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BASIC TRAINING ON TYRES

TYPES:
1. Solid tyres
e.g. Wheel barrow, forklifts
2. Pneumatic tyres – air is the load carrier
i. Bias/ cross ply
 Passenger - 2 -6 nylon cord plies
 Vans – 6 -8 plies
 No of plies determines load capacity



ii.
Radial
Components - rubber, fillers, steel, nylon, plasticizers, chemicals for vulcanization, antioxidants. TYRE TERMS

1) Tread - has unique characteristics ranging from wear resistance, cut resistance, heat resistance, low rolling resistance, or any combination of these. The purpose of the tread is to transmit the forces between the rest of the tyre and the ground.
2) Sidewall - is a protective rubber coating on the outer sides of the tyre. It is designed to resist cutting, scuffing, weather checking, and cracking.
3) Chafer - protects the bead and body from chafing (wear from rubbing) where the tyre is in contact with the rim. It increases the overall stiffness of the bead area, which in turn restricts deflection and deformation and increases the durability of the bead area.
4) The liner - It covers the inside of the tyre from bead to bead and prevents the air from escaping through the tyre.
5) The bead - is considered the foundation of the tyre. It anchors the bead on the rim.

6) The body ply restricts the pressure which ultimately carries the load. It also transmits the forces (torque, torsion, etc.) from the belts to the bead and eventually to the rim.
7) The steel belts are layers of steel cord wires located between the tread and the body ply. Off road tyres can have up to five belts. Road tyres typically have one or two. The steel wire of the belts run diagonally to the direction of motion. The belts increase the rigidity of the tread which increases the cut resistance of the tyre.
TYRE SIZE MARKINGS
Tyre size markings include references to the following information
a. The section width of the tyre (either in inches of millimetres).
b. The types of tyre construction and the rim diameter in inches.
c. There is often a reference to the 'aspect ratio' of the tyre - that is a ratio of the tyre's height compared to its width.
Tyre size marking example 1:
11R22.5
11---means 11 inches (section width)
R-----means radial construction
22.5---means rim diameter 22.5 inches
Tyre size marking example 2:
295/80R22.5
295---means 295mm (section width)
80----means Aspect ratio (profile) of the tyre - section height 80% of its section width i.e
Section height/Section width*100%
R----means radial construction
22.5rim diameter 22.5 inches

Example : 205/55 R 16 and Alternative Understanding

205 = Tyre section width in millimeters = B
55 = Height-to-width (aspect ratio) ratio in percentage = D/B x 100
R = Radial construction
16 = Rim diameter in inches = C
Overall tyre diameter, A in inches = (D x 2) + C,
Where D in inches = (B/25.4) x Aspect ratio
Therefore, D = ((205/25.4) x 0.55) = 4.4 inches
A = (4.4 x 2) + 16 = 24.8 inches
24.8 inches is the overall diameter of a 205/55R16 tyre
TYRE MAINTENANCE FOR OPTIMUM SERVICE AND VALUE FOR MONEY SPENT
A. Wheels, rims, valves and wheel balancing
Fitting and maintaining tyres to ensure safety and long tyre life is a skilled job. Checks should be carried out, not just at the time of fitting, but on a regular basis.
B. Wheel Balancing saves money and downtime
Unbalanced tyres and wheels waste money by causing uneven, excessive tyre wear and needless wheel bearing damage. Unbalanced wheels can also aggravate problems created by incorrectly tightened wheel bolts. They also have a bad effect on braking and steering performance and cause vibration through the steering and suspension.
N/B. When a new wheel-tyre assembly is fitted it should be balanced.
C. Correctly aligned wheels offer cost saving through:
1) Optimized tyre mileage - Incorrect alignment is one of the main causes of tyre wear 1mm misalignment decreases tyre mileage performance by 7%

2) Reduced mechanical wear - When wheels or axles are not aligned, mechanical parts are subject to increased stress and premature wear, for example suspension components and bearings, increasing vehicle maintenance cost and down time
3) Fuel savings - Rolling resistance from the tyre increases if alignment is not correctly adjusted – Correctly adjusted alignment will reduce fuel consumption and running costs
4) Safety improvements - Vehicle handling, safety and driver comfort also depend on the wheel and axle alignment
D.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

A sound tyre-management program involves:
Purchasing application-specific quality new tyres
Good air pressure maintenance
Proper tyre repairing
Tracking tyre performance- Incorrect tracking leads to uneven and accelerated tyre wear. External damage - Examine tyres after every trip for signs of damage, uneven wear, splits or cracks.
Tyre Rotation - Tyres will wear at different speeds especially between front and rear.
Have tyres rotated every 5000kms
Wheel alignment & balancing - Have the car’s alignment checked every 2 services
(10,000kms), or after any collision or heavy kerb impact. • Analyze scrap tyres.
Driver behaviour including pre-checks. This is yet one more key factor impacting fuel efficiency and tyre life. All tires will wear faster when subjected to hard cornering, rapid starts, sudden stops and curbing. Harsh acceleration and braking will reduce the tread significantly. E. TYRE WEAR THROUGH UNDER INFLATION
Wrong pressures can be dangerous as well as costly. The correct pressure is that which relates to the load being carried by the tyre. Low inflation pressure puts stress on the tyre and leads to excessive heat build-up in the flexing zone then results in tyre damage.
The following gives some idea of the effect of wrong tyre pressures:
i.
ii. iii. iv.

20% under inflation-a tyre under-inflated by 20 per cent will have its life shortened by a quarter 30% under inflation-a tyre under-inflated by by 30 per cent will have its life shortened by a third
50% under inflation-a tyre under-inflated by 50 per cent has its life cut short by three quarters. Over-inflation can reduce tyre life as well as under-inflation.

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