Instructional and Expressive Educational Objectives

In: Other Topics

Submitted By arlenabrandie
Words 2990
Pages 12
Instructional and Expressive Educational Objectives
When it comes to curriculum issues and planning, educational objectives are a central theme; but perspectives vary on how they should be formulated. This paper seeks to examine the concept of “educational objectives”; to distinguish between two types of objectives- “instructional” and “expressive”; and to justify the use of both types of educational objectives in curriculum development, from both a theoretical and practical perspective. The formulation and use of instructional and expressive objectives have implications for the selection of learning activities and evaluation; and identifying the aims and objectives of a course of study is very important to determining how they are used in curriculum development.
Many theorists have sought to clarify, classify and specify the manner in which objectives should be formulated and the characteristics they should have once developed, (Eisner, 2005). Educational objectives are based on individual values, and therefore what may seem important to some educators may not be seen as important to others (Eisner, 2005); however, it is a conclusive fact that educational objectives are important for curriculum development. Tyler (2010) states that by outlining educational objectives, “the curriculum-maker has the most useful set of criteria for selecting content, for suggesting learning activities, [and] for deciding on the kind of teaching procedures to follow” (p. 62). Gagne reiterates, “the central importance of defining educational objectives is [to make] possible the basic distinction between content and method” (Gagne, 1967 p. 21).
Despite the undeniable fact that educational objectives are “a boon to teaching, curriculum-making and educational planning” (Eisner, 2005 p. 25); perspectives vary on how they should be specified, since values vary- research done by one set…...

Similar Documents

Instructional Design Analysis

...Instructional Design Analysis Linda Lee AIU Online Abstract This analysis will analyze the process of instructional design. It will discuss the instructional design disciplines. There will be a discussion on instructional design and how it aligns with scientific methods. The ADDIE model will be detailed in this essay. The difference between instructional theory and learning theory will be compared and defined. The most important component of the instructional design process will be visited. The task that instructional designers perform will be discussed as well as the skills that he or she is required to possess. The conclusions drawn will be included. Instructional Design Analysis The definition of Instructional Design is a systematic way to develop instructional materials that are structured well by using objectives, related teaching strategies, systematic feedback and evaluation. It can also be defined as the scientific way to create detail oriented specifications for the design, development, evaluation, and maintenance of instructional material, which facilitates performance and learning. According to Wilson, (2004) instructional design can be defined as a technology, a science, an art or a craft. The instructional designer observes what is happening and collects empirical data in order to improve a particular topic. Empirical data is what the designer observes with their eyes and ears. Principles of the discipline of instructional design ......

Words: 3597 - Pages: 15

Educational Curriculum

...be characterized by the dominant and subordinate assumptions that govern the knowledge and values which underline their respective modes of inquiry. Traditionalists: Educational philosophy (Pernalism and Essentialism) General Philosophy (Idealism and Realism) Educational Psychology (Behaviorism) History The field of curriculum studies began in the early 1920's, and grew out of the necessity and need to define, organize and implement the public school curriculum. The early field of curriculum was dominated by administrative notions, and curriculum was viewed as the organization of time and activities to be managed according to sound business principles. The idea of "scientific management" as articulated by Frederick W. Taylor was applied to schooling. Cubberly articulated this concisely when he described schools as "factories in which the raw products (children) are shaped and molded into products to meet the various demands of life". The classical ideals of education, that is, the cultivation of intelligence and sensitivity, were no longer central. The goals of the curriculum had to be specified, making behavioral objectives and observable and measurable outcomes necessary. It has been suggested that it was after superintendent Newlon's work in curriculum revision, in the early 1920s in Denver, that the need for curriculum specialist became clear. Newlon, school......

Words: 5635 - Pages: 23

Educational Administration

...DIVINE WORD COLLEGE OF CALAPAN GRADUATE SCHOOL DEPARTMENT FINAL EXAMINATION IN PRINCIPLES IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION Submitted by: EVANGELINE DIPASUPIL GEDUCOS MAED-Major in Administration & Supervision Submitted to: DR. TERESITA M. SORIQUEZ Professor Date Submitted: OCTOBER 27, 2012 1. An administrator/ principal/ teacher plays a very important role in improving the culture of the school-especially nowadays that Philippine Education has been running on empty. They should provide what little resources they can share for education. They should be properly motivated and dedicated to their chosen profession so that the vision, mission and goals of the school will be attained. They should identify who to serve and what to serve in the community so that they can manage the school or the classroom well. They should focus on teaching/ managing the learners on how they can apply their learnings on their everyday living. 2. I can say that in my school, instructional supervision is well-managed. Our school head focuses on the improvement of the instruction. She checks our lesson plans/ daily lesson log. Every now and then, she makes sure that her teachers are teaching their pupils. She encourages the pupils to study well as well as the teachers to teach with their hearts. She reminds us the real meaning of teaching especially when we complain about our pupils. She observes classes once a week. After observation, she arranges a post...

Words: 1360 - Pages: 6

Instructional Presentation

...ETT4/5 - Effective Teaching Practices: Instructional Presentation and Follow-Up Course of Study Your competence for this course of study will be assessed as you complete the 10 tasks that make up the ETT4/5 performance assessment and the EIO4/5 objective assessment. Introduction Welcome to Effective Teaching Practices. Effective teaching depends on effective planning. Teachers need to devote systematic thought to what they want students to learn and to how students will best acquire knowledge and skills. You will learn how to select, develop, and evaluate instructional materials as well as strategies to use to accomplish specific learning goals. You will plan for effective instruction, and then implement those plans. Interactive teaching includes appropriately responding to all of the details that emerge during the presentation of lessons. Teaching is a process. Teachers plan lessons and then present them. They use information about the lesson presentation to make appropriate changes to improve both student achievement and lesson presentation. Outcomes and Evaluations There are 10 competencies covered by this course of study; they are listed in the "Competencies for Effective Teaching Practices: Instructional Presentation and Follow-Up (ETT4/5)" page. The list of competencies is a good overview of precisely what you will know and be able to do at the conclusion of this course of study and demonstrate through assessment. Teaching Dispositions Statement Please review......

Words: 6079 - Pages: 25

Expressive Essay

...Expressive Essay (Observation, Ethnography or Memoir) First Draft ENC 1101 – CR Junkins Purpose: What do I want the student to do? In this course, we will explore the two most commonly used forms of writing for college students: expressive writing and academic writing. Expressive writing captures what is important to the writer. In order to succeed, writers must understand themselves. Such writing is deeply personal. Expressive writing is designed to prepare students for writing outside academics—communicating feelings and observations, beliefs and opinions, community and individuality—all skill sets that will enable students to succeed in any discipline or career path. From a learning perspective, expressive writing is often an easier form of writing than academic. It allows students to begin working with such concepts as language, reasoning and mechanics while working with material they find worth discussing. In this assignment, I want students to carefully examine both themselves and their community. What makes their community unique? What is their place within the community? How did their unique, individual personality take shape? Project Overview: How do I want the student to do the assignment? Component One: Personal Students will choose to write on one of the following three topics: • One’s sense of place (observation) • One’s place within a community (ethnography) • One’s relationship to an event from the past......

Words: 1855 - Pages: 8

Instructional Goals

...mathematics (NJ Curriculum Standards, 2013). Instructional Goal #1: Organization and Development: Living organisms are composed of cellular units (structures) that carry out functions required for life. Cellular units are composed of molecules, which also carry out biological functions (NJ Curriculum Standards, 2013). Learning Objective #1: On an in-class worksheet, students will develop and use evidence-based criteria to determine if an unfamiliar object is living or nonliving. Students must answer 80% of the examples correctly. This will demonstrate that students know what characteristics are needed to support a living organism. Learning Objective #2: Through a unit test, students will be able to compare and contrast structures that have similar functions in various organisms, and explain how those functions may be carried out by structures that have different physical appearances with 75% accuracy. This will demonstrate that students understand the purpose of specific functions in organisms, as well as how to identify similar organisms that may not look alike. Learning Objective #3: Given a diagram, students will be able to describe the interactions of systems involved in carrying out everyday life activities. They should be able to explain 8 out of 10 interactions for 80% of the systems given. This will demonstrate that they have a firm understanding of how these processes interact to keep organisms alive. Instructional Goal #2: Interdependence: All animals......

Words: 734 - Pages: 3

Using and Evaluating Instructional Materials

...LESSON 6 USING AND EVALUATING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS APPLICATION 1. Observe your instructor/professor as he teaches the class. Find out which guidelines in the selection of instructional materials did he observe? Not observe? In his use of instructional material, write down evidence of: * Preparation of self – she is well-prepared to report/discuss/teach her lesson with instructional materials including book, outline of her report/lesson, creative visual aide and herself as an educational technology. * Preparation of students – warming up us by reviewing our last lesson that we tackle, ask questions and ask again what we learn on our last lesson. * Preparation of material – well-prepared and very creative materials and also very informational. * Follow up – she gives us an activity by pair to evaluate our learning in the lesson she taught to us if we understand it. 2. Accomplish this Learning Log What I learned? (Deposit) | How I apply what I learned (Dividend) | * I learned how to use instructional material using PPPF (prepare yourself, prepare your students, present the materials, follow up) | * Using the PPPF, the lesson I must teach should be productive and informative. I learned also how to choose/select the right material for my upcoming lesson/report. | LESSON 7 DIRECT, PURPOSEFUL EXPERIENCES AND BEYOND APPLICATION 1. Apply the concept of direct experiences to the college courses you have taken. Why do you have Field...

Words: 1528 - Pages: 7

Cognitive Learning Objectives

...articulating the learning objectives is directly related to achieving the desired learning outcomes. Additionally, learning objectives can be derived from a knowledge/skill gap identified in a front-end needs analysis. Consequently, the goal of creating learning objectives is to provide a means of clarifying the purpose of instruction to ensure the training/education is successful and the objectives are achieved. Clearly identifying learning objectives improves the communication between the instructor and the learner for a given course/learning module so the student knows precisely what is expected of him/her. When the objectives of a course have been clearly identified and presented in an orderly progression, the desired learning outcomes will be attained. They may also assist in the choice of the instructional delivery method(s) and instructional strategies when designing a learning activity, as well as establishing criteria for student performance when assessing student learning outcomes (Dick, Carey, & Carey, 2005). “When clearly defined objectives are lacking, there is no sound basis for the selection or designing of instructional materials, instructional strategies, or assessments” (Mager,1999) . “A properly written objective tells you what specific knowledge, skill, or attitude is desired and what method of instruction and criteria for learner achievement are required” (Lohr, n.d., pp 7). A learning objective (also referred to as instructional......

Words: 989 - Pages: 4

Educational Leadership

...Leadership in Educational Institutions Leadership responsibilities for heads of educational institutions play a key role in addressing the problems that face these institutions. The learning process in most high schools fails to deliver the expected results due to poor leadership. Today, many educational institutions seek to implement the evaluation process for public school principals based not only on leadership skills, but responsibilities, accountability, and professionalism (Szczesiul and Huizenga 166). The evaluation system seeks to address increasing issues of high school dropout rates, discipline, academic performance, and development of interpersonal skills among students. Appropriate leadership should be based on student growth and development, unlike earlier systems that rated students based on their academic performances. High school principals need to have the right skills required to address emerging issues such as the curriculum and teacher-student relationship evaluations (Katterfeld 344). Strategic high school leaders understand the needs of the students, teachers, and the non-teaching staff. The evaluation process seeks to determine whether high school principals adopt strategic measures to engage in professional dialogs with the teachers concerning teaching and learning process that occurs in classrooms. Transformational leadership remains critical due to changes in technology, globalization, and diversification, which play a crucial role in the......

Words: 2171 - Pages: 9

Research-Based Instructional Program

...Research-based Instructional Program Tommy Sickels Jan 2012 Introduction School leaders and other officials responsible for evaluating programs and school activities were also interested in measuring work completed in educational research. Much of this work was conducted by school officials responsible for curriculum or was contracted out by a variety of reputable vendors. Program developers and curriculum specialist had the ability to verify good research programs available for their school systems. Researched based school programs has a variety if distinctive characteristics. Many of these characteristics would consist of the following research work explained as follows: The problem should be clearly stated, be limited, and have contemporary significance. The purpose, objectives, hypotheses, and specific questions should be presented concisely in the proposal. Important terms should be defined. (Wiles & Bondi, 2007) Given these elements that exist in research based instructional programs the discussion in this essay will be examining the implementation of Read 180 instructional programs. This program was selected because of its benefits students are evaluated on their reading and writing skills and its effective methods of using small groups and individual conferences. Read 180 also offers an alternative between offering whole-class l3ssons and mini-lessons for small groups. These efforts greatly increase the student’s ability......

Words: 1406 - Pages: 6

Standard Based Instructional Practices

...Instructional practices for standards-based curriculum is more than knowing and understanding state and district standards; posting objectives, standards, or learning goals in the classroom; referencing standards in lesson plans; covering concepts or following a teacher’s manual claimed to follow state standards. Instead, it is about consistently and effectively developing lessons with activities designed to meet the needs of all students. Standards Based Curriculum The foundational reason supporting national and state standards efforts is the quality of students that schools are producing as graduates. This could potentially be an effect of content and expectancies for students in identical classes and grade levels differ immensely within and across schools, districts, and states. A standards based curriculum is curriculum that is developed using district, state, and/or national standards; pinpointing the skills, knowledge, and understandings that students show exhibit to meet these standards and identifying activities that will enable students to reach standard mastery. Curriculum design starts with the standards and once they are unpacked, the activities to meet them are developed. With the standards-based curriculum movement, curriculum is now much simpler and condensed in which the content is significantly effected by high-stakes tests (GCU, 2010). Instructional Practices Teachers are mandated to teach standards and to make connections between standards-based......

Words: 1321 - Pages: 6

How Do Health Providers Design Educational Programs to Clearly Articulate Objectives to Engage Both Patients as Well as Families?

...In the assigned reading, "How to Write Learning Objectives That Meet Demanding Behavioral Criteria," Kizlik explained that "objectives that are used in education, whether they are called learning objectives, behavioral objectives, instructional objectives, or performance objectives are terms that refer to descriptions of observable behavior or performance that are used to make judgments about learning." How do health providers design educational programs to clearly articulate objectives to engage both patients as well as families? In order for health care providers to develop effective learning objectives, they must have a way of proving that the patient or family has received and understood the educational information presented. “The nurse and family should work together on a mutually agreed upon plan that in cooperates their individual and family values and beliefs.” (Edelman, C .L et al 2004). Therefore, in designing an educational programs health care providers, must first take into consideration the Humanistic side of their clients by creating an environment that is conducive to learning , which is based on respect, collaborative participation ,dignity and social interaction, thus making the transition through the learning process to change behavior easier for both patients and their families. When establishing a patient’s health care plan, a nurse must first ask themselves, “What do I want the participants to learn/accomplish”? “How will participants demonstrate......

Words: 479 - Pages: 2

Instructional Objectives

...INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES An instructional objective describes an observable event that will indicate that a student has learned the targeted knowledge. A teacher cannot assess a student’s learning unless there is observable evidence of that learning. Since most of a person’s knowledge and mental actions are invisible to others, we depend on indicators that suggest the nature of his or her knowledge. To illustrate, consider the following: How would students indicate that they know the universe is very large and that it contains a very large number of objects? How would students indicate that they know the concept of multiplication? In both cases, students may provide evidence of their knowledge as follows: On the magnitude of the universe, students might say the universe is large because it contains Earth, other planets, and our Sun. The Sun is one of billions of stars in our galaxy, and individual stars are light-years away from each other. Our galaxy, although very large, is but one of millions of galaxies in the universe. On the concept of multiplication, they might use several illustrations to show that multiplication is repeated additions. For example, 4 x 3 = 3 +3 + 3 +3 To provide evidence of knowledge, one must do things that others can observe. Likewise, to assess a student’s knowledge, a teacher must ask student to do something observable/visible that indicates presence of that knowledge. In fact, instructional objectives represent the teacher’s......

Words: 257 - Pages: 2

Instructional Technology

...Instructional Technology Joey Millis, RN CEN HSN/548: Role of the Health Care / Nursing Educator March 12, 2012 Rebecca Gesler Instructional Technology Instructional technology is often considered as computers and computer software, but there are a vast variety of instructional technology tools that are being used in today's classroom. These tools along with the aid of computers and software are used in the instructional methods of today's institutional learning centers. The Oregon Department of Education states that, "Instructional technology is used to support teaching and learning, but they are only tools to enhance the individuals or groups capability to learn"(2002, p.2, para.4). When exploring the world of instructional technology, its uses span across a multitude of resources, from research, data collection, analyzing information, and communication. This paper will cover a brief overview of the types of instructional technology used in the educational field. A concise form of instructional hardware, support, and software used to in the educational field. Along with the competency skills needed by the instructors to provide guidance and educational opportunities for the learners of today. Identification of Technology Forms When most people imagine technology they see a computer as the first form of technology available for use in the learning centered world. Computers along with other programs are designed with......

Words: 932 - Pages: 4

Instructional Planning

...Misty Lindsey 000058743 Objective Instructional Planning It will always be the main responsibility of the Teacher to choose curriculum, materials and resources that align with the standards and goals that are set forth by their state and district. An instructional materials evaluation checklist allows the Educator to identify and select materials and resources that are appropriate for the support and learning of each and every student. An instructional checklist contains the four areas of design, procedures, clarity and efficiency. The checklist outlines certain criteria that each area must meet. In the following paragraphs, I will describe why each area of an evaluation checklist is important as well as discuss why culturally appropriate and linguistically sensitive materials criteria may influence the selection process. In addition, I will identify a grade level, subject area and learning objective for a lesson I would want to teach that would contain curriculum materials that I would need to evaluate. Lastly, I will evaluate the curriculum materials and then decide whether or not to use them in my lesson. I will defend my decisions by providing a rationale for each resource. I will begin by discussing how important it is to choose materials that are culturally appropriate and linguistically sensitive. Before evaluating any resources by the checklist, one must choose materials to use within the lesson to be taught. And the selection process of......

Words: 2153 - Pages: 9