Physical characteristics – climate, vegetation and human characteristics 3. Human/environment interaction – how do humans interact/alter environ a. Leads to change 4. Movement – peoples, goods, ideas among/between groups 5. Regions – cultural/physical characteristics in common with surrounding areas b. E. Africa first people – 750,000 years ago started to move 1. moving in search of food c. Role of Climate – End of Ice Age 12000 BCE – large areas of N. America, Europe, Asia became habitable – big game hunters already migrated 1. Geographical changes - 3000 BCE Green Sahara began to dry up, seeds to forests – N. America 2. Effect on humans – nomadic hunters didn’t move so much a. Settle near abundant plant life – beginning of civilization b. Sedentary life w/ dependable food supply 3. milder conditions, warmer temperatures, higher......

Words: 8930 - Pages: 36

Free Essay

Mhqvwuydfqyugfow

...History Overview | 3 – 7 | The AP Exam | 3 | World Regions | 4 – 5 | Five Course Themes | 6 | Four Historical Thinking Skills | 7 | Essays Overview | 8 - 15 | Document-based Question (DBQ) | 8 – 12 | Change and Continuity over Time (CCOT) | 13 – 15 | Comparative Essay | 16 – 18 | Released Free Response Questions | 19 – 20 | AP Curriculum Framework | 21 – 38 | Period 1 (Up to 600 B.C.E.)—5% | 21 – 22 | Period 2 (600 B.C.E. to 600 C.E.)—15% | 23 – 25 | Period 3 (600 to 1450)—20% | 26 – 28 | Period 4 (1450 to 1750)—20% | 29 – 31 | Period 5 (1750 to 1900)—20% | 32 – 35 | Period 6 (1900 to the present)—20% | 36 – 38 | Help with Some Confusing Subjects | 39 – 43 | Chinese Dynasties | 39 | Political, Economic, and Social Systems | 40 | Religions | 41 | Primary Sources | 42 | “Must Know” Years | 43 | * Many of the guidelines in this study packet are adapted from the AP World History Course Description, developed by College Board. The AP Exam Purchasing and taking the AP World History exam are requirements of the course. This year, the AP World History exam will be administered on: ___________________________________________ Format I. Multiple Choice a. You will have 55 minutes to answer 70 Questions. b. Each question has options A, B, C, and D. c. Questions are divided evenly between the five......

Words: 16161 - Pages: 65