Free Essay

Information System

In: Business and Management

Submitted By sheed2000
Words 4765
Pages 20
Ryan Somma
Information Systems Proposal for XYZ Hospice
Table of Contents
I. Organization Environment and Requirements......................................3 A. Hospice Care...................................................................................................3 B. Assumptions....................................................................................................3
II. Inputs and Outputs...........................................................................................5 A . Inputs.............................................................................................................5 B. Outputs ...........................................................................................................5 C. Distributed Objects..........................................................................................6
III. System Hardware ...........................................................................................7 A. Client Systems ................................................................................................7 B. Peripherals ......................................................................................................8 C. Server..............................................................................................................8
IV. Software .............................................................................................................9 A. Operating System............................................................................................9 B. Client Applications..........................................................................................9 C. Server Applications.......................................................................................10
V. Networking.......................................................................................................13 A. WAN Network Topology..............................................................................13 B. LAN Network Topology ...............................................................................13 C. Additional Considerations .............................................................................14
VI. Data Storage...................................................................................................15 A. Centralization................................................................................................15 B. Backups ........................................................................................................15 C. Security.........................................................................................................16
VII. Security...........................................................................................................17 A. System Security ............................................................................................17 B. Online Security .............................................................................................17
VIII. Maintenance and Support......................................................................18 A. Maintenance..................................................................................................18 B. Support .........................................................................................................18
IX. Estimated Costs.............................................................................................19 X. References.........................................................................................................20
I. Organization Environment and Requirements
A. Hospice Care
Although Hospice Care makes no attempt to prolong life or cure patients, the service of caring for individuals in their final days is an extremely demanding profession. Hospice Care volunteers provide basic medical care, including prescription medicines and non-invasive medical procedures to alleviate patient symptoms and manage pain. Hospice services also include counseling, meal preparation, errand running, and guidance (HFA, 2009).
Although the degree to which the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 applies to Hospice Center Volunteers is poorly understood, it is a best practice ethically and legally to adhere to HIPAA Requirements to ensure patient privacy (Kasprak, 2003). Complicating the issue of protecting patient privacy, is the need for Hospice Organizations to submit patient care documents and health statuses to health insurers, and, in order to conduct health care operations, use patient treatment activities for quality reviews, training programs, credentials, and auditing (Capital Hospice, 2003).
B. Assumptions
One very important unknown in performing this analysis is the physical geography of the central office and the four housing facilities. Are these five locations on the same campus, or are they located miles away from one another? This information is crucial for deciding a proper network infrastructure for the organization.
For the purposes of this analysis, it is assumed that the five locations are miles away from one another, so that networking lines would have to cross properties not owned by XYZ Hospice. The advantage of this assumption is that a solution that technically satisfies networking buildings scattered across a city will also work for buildings scattered across a campus; although, there will certainly be more efficient solutions for the campus model to consider in network topology and web hosting.
II. Inputs and Outputs
A . Inputs
Hospice volunteers meet with patients and are responsible for recording “observations accurately and concisely in patient’s medical record (Overlook, 2009).” Volunteers are required to monitor and document changes in patient health while visiting with them; therefore, volunteers would be best served with discreet, lightweight portable data capture devices. Such devices “combine a keyboard, mark or bar-code scanner, and wireless connections to a wired base station or computer system (Burd, 2006).”
As was mentioned in section I, Hospice managers are responsible for ensuring volunteer training, that accreditation standards are met, submitting claims to insurance companies for reimbursement (HFA, 2009), as well as standard management responsibilities such as accounting, quality assurance, and general operations. While in- house operations will be best-served with a completely paperless office environment, interactions with outside organizations will necessitate dealing with paper forms that can be digitized through optical character recognition technologies, which, “combine optical scanning technology with a special-purpose processor or software to interpret bitmap content (Burd, 2006).”
B. Outputs
Multiple volunteers assisting the same patient need to know what services have been provided by the other volunteers and be kept up to date on the statuses of their shared patients. Volunteers, therefore, need access to the observations of other volunteers.
Similarly, managers need access to a wide variety of high-level reporting functions. They need to monitor physician and nursing certifications offered online (NBCHPN, 2009), and organization certifications in keeping in compliance with Medicaid requirements (CMS, 2009). While all of this data could be stored in paper records, the advantages of storing it electronically, being able to search, sort, and drill down through data, stresses the advantages of communicating as much as possible through electronic means. Professional-looking print outs are still mandatory for communicating with external organizations that continue to use written correspondence.
C. Distributed Objects
Distributed objects are included with inputs and outputs in the context of communications between systems within the organization as well as exchanging data with systems outside of it. While it is possible all interactions with outside organizations, such as insurance companies, will be paper-based, some companies, such as drugstore.com, offer APIs for their online catalogs making use of XML to allow other companies to offer and order their products through customized web interfaces (drugstore, 2009). As more organizations go paperless, the need for Service Oriented Architectures (SOA) grows; therefore, XYZ Hospice’s application systems should have the capability to communicate with other systems running on any potential platform or architecture.
III. System Hardware
A. Client Systems
In order to meet the needs of the 15 volunteers working at the facilities to have portable data capture devices, lightweight laptops, which they can easily carry around with them for recording observations make for the best, most flexible choice, specifically the new generation of “netbooks:”
Netbooks make the perfect fit for many field service operations -- transportation and logistics, repair and servicing, surveying, even medical care -- thanks to their small size, low price, and the fact you can create or run custom applications quickly and cheaply because they use standard desktop operating systems (unlike handhelds). (Schwartz, 2009)
While netbooks are lacking in processing power and secondary storage, to support XYZ Hospice’s software requirements these features are unnecessary. As will be outlined in the next section, the netbooks will act as portals to online applications that will serve as a central repository for data entry and retrieval. Netbooks have an advantage over normal laptops in their mobility. For example, Dell Inspiron Mini 9 Laptops are the cheapest at $249 each, and run four hours on a battery charge and weighs 2.28 lbs (Dell, 2009).
The 8.9 inch LCD on the netbooks, and their smaller keyboards are acceptable for volunteers who must use them for intermittent data entry and minor reporting functions throughout the day, but for managers, who must often sit at a desk for long hours performing administrative tasks, these systems are ergonomically unsound:
...portability comes at a price: a compromise in the screen and keyboard size that can be fairly taxing on some netbook models. If you have a netbook and have noticed that your wrists are often achy and your eyes get bleary more often than in the past, you may have “netbook fatigue.” (Kendtrick, 2009)
Managers need systems equipped with more storage and diversity of applications. Netbooks for volunteers are not personalized, and may be transferred from volunteer to volunteer. This is not the case for managers, who need dedicated systems that can run a wide variety of customized software, media, and peripherals. For this reason, a standard- size notebook pc is recommended, with a larger screen size, keyboard, DVD player, Intel Pentium dual-core processing (2.16GHz), and 160GB of hard drive storage. A variety of such laptops are available for around $449 each (newegg, 2009).
B. Peripherals
As was outlined in Section II, professional-looking printouts are required in order for XYZ Hospice to communicate with outside organizations that are still paper-based. Also outlined in Section II, was the need for XYZ Hospice to digitize paper records from outside organizations into their electronic management systems.
Both of these functions and more can be covered in a single multifunction laser printer. For instance, the Brother MFC-9440CN Color Laser Multifunction Center is a color laser printer, scanner, copier, and fax in a single compact device with network capability available for $479 (OfficeMax, 2009). Installing this single device at the central office would cover a multitude of standard office needs.
C. Server
As will be covered in the next section, XYZ Hospice will not have need of an in- house system to act as a server, as all server functionality will be outsourced to online service providers.
IV. Software
A. Operating System
The netbooks can come with either Ubuntu or Windows Vista pre-installed. Windows has the advantage of better hardware support, as Ubuntu often “involves manual hacking to accomplish things that ought to be trivial (and in Windows usually are) (Yegulalp, 2007).” Hardware installation is less of a problem for the basic systems, as the manufacturer will pre-install the operating systems; however, as non Plug and Play (PnP) peripherals are added to these systems, getting them to work with Ubuntu can become problematic. Ubuntu does have the advantage of offering a wide variety of easily installed software applications at no cost, while adding Windows XP to the Dell Inspirion Mini 9 laptop increases its cost per unit by $50 (Dell, 2009).
B. Client Applications
Whether the organization ops for Windows or Linux operating systems, Sun Microsystem’s Open Office suite of desktop productivity software is highly recommended over Microsoft’s Office suite. Both Microsoft’s and Sun’s suites offer Word Processing, XML, Web Publishing, Spread Sheets, Charting, Presentation, and Database services; however, Open Office’s database software can interface with a MySQL database, while MS Office cannot, and Open Office is free, open-source software, saving the organization between $239 and $499 per installation compared with MS Office (Koll, 2007).
C. ServerApplications
In Section V. Data Storage, a need for centralized data that is not duplicated will be covered; however, in order to support a centralized data store without data being duplicated across systems, a server will be required to host applications for data entry and share files. As was discussed in section I. Inputs and Outputs, applications must be capable of sharing information and providing services to other applications in standard protocols such as SOAP and in standard information-sharing formats, such as XML.
Both the .NET and PHP web application platforms have built in components for supporting these standards (Shepherd, 2004) (PHP, 2009); however, because these applications require an Internet connection and a running server to work, in the event of a system or ISP outage, the online application would be inaccessible. At the same time, while a .NET, PHP, or JSP solution offers a high-degree of customization if built in- house, a fully-customized application also comes at a great cost in initial development and continued maintenance in comparison to a Customizable Off-the-Shelf product (Talbert, 1998).
Luckily, there is a COTS product that appears to meet all of XYZ Hospice’s needs. The mumms Hospice Software offers a comprehensive applications package that includes administrative, inter-organizational services, patient tracking, insurance management, and certification tracking. Additionally, the software aids in keeping hospice organizations in compliance with Medicare CoPs to develop QAPI programs and assumes responsibility for HIPAA compliance (mumms, 2008). The application is hosted on a server, keeping data centralized; however, client computers do not require a working Internet connection to record and retrieve data, only to update the central repository:
The architecture of CP/C is a hybrid of web and stand alone application architectures. It is designed to allow care provider users location flexibility by having the capacity to work while the user is unconnected from the Internet as well as when they are online. Although the user interacts with the application through a web browser, CP/C differs from most web applications in that it does not rely on constant communication between PC and server in order to function. The server generates patient medical records as XML documents, which are downloaded to the client on demand. As the user interacts with CP/C, completing patient visits, modifying patient care plans, performing assessments, prescribing medications, the patient's medical record is modified accordingly, relayed back to the centralized data storage server and synchronized with changes in the patient's medical information record made by other care provider users. Hence multiple care patient users can work on the same patient simultaneously without conflict and still retain up-to- date medical information on that patient. (Hospice Software, 2004)
Secure Computing Systems, Inc hosts the mumms software on their servers, eliminating the need for an in-house web server to host the application. Should XYZ Hospice need a brochure-style website to advertise their services, this also could be hosted through an online company such as Bluehost, which offers Apache hosting for $6.95 a month (Bluehost, 2009), or Go Daddy, which offers IIS hosting for $4.74 a month (Go Daddy, 2009).
With application hosting and website hosting outsourced to other companies, the issue of file and print hosting is left for determination. There are numerous free, open- source Document Management Software, which allow for hosting online repositories of documents with user access controls, available for free in PHP or JSP, such as Epiware (Epiware, 2007) and xinco DMS (xinco, 2008). These free software can be hosted on the same service provider account hosting the XYZ website. As the majority of open source solutions run on Apache server software, which is also free, it appears cost effective to sign up with Bluehost as a service provider.
As of January 2009, Apache servers were hosting 52.26 percent of all Domains, with Microsoft hosting 32.91 percent (Netcraft, 2009); however, Microsoft has been gaining marketshare, and should therefore not be dismissed as a potential server software. Observing the trends in hosting over the last decade, we can clearly see an inversely proportional relationship between Apache and Microsoft, stressing their combined domination of the server market:
Figure 1. Apache (blue) vs Microsoft (red) server market share trends over past decade (Netcraft, 2009).
Even should this trend of Microsoft gaining market share continue and Microsoft even eventually overtakes Apache, it seems very unlikely that Apache would disappear from the market anytime in the foreseeable future.
V. Networking
A. WAN Network Topology
As was covered in section I, the assumption is being made for this analysis that facilities are located miles apart from one another, with properties owned by external organizations separating them. Were the four houses and their central office located on the same campus, the recommendation would be made to balance cost and reliability with a tree network, where star topologies are used for collections of nodes in close proximity and a linear bus topology is used to connect the star topologies over long distances is best (FCIT, 2009).
As the signal-to-noise ratio increases with distance and the network backbone bus topology would need to run a physical cable across the properties (Burd, 2006), such a network architecture is unfeasible across properties not owned by XYZ Hospice. Instead, the Internet will serve as the backbone for the Wide Area Network (WAN), providing a central point for accessing applications and documents rather than providing Peer-to-Peer connections on the network.
B. LAN Network Topology
The four houses and central office constitute the need for five LAN setups. Each facility will have an Internet Service Provider (ISP) provide them with an Internet connection, with a central hub or router at each location to manage all systems accessing the Internet. In order to support the portability of the netbooks, the hub or router will support IEEE 802.11g wireless standards (Burd, 2006). The D-Link Wireless N Router fits this need with five ports at a very low cost for $59.99 (OfficeMax, 2009). This router will need to be configured so as not to conflict with the non-wireless router that will be provided by the ISP to access their Internet services.
Using a WiFi router/hub as a central access point for each location reduces the number of failure points to the router, Internet connection, and laptops. If one laptop can’t access the network, but others can, then the single laptop is the culprit. If laptops can see each other on the network, but cannot access the Internet, then the Internet service provider is the issue. If laptops cannot access neither each other nor the Internet, then the router is at fault.
C. Additional Considerations
If XYZ Hospice does not currently offer at-home hospice care, they may wish to expand their services to provide this in the future; therefore, wireless broadband network cards might be useful in providing internet services to volunteers on-site providing care at the patient’s home. These are available from AT&T, Verizon, and Sprint for a variety of price ranges and needs.
VI. Data Storage
A. Centralization
It is the intention to have XYZ store all data and documents in a central location, accessible to anyone with the proper credentials with an Internet connection. Although it is important to avoid data redundancy for the sake of efficiency and to avoid having to maintain the same data in multiple locations (Gross, 2004), as was mentioned in section IV. Software, the mumms application uses local data that is redundant to the central application in order to allow clients to continue operations without an Internet connection. Additionally, managers will temporarily have redundant copies of documents on their local machines as they check them out from the DMS for modifications.
B. Backups
For data that is hosted by mumms or Bluehost, the service providers will assume the responsibility for backing up data: mumms® CPC and PAS data is backed nightly to magnetic tape. Tapes are bit-level verified immediately after the backup is complete. The data is also mirrored to an additional off-site server at least once per day. These tapes are removed and taken to an off-site HIPAA compliant storage facility every Friday. The tapes are rotated every three weeks with one monthly backup being kept for one calendar year. (mumms, 2009)
There is a brief window of time between when a manager is working on a document locally and when they upload it to the DMS that their work can be lost through a hard drive failure. Because redundant data will occur as a temporary phenomenon will occur, and managers may have documents and media that are for personal reference and do not need DMS services, there is a need for providing some protection against hard drive failure and offsite backup.
While normally a RAID system that has level 1 for mirroring would be appropriate for protecting against hard drive failure, few laptops come with RAID capabilities; therefore, each manager’s laptop will be supplemented with an external hard drive for backing up data using automated file synchronization software that will run in the background while the system is powered on. Because volunteer data is meant to be uploaded regularly and netbook systems are not intended for mass data and application storage, a hard drive failure on such a system would result in a minimal loss of data that does not justify the cost of backups.
C. Security
Security concerns will be dealt with more thoroughly in the next section; however, it is important here to make volunteers and manager aware that, due to the way the mumms software allows their client machines to operate independent of the online application, their local computers will contain a great deal of patient information in the form of XML documents. Because file deletion normally does not immediately remove files from secondary storage, but rather marks the file’s storage allocation units as free and its directory entry as unused, these XML documents may be visible to intruders who bypass the storage allocation table and read the allocation units directly. It also means that, should the organization ever decide to sell the laptops, they will need to ensure the hard drives are thoroughly scrubbed of their data to ensure patient data is not accidentally sold to another party (McDowell, 2008).
VII. Security
A. System Security
As was covered in Section I, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 emphasizes the importance of securing patient privacy, and as was covered in the previous section, laptops will have sensitive data about patients stored on them, even if such data is deleted.
However, this data can also be compromised through unauthorized access to the client systems through spyware or a virus. For this reason, running the Ubuntu Operating System is highly recommended over Windows, as Ubuntu outperforms Windows Vista on Network Security, Secured Default Configuration and Installation, Spyware Solutions, Administrator Accounts, Data Protection, and Permanent Deletion (VirtualHosting, 2007). To supplement Ubuntu’s or Window’s security features, the free Anti-Virus Software, AVG, will also be maintained on systems (AVG, 2009).
B. Online Security
Secure Computing Systems, Inc hosts the mumms software on their servers, assuming responsibility for access control and SSL maintenance; however, it is up to client systems to maintain security as well. For this reason, online applications will be accessed via Mozilla Firefox, as an “independent study shows that, in 2006, IE users were vulnerable to online threats 78% of the time. Firefox users? Only 2% (Krebs, 2007).” Both AVG and Firefox can run on either the Ubuntu or Windows OS.
VIII. Maintenance and Support
A. Maintenance
Once deployed, XYZ Hospice’s IT solution will not be left to simply run independently:
Over time, various problems with the system can and do arise. Errors that escaped detection during testing and deployment might appear. For example, the system may become overloaded because of inadequate estimates of processing volume. Information needs can change, necessitating additional data collection, storage and/or processing (Burd, 2006).
While large portions of XYZ’s solution have been outsourced to Bluehost and Secure Computing Systems, Inc, who will provide continuing support for the online applications, the client systems, the netbooks and laptops, will require routine maintenance such as scan disk, disk defragmenter, disk cleanup, and virus scans, which can be scheduled to run on each system at regular intervals. Systems should be analyzed regularly to ensure they are supporting the business needs as well.
B. Support
Technical assistance will be provided by someone with an understanding of the software installed on the systems and their hardware configurations. Additionally, assistance will be provided with helping XYZ Hospice employees communicate with peripheral service providers, such as Bluehost, Secure Computing Systems, Inc, and the Internet Service Provider so that technical issues are properly communicated.
IX. Estimated Costs
Cost Per Item Quantity Unit
Total Cost
$3,735.00
$3,592.00
$479.00
$299.95
$367.92
Free
$83.40
Free
Free
Unknown
$750.00
$400.00
$19.95
$69.65
Free
Free
Hardware
Dell Inspiron Mini 9 Laptop / Netbook for Volunteers
Acer Extensa EX4630 NoteBook for House and Day Managers
Brother MFC-9440CN Color Laser Multifunction Center
D-Link Wireless N Router
Eagle Tech ET 80GB 5400 RP External Hard Drive w/ built-in USB Cable
15 $249.00
8 $449.00
1 $479.00
5
8
24
12 Months
1
1
15
8
1
7
23
23
Estimated Total:
$59.99
$45.99
Free
$6.95
Free
Free
Unknown
$50.00
$50.00
$19.95
$9.95
Free
Free
Software
Open Office
Bluehost.com Web Hosting
Apache Server
Epiware Document Management System
Mumms Hospice Software
Windows XP for Volunteers*
Windows XP for House and Day Mangers*
Allway Sync Pro File Synchronization Software, first license
Allway Sync Pro File Synchronization Software, additional licenses
AVG Anti Virus Software
Mozilla Firefox
* Optional ** Does not include the cost of Windows Vista.
$8,646.87**
X. References
AVG, AVG Anti-Virus Free Edition – Trusted by 80 Million Users. Retrieved Mar 14, 2009: http://free.avg.com/download-avg-anti-virus-free-edition
Bluehost, Web Hosting Provider, Bluehost.com 2009. Retrieved Mar 15, 2009: http://www.bluehost.com/
Burd , Stephen D., Systems Architecture Fifth Edition, Thomson Course Technology, 2006.
Capital Hospice (Apr 14, 2003). HIPAA and Patient Privacy, Capital Hospice,. http://www.capitalhospice.org/privacy/
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Medicare Survey & Certification Enforcement, Department of Health & Human Services, 2009. Retrieved Mar 14, 2009: http://www.cms.hhs.gov/SurveyCertificationEnforcement/01_Overview.asp
Dell, Inspirion Mini 9 Laptop / Netbook, Dell.com, 2009. Retrieved Mar 14, 2009: http://www.dell.com/content/products/productdetails.aspx/laptop-inspiron- 9?c=us&cs=19&l=en&s=dhs
Drugstore, drugstore.com Syndicated Content API, drugstore.com, 2009. Retrieved Mar 14, 2009 at: http://www.drugstore.com/qxc88007_333181_sespider/api/api.htm Epiware, Epiware Document Management Software, epiware.com, 2007. Retrieved Mar 14, 2009: http://www.epiware.com/ Florida Center for Instructional Technology, Topology, University of South Florida, 1995-2009. Retrieved from fcit.usf.edu on Feb 18, 2009 at: http://fcit.usf.edu/Network/chap5/chap5.htm
Go Daddy, Domain Names, Web Hosting, and SSL Certificates. Retrieved Mar 15, 2009: http://www.godaddy.com/default.aspx
Gross, Mark (Jul 20, 2004). Beating Data Redundancy with Content Reuse, Data Conversion Laboratory. Retrieved Mar 2, 2009: http://www.dclab.com/contentreuse.asp
HFA, Choosing Hospice Care and Selecting a Hospice, Hospice Foundation of America, 2009. Retrieved Mar 14, 2009 at: http://www.hospicefoundation.org/hospiceInfo/faq.asp#choosing
HFA, What is Hospice? , Hospice Foundation of America, 2009. Retrieved Mar 14, 2009: http://www.hospicefoundation.org/hospiceInfo/ Hospice Software, mumms Software Announces New Product Launch. Retrieved Mar 14, 2009: http://www.hospicesoftware.com/ Kasprak, John (Jun 20, 2003). HIPPA and Hospice, OLR Research Report, State of Conneticut General Assembly. Retrieved Mar 2, 2009: http://www.cga.ct.gov/2003/olrdata/ph/rpt/2003-R-0496.htm
Kendtrick, James (Mar 4, 2009). Achy wrists, bleary-eyed? You may have “netbook fatigue,” jkOnTheRun,. http://jkontherun.com/2009/03/04/achy-wrists-bleary-eyed-you-may-have- netbook-fatigue/
Koll, Kay (Mar 2007) OpenOffice.org 2.x and Microsoft Office 2007 Feature Comparison, Sun Microsystems Inc. Retrieved Feb 20, 2009. http://www.openoffice.org/product/docs/ms2007vsooo2.pdf
Krebs , Brian (Jan 4, 2007), Internet Explorer Unsafe for 284 Days in 2006, The Washington Post. Retrieved Mar 14, 2009: http://blog.washingtonpost.com/securityfix/2007/01/internet_explorer_unsafe_for _2.html
McDowell , Mindi and Lytle, Matt, National Cyber Alert System, Effectively Erasing Files, United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team, 2008. Retrieved Mar 8, 2009 at: http://www.us-cert.gov/cas/tips/ST05-011.html
Mumms, Frequently Asked Questions, mumms Software. Retrieved Mar 14, 2009: http://www.mumms.com/products/faq mumms Software (2008.) Medicare CoPs and QAPI, Secure Computing Systems, Inc. Retrieved Mar 14, 2009: http://www.mumms.com/component/content/article/58 NBCHPN, Welcome!, National Board for Certification of Hospice & Palliative Nurses, 2009. Retrieved Mar 14, 2009 at: http://www.nbchpn.org/DisplayPage.aspx?Title=Welcome!
Netcraft, February 2009 Web Server Survey, Netcraft Ltd. 2009. Retrieved Mar 14, 2009: http://news.netcraft.com/archives/2009/02/18/february_2009_web_server_survey. html
Newegg.com, Laptops / Notebooks > Price: $400 - $500, NewEgg.com. Retrieved
Mar 14, 2009: http://www.newegg.com/Product/ProductList.aspx?Submit=ENE&N=200494003 2%204020&bop=And&Order=PRICE
OfficeMax, Brother MFC-9440CN Color Laser Multifunction Center. Retrieved Mar 2, 2009: http://www.officemax.com/technology/printers/multifunction-printers/laser- multifunction/product-prod280038
OfficeMax, D-Link Wireless N Router, OfficeMax.com, 2009. Retrieved Mar 2, 2009: http://officemax.com/catalog/sku.jsp?productId=ARS23830&history=j4eym90j|pr odPage~15^freeText~wireless+router^paramValue~true^refine~1^region~1^para m~return_skus^return_skus~Y
Overlook, Hospice Volunteer Job Description, Overlook Visiting Nurse Associate, Inc & Hospice Services. Retrieved Mar 14, 2009: http://www.masonichealthsystem.org/documents/Hospice%20Volunteer.pdf
PHP, SOAP, php.net, Mar 13, 2009. Retrieved Mar 14, 2009: http://us3.php.net/soap
Schwartz, Ephraim, Netbooks in the Business: Do They Make Sense?, InfoWorld, Feb 18, 2009. Retrieved Feb 20, 2009: http://www.infoworld.com/article/09/02/18/07FE-netbooks-business_1.html
Shepherd, George (Mar 2004). Using SOAP Extensions in ASP.NET, Microsoft Developers Network Magazine. Retrieved on Mar 2, 2008: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/cc164007.aspx#
Talbert, Nancy (Jun 1998). The Cost of COTS, Computer, Vol 31, Issue 6, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA .
VirtualHosting (Oct 29, 2007). OSX Tiger vs. Vista vs Ubuntu Security: a 15 Point Report Card. Retrieved Mar 2, 2009: http://www.virtualhosting.com/blog/2007/osx-tiger-vs-vista-vs-ubuntu-security-a- 15-point-report-card/
Xinco, xinco DMS Open Source Document Management, blueCubs.com, 2009. Retrieved Mar 14, 2009: http://www.xinco.org/ Yegulalp, Serdar (Apr 27, 2007). Ubuntu Linux Vs. Windows Vista: The Battle for Your Desktop, InformationWeek,. Retrieved Mar 15, 2009: http://www.informationweek.com/news/software/operatingsystems/showArticle.j html?articleID=199201179

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...Information Systems and Software Applications Software applications and information systems help businesses to manage every area of their business affairs. In a company it is extremely important to have not only an appropriate information system, but also the appropriate software applications that will allow one to conduct daily tasks. It will determine how successful a business can be. Businesses that take the time to invest these types of software can help take an accurate snapshot of where their business has been and where they are going. Usually, the different departments within an organization will have different information systems; however, they may have similar applications or a package of application on a system. Human resources, Finance, and Accounting are three departments in an organization that usually depend on reliable information systems (IS) and must have Software applications that support the duties and help them conduct day-to-day business. In this paper I will discuss these three departments and the system they would benefit from as well as applications that they may require. One of many tasks that the human resources departments has is keeping records of new, current, future, or potential employees. Two information systems compatible with their duties are the office automation system, and the decision support system. The office automation systems would allow human resources employees to support activities for individuals and input data......

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...Information Systems Department XBIS 219 August 28, 2010 Every company has different departments and those departments are in charge of different tasks and employees. In order for the departments to do their job efficiently, employees need a software application to help them complete their tasks. This type of software makes employee's jobs easier and helps the company keep track of their success. Two different examples are the a human resource department and accounting department. The human resources is responsible for hiring new employees, also to establish effective policies and procedures. Human resources (HR) can benefit greatly from the use of iCIMS software. This software can do many tasks for the department. iCIMS is designed to help businesses make the hiring process more efficient by using software for screening and storing applicant information, enabling web-based job applications, tracking candidates, monitoring performance after recruitment, and managing post-employment processes. As stated by the iCIMS (2010) website, " iCIMS' Talent Platform streamlines the entire talent lifecycle in one easy-to-use recruitment and HR software application." The accounting department is those in which deal with money paid, received, borrowed, or owed in the company. Good software that this department can use is Accounting Information System, better known as AIS. According to Accounting Information Systems (2010), “The purpose of AIS is to accumulate data and provide......

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...Contents Information Systems Proposal Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2 Information Systems 4 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Objective… Explain the different types of information systems available to businesses.   * Processing Payroll   * Point-of-sale Terminal   * Microsoft Office   * Report of sales for individual customers   * Electronic commerce To operate a successful business one must know and understand the information technology aspects, which enhances the daily operations of the business. Small businesses are at a disadvantage and must seek ways to expand and become viable.   “Strategic Information Systems provide a competitive advantage by helping an organization implement its strategic goals and increase its performance and productivity” (R. Kelly Rainer Jr., Casey G. Cegielski, 2011). There are six reasons why information systems are so important for businesses today and they include:   * Operational excellence -   Businesses improve the efficiency of their operations in order to achieve higher profitability.   * New products, services, and business models -   Business models describe how a company produces, delivers, and sells a product or service to create wealth.   * Customer and supplier intimacy - When businesses serve its customers well, the customers usually return and purchase more. This allows businesses to engage its suppliers, which enables the suppliers to provide vital input.   * Improved decision making - Information system......

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...y Abstract Information Systems are the systems which are the made by the combination of the various hardware and software that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create, and distribute data. There are various types of information systems, for example: transaction processing systems, decision support systems, knowledge management systems, learning management systems, database management systems, and office information systems. Critical to most information systems are information technologies, which are typically designed to enable humans to perform tasks for which the human brain is not well suited, such as: handling large amounts of information, performing complex calculations, and controlling many simultaneous processes.  The domain of study of IS involves the study of theories and practices related to the social and technological phenomena, which determine the development, use, and effects of information systems in organization and society. Acknowledgement The satisfaction that accompanies that the successful completion of any task would be incomplete without the mention of people whose ceaseless cooperation made it possible, whose constant guidance and encouragement crown all efforts with success. We are grateful to all the concern websites and the book written by experienced professionals for the guidance, inspiration and constructive suggestions that helpful us in the preparation of this project. We also thank our colleagues who......

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...Information Systems A Proposal To: Jeremy Black February 13, 2013 Contents Welcome 3 Performance Objective 3 Where to Start 3 Understand Information Systems 4 Management information System 4 Office Automation system 4 Supply Chain Management System 4 Electronic Commerce System 4 Executive Dashboard 4 Proposal 5 Thank You 6 [ ] Mr. Black, Thank you for contacting Wizard Tech for your information system needs for your company. We are honored to provide you with information on a variety of systems that are available for your company. This proposal will provide you with information on each system and address any question you may have concerning each system. Should you still have question or concerns please contact our office anytime. The contact information is located on the last page of this proposal. Performance Objective Information recording has change throughout the years through the change in technology. Technology advancements are changing the needs of companies to compete in their respectful markets. Here at Wizard Tech we know that it can be stressful for business owners to choose the correct information system to use for their new business. Our goal is to minimize your stress by walking you through picking your new system, installing it for you, and provide the necessary training needed to operate the new system. Where to Start When starting a new business it can be hard to choose the right information...

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...Health Care Information Systems Samantha Pernett November 1st, 2014 HCS/483 Professor Karen Johnson Technology changes and updates all the time and it is very important for organizations to stay up to date so that they are able to provide the best care. In health care this is also very important medicine as well as technology changes so much. This is why we have decided to change out information system. This can be a lengthy process and there are many steps. We will have to pick a system that fits best for our organization as well as transition into the new system by having everyone trained and educated. This will be a long process but it will help our organization be able to provide the best quality of care to our patients. As an organization we have to make sure that we cover all of the basics before making a change to a new information system. The first step is to research and decide which information system is going to fit best with our health care organization. As stated by Joy Hicks (2014) “The considering organization must ask, “What expense are we willing to spend on implementing this new process and what are the benefits from each choice, outsourcing or in house?” (pg 1). There are many things that we have to take into consideration when selecting and information system. We have to think about, cost, time, benefits, training, and education. All of these things are important. We also what to select at system that will be able to include all the information that we......

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Information Systems

...company supported this by explaining that a single McDonalds store takes into consideration all the factors such as labour rate, raw materials, electricity, water and land costs in price fixing. Mc Donalds uses a number of information systems in its day to day management of the store. Information Systems Of all the information systems used in Mc Donalds, the most used are the Inventory System, and the Employee Scheduling System. Inventory system is nothing but a modified Library Information System. It is because the library and a particular Mc Donalds store, both act as a single system in which there are many items categorised in sections which keeps coming in and the existing ones keep going out. This intricate similarity made the systems use each other. The Employee Scheduling System is a part of Management Information System. It has an interface and a database to make all other functions of this system easy to run. Explanation Inventory System (Library Information System): A library information system enables the users to track down each and every single product at the facility. The inventory system uses a similar way to store the list of things in the store, and all the details about them to be used whenever necessary. The working of an Inventory system can be explained as: 1. Assistant Manager counts everything in the store on a weekly basis. 2. He stores all these details in the central computer. 3. Manager predicts the next week’s sales based on......

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...Introduction to Information Systems Fundamental of Information Systems, Sixth Edition Principles and Learning Objectives  The value of information  how it helps decision makers achieve the organization’s goals  Distinguish data f g from information f  Knowing the potential impact of information systems  Id tif the b i t Identify th basic types of b i f business i f information systems ti t  who uses them, how they are used, and what kinds of benefits they deliver  To build a successful information system y  System users, business managers, and information systems professionals must work together g 2 Principles and Learning Objectives  The use of information systems to add value to the organization  Identify some of the strategies employed to lower costs or improve y g p y p service  Identify the value-added processes in the supply chain value added  Define the term competitive advantage  IS personnel is a key li k  Define the types of roles, functions, and careers available in information systems 3 Why Learn About Information Systems in Organizations?  How might the information system used depend on the various components of a computer-based information system: hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures?  How do computer-based information systems help businesses p y p implement best practices?  Information systems are used in almost every imaginable profession to reach customers around the world  Information systems......

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...Information Systems and Software Applications XXXXXXX BIS/219 XXXXXX XXXXXXX Information Systems and Software Applications Computer systems have had an amazing impact on the way businesses operate. Technology has advanced so remarkably that those who are not using computers in their business are at a major disadvantage against their competitors (Writing, 2011). Computers allow the application of different types of software that assist businesses in their everyday operations, from maintaining files, monitoring inventory, selling goods, purchasing supplies to paying employees. Some information systems support an entire organization, others only support certain divisions within the organization. Each area supported is referred to as a functional area, a few examples are Finance information system, Marketing information system, Management information system, Accounting information system, and Human Resources information system. The first functional area considered is the world of finance. Finance is extremely critical to the success of an organization; an information system designed to process payroll for the employees would be very beneficial. This type of information system is used in a particular functional area such as finance. An example could be a software application as simple as Quicken or as complex as an application custom designed specifically for this organization. A financial information system is a necessity for an organization to properly and efficiently...

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...1. Compare and contrast the application of information technology (IT) to optimize police departments’ performance to reduce crime versus random patrols of the streets. 2. Describe how COMPSTAT, as an information system (IS), implements the four (4) basic IS functions: 1. Input 2. Processing 3. Output 4. Feedback 3. Determine how information systems have allowed police departments that implement tools such as COMPSTAT to respond to crime faster. 4. Apply the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis (SWOT analysis) on behalf of police departments that intend to implement predictive policing. 5. Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources. You may use the resources above or others of your choosing Predictive Policing | Information Technology, or IT, is the study, design, creation, utilization, support, and management of computer-based information systems, especially software applications and computer hardware. Information technology is not limited solely to computers, but other devices such as mobile phones, PDAs and other handheld devices. The field of IT is quickly moving from compartmentalized computer-focused areas to other forms of mobile technology.("Information Technology," 2011) Over the last decade, computer and telecommunications technologies have developed at a surprising rate. Increased......

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...0965944 Information Systems A consultancy report of Aalsmeer Flower Auction. Submitted to Ian Durling. Submitted by 0965944. Words 2919. 0965944 Contents 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Information Technology and Information Systems 1.2 Organisation chart of Aalsmeer Flower Auction 1.3 Business Environment 1.4 Swot Analysis of Aalsmeer Flower Auction 1.5 Pest Analysis of Aalsmeer Flower Auction 1.6 Porters Five Force Analysis 1.7 The Value Chain 1.8 Enterprise Application Architecture 2.0 Design Methodology 3.0 Dimensions of Information Systems 4.0 Conclusion 0965944 1 1.Introduction Aalsmeer Flower Auction, located in the Netherlands is the biggest flower auction of the world. It offers global growers, wholesalers and exporters a central place for the buying and selling of floricultural products with a range of marketing channels, facilities for growers, buyers and logistics. Every phase of the trade of flowers is managed in the Netherlands, pricing, packaging, distribution and quality control. Most of the flowers come from the Netherlands also Spain, Israel and Kenya among others. (Boonstra A & Van Dantzig,06 pg2). This has made AFA a prominent link in the International Chain of the flower auction market. New developments in the auction market has threatened the comfortable position of AFA. E-Networks the emergence of alternative electronically driven flower markets. Mergers and acquisition......

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...1. How do information systems projects get started in organizations? In order for Jim to initiate the project, he must first determine the size, scope, and resource requirements for the project. Information systems projects are started in organizations by first establishing the project initiation team. This activity involves organizing an initial core of project team members to assist in accomplishing the project initiation activities.  The project initiation team establishes the project initiation plan. This step defines the activities required to organize the initiation team while it is working to define the scope of the project. In order to have an organized approach or process, you must analyze what’s going on; then design a solution to the problem; and finally monitor and control. 2. How are organizational information systems related to company strategy? How does strategy affect the information systems a company develops and uses? The organizational information system is related to company strategy because it exists to help organizations achieve their goals and objectives. It is also determined by it competitive strategy. Strategy affects the information system because there are information services resources that apply to a strategic business opportunity in such way the computer systems have an impact on the organizations products and business operations.  4. What do you think Jim’s next step should be? Jim’s next step should be to create an information team......

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