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Instructional Practices of Science Teachers in Teaching Science in the Public Elementary Schools: Basis for Enhancement

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Trinity University of Asia
Graduate School

The Dynamic Learning Program and its Effect on the Academic Performance

of Grade V and VI Pupils in the Five major subjects

A Thesis Proposal
Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School
TRINITY UNIVERSITY OF ASIA

In Partial Fulfilment
Of the Requirements for the Degree of
MASTER OF ARTS IN EDUCATION

ROWENA N. CERDON

Trinity University of Asia Graduate School

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1

1 THE PROBEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Background of the Study Conceptual Framework Research Paradigm Statement of the Problem Hypothesis Significance of the Study Scope and Delimitation Definition of Terms

2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Local Literature Local Studies Foreign Literature Foreign Literature

3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design Research Instrument Validation of Instrument Data Gathering Procedure Statistical Treatment of Data

Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Globalization has come upon us, stunning in its swiftness and breadth of scope. The full impact of the phenomenon cannot even be seen yet. Nations brace against, or take advantage of global market forces, rapidly increasing flux of intercontinental migration of human resources and transport of goods, waxing and waning of population in different parts of the world. Rich and poor young and old have quick and easy access to information - important or trivial, useful or harmful. Now, more than ever, every nation is forced to adapt to new conditions with the whole world in dynamic transition. The Central Visayan Institute Foundation (CVIF) Dynamic Learning Program (DLP) is a systems-based scientific approach for enhanced learning especially in the Sciences, Mathematics, and Humanities. With process-induced learning, the CVIF-DLP progressively allows a liberal spectrum of learners, from slow to fast, to achieve superior scholastic performance. The CVIF-DLP by design should work in various socio economic conditions ranging from schools with severe shortage of human and material resources in rural areas to those with access to high technology and high quality resources in urban areas. The program makes use of many ideas of classical and modern pedagogical theories while maintaining a practical perspective- distinguishing between mere rhetoric and what really works for majority of the students in the Philippine classroom. Our education system is suffering from problems typical of many Philippines Elementary School especially with the public like large classes, lack of updated textbooks and instructional materials, teachers deficient in subject matter and pedagogical skills, worn-out facilities, poor living conditions in a rural community, and lack of funds. Nevertheless, based on the premise of a universal basic intelligence independent of socio-economic conditions, it was taken as a challenge to deliver to the CVIF-DLP pupils’ education of the highest possible standards, progressively reaching even global standards. Learning obstacles then had to be tackled one by one until positive performance outcomes could be observed. The learning possibilities for students under the DLP framework are limitless. Learning doesn’t have to happen within the confines of the classroom,” said Esther Santos, president of PLDT-Smart Foundation (PSF).DLP is one of the programs supported by PSF and Smart as part of advocacies in education. The program is a non-traditional pedagogy which aims to improve STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) learning in the country by promoting independent student learning. It was developed by Ramon Magsaysay Awardees and renowned physicists Dr. Christopher Bernido and Dr. M. Victoria Carpio-Bernido for their school, Central Visayan Institute Foundation (CVIF) in Jagna, Bohol. CVIF-DLP is not a curriculum or a module but a teaching method that is geared towards developing each child to his or her fullest potential. Using the same Department of Education curriculum, it is designed to improve basic education given the country’s multiple socioeconomic and cultural constraints. Based on their scientific studies, the Bernidos came up with the formula “80 percent student activity + 4 academic days + 0 homework” to significantly improve the academic performance of the student. Many empirical studies are carried out to explore what Central Visayan Institute Foundation (CVIF) Dynamic Learning Program (DLP) is all about. A developing country, such as the Philippines is undergoing changes brought about by technology, knowledge expansion, population growth and change in leadership. The concern of the Philippine educational system of the present era should then be the preparation of the citizens who would then confront to the challenges of the different world of the 21st century. Preparing adequately with this new world is a heavy responsibility that is bears. They have to be better at the basics of reading, writing and arithmetic or as others would put it, at communication and logic, quantitative thinking. It will be must for them to have a greater facility in Science, Mathematics, Technology and Computer which is also the reason why we need to bring the CVIF-DLP into our classroom and incorporate it into our curriculum.

Background of the Study

The purpose of the study is to discover if and how effective is the use of Dynamic Learning Program in improving the academic performance of the Grade Five and Six pupils. The study will be conducted at Pedro P. Cruz Elementary School, District II, Mandaluyong City. The participants are fifth and sixth grade students. The researcher wanted to bring CVIF-DLP into her classroom and incorporate it into their curriculum. Students look to us, teachers, to prepare them for an increasingly challenging world. Fortunately, with parallel classes and pupils’ centered method, the researcher will meet the challenge of delivering curriculums in ways that engage, motivate and thrill her students. In this, our students had an opportunity to use everything they have learned using the CVIF-DLP as they explore a segment of a grade school curriculum. This study will be conducted to determine the effects of Dynamic Learning Program on the Academic Performance of Grade Five and Six in the five major subjects- English, Science, Mathematics, Filipino and Hekasi. Students’ performances in Pre-test and Post-test will be compared. Observations, parents’ surveys/ comments, test results and on-site experiences in the DLP-CVIF implementation will be recorded to monitor the effect on the performance of the pupils. Through this study the researcher hoped to find the significant difference between the academic performance of the pupils in the traditional teaching framework and with the CVIF-DLP. Through the CVIF-DLP implementation the researcher hoped to achieve mastery learning among the pupils in the five major subjects. Encouraged by the positive experiences during the implementation of a non-traditional teaching framework in the Central Visayan Institute Foundation (CVIF), Jagna, Bohol, Some schools in Mandaluyong decided to apply the program to Grade Five and Six pupils particularly Pedro P. Cruz Elementary School with the support of Congressman Neptali M. Gonzales II .

Pedro P. Cruz Elementary School started to implement the Central Visayan Institute Foundation-Dynamic Learning Program (CVIF-DLP) for Grade 5 & 6 in the school year 2013-2014 and quantitative and qualitative results both showed that it also works in improving the overall academic performance but since its our first year of implementation results are not yet that visible .

The CVIF-DLP is a framework of teaching developed by Ramon Magsaysay Awardees Dr. Christopher Bernido and Dr. M. Victoria Carpio-Bernido. It develops a child to become an independent learner and helps address the problem on shortage of qualified teachers.

“Tests conducted on our Grade 6 pupils showed that there was a remarkable increase in the proficiency in English, Math, Science, Filipino and Hekasi with the help of the CVIF-DLP. We’ve also seen a higher number of students receiving scholastic award and improving their test scores in all

subjects under the new learning model based on the data_______.

“The results from Grade .6 students that studied under the CVIF-DLP framework are consistent with the results we’ve been getting so far for high school where it was initially implemented,” said Ramon Isberto, head of Smart Public Affairs Group. Smart has been helping the Bernidos propagate the

innovative teaching framework to help enhance Philippine education.Based on their scientific studies, the Bernido came up with the formula “80 percent student activity + 4 academic days + 0 homework” to significantly improve the academic performance of the student.

Test results showed that the average percentage score of the first batch of Grade 6 pupils that studied under the CVIF-DLP rose one percentage point compared to that of the previous batch under the traditional teaching framework.

The school also collected the parents and pupils comments on the CVIF-DLP implementation .

A comparison of the pre-CVIf-DLP and post- tests for English, Science, Math, Filipino and Hekasi also showed that the average scores went up by 3 points for English, 4 points for Science, 5 points for Math, 8 points for Filipino and 7 points for Hekasi.

For 2013-2014 school year when CVIF-DLP was implemented, 31 of the 408 graduating students were admitted to scholastic scholarship for garnering a general average of 90 percent and above and without any grade lower than 85 percent in all subjects. In the previous year, only 13 of the 401

graduating students received scholastic awards.

Apart from the encouraging academic progress, there were also qualitative improvements in that under the CVIF-DLP students have a safe and open space for learning, and as such, there is no limit to their new discoveries and creativity.

The no-homework policy is also truth friendly unlike in the previous framework when students would just copy from each other, which defeats the purpose for self-study. Students, particularly those in the lower percentile segment, also realize that they can actually do it as they accomplish their activity sheets. There was a remarkable increase in the number of achievers.

On the part of the teachers, she said there was growth inprofessionalism among the ranks, the spirit of “bayanihan” and opportunities to serve and learn from each other were also highlighted.

We welcome the change, let go of the familiar and trust in the CVIF-DLP. We understand that the program is a paradigm shift towards transformative education. As such, learning by doing is both for the teachers and students.

The building up the capacity of the students for independent learning trains them to make their own choices and be ready to choose the kind of careers they will pursue.

Conceptual Framework

There have been so many approaches that claim to promote the often quoted phrase “quality education.” Researchers have truly proven that teaching approaches truly augment learners’ education. Dynamic Learning Program endeavor to strengthen the quality of education. Research studies that parent, pupils and educators in general influenced the academic performance of pupils. A DLP student who studies efficiently learns effectively while poor and ineffective study habits are causes of failures among students (Da, 2007). Parental supervision is of great help in the development of the pupil’s mentality. Parents who motivate their children to study may be sure of their children’s good academic performance (Amidon,2009). In this study, it also assumed that Expert teachers’ good leadership skills, higher educational preparation, longer service in teaching, and more trainings, seminars and workshops attended related to the profession tend to influence the Academic Performance of the Grade V and VI pupils.

The Research Paradigm

Statement of the Problem CVIF-DLP is not a curriculum or a module but a teaching method that is geared towards developing each child to his or her fullest potential. Using the same Department of Education curriculum, it is designed to improve basic education given the country’s multiple socioeconomic and cultural constraints. This study aims to seek the effects of the Dynamic Learning Program on the academic performance of the Grade Five and Six Pupils. Specifically, it focuses on the following areas of inquiry: 1. What are the comments of the parents, pupils and teachers in the CVIF-DLP implementation? 2. What is the academic achievement of Grade Five and Six pupils? 3. Is there a significant difference between the academic performance of the pupils in the traditional teaching framework and with the CVIF-Dynamic Learning Program?

Research Hypothesis

1. There is no significant difference between the academic performances of the pupils in the traditional teaching framework and with the CVIF-Dynamic Learning Program

Significance of the Study Every individual aims for the total development of his fellowmen to become a productive member of the community he/she belongs and to become a better citizen of the nation. To meet this goal the researchers wanted to find out the effect of CVIF-DLP in the academic performance of the pupils. The researchers believe that this study benefits more the teachers and school administrators for it would enable them to have professional growth among the ranks, the spirits of “bayanihan” and opportunities to serve and learn from each other. Through this, they would enable them to prove that teaching approaches truly augment learners’ education and achieve the desired outcomes. Lastly, the researchers also believe that although the study was intended for elementary pupils using the DLP approach, the rest can be used in other learning areas. The result of this investigation would satisfy the researchers on their professional concern in the achievement of the intermediate level goals.

Scope and Delimitation The scope of this research is the Education students in Grade V and Grade VI in Pedro P. Cruz Elementary School S/Y 2013-2014. The limitations of this research are only those students that are currently enrolled at PPCES and is having the prescribe study load for a given semester. This study is a non-equivalent control group design intentionally using random assignment, a pre-test, and post-test. The pre-tests were the 2012-2013 Periodical scores and 2013 Diagnostic scores. The post-tests were the 2013-2014 Periodical Scores and 2014 Achievement scores. The control group will receive the whiteboard/lecture method of instruction. The experimental group will receive DLP methods of instruction, including the use of the 21st century classroom learning environment, online tests and assessments.

Definition of Terms
To have clarity in understanding the study, the following terms are operationally defined: • Academic achievement/Performance is the outcome of education — the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals or the knowledge or skills developed in the school subjects, usually designated by test scores. • Attitude towards DLP is the acceptance, objection or indecision concerning Dynamic Learning Program as a method of teaching. Operationally, it is defined as how pupils react towards DLP. • Educational preparation. This refers to the level of education earned in a certain profession. • Factor. This refer to the circumstances, conditions, etc. that bring about the achievement of pupils. • Instructional materials. Are the useful devices/ materials used to facilitate teaching. • Intermediate pupils. This refers to pupils who belong to the two highest level of elementary education. . • Methodology. It is a regular, orderly, definite procedure or way of teaching; a system of doing things. • DLP- (Dynamic Learning Program) is not a curriculum or a module but a teaching method that is geared towards developing each child to his or her fullest potential. Using the same DepEd curriculum, it is designed to improve basic education given the country’s multiple socioeconomic and cultural constraints.

Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the literature reviewed as well as the relevant studies which has direct bearing and shed light to the investigation of the problem.

Related Literature

As for any educational enterprise, the philosophy and motivation for our work in the Central Visayan Institute Foundation (CVIF) elementary school influenced the conceptualization and implementation of the school’s educational program and policies, choice of pedagogical strategies and innovations. When we took over the management of the school in 1999, we thought deeply on the short- term and long-term goals we wanted to achieve. We knew that: “it is important not only to be moving, but to be moving in the right direction; not only to be doing something well, but to be doing something worthwhile.” (Perry, 1914, p. 129)

The theological, social and personal aspects of our school’s educational philosophy are not mutually exclusive, but are closely related and often overlap while enhancing each other. Indeed, “as problems become more fundamental, they tend to merge into one another, and the solution of one depends on the solution of the rest.” (Perry, 1914, p. 137)

The CVIF seeks to inculcate the intertwined ideals of love of God and motherland. However this should not simply be affective but also effective love translated into service and tangible contribution to the nation’s progress and development; not just sentiment, not just words to be memorized for examinations and orations, but effective and productive action. From a homily of St. Francis de Sales, we note that, “... to speak well about (a virtue) is not enough. We must come to the second way of understanding this virtue, which is to practice it in the small and great occasions that present themselves.” (Fiorelli, 1987, p.203)

Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter discusses the researcher designs, population samples, sampling techniques research investment, data gathering procedures and statistical treatment of data.

Research Design

This study made use of the descriptive correlational design. It permitted the description of teacher’s selected variables such as leadership skills, performance rating, educational preparation, length of service in the teaching profession, and number of trainings, seminars and workshops attended. It was also employed to test and investigate whether the teacher’s profile variables have a significant relationship with the Mathematics achievement of Grade VI pupils.

Research Instrument
The structure questionnaire is one of the instruments use in gathering data. Two sets of questionnaire were prepared: one set is structured to gather the personal data of the pupils and their

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aronson, E., Blaney, N., Stephin, C., Sikes, J., & Snapp, M.(1978). The jigsaw classroom. Beverly Hills, CA: SagePublishing Company. www.jigsaw.org/history.htm

Bertalanffy, L. von. (1968). General system theory: Foundations, development, applications. New York:George Braziller.

Bustos, A.S., & Espiritu, S.C. (1996). Psychological, anthropological, and sociological foundations ofeducation. Quezon City: Katha Publishing Co., Inc.

Carpio-Bernido, M.V., & Bernido, C.C. (2004). Science, culture and education for change, Part I: innovative strategies for secondary education in the Philippines.Transactions of the National Academy of Science and Technology, 26(2), 243-267, Philippines

www.dlp.ph

Aronson, E., Blaney, N., Stephin, C., Sikes, J., & Snapp, M. (1978). The jigsaw classroom. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publishing Company. www.jigsaw.org/history.htm

Bertalanffy, L. von. (1968). General system theory: Foundations, development, applications. New York: George Braziller.

Bustos, A.S., & Espiritu, S.C. (1996). Psychological, anthropological, and sociological foundations of education. Quezon City: Katha Publishing Co., Inc.

Carpio-Bernido, M.V., & Bernido, C.C. (2004). Science, culture and education for change, Part I: innovative strategies for secondary education in the Philippines. Transactions of the National Academy of Science and Technology, 26(2), 243-267, Philippines.

Montessori, M. (1970). The child in the family. New York: Avon Books.

Scheiter, J.L. (2004). In Proceedings of the 22nd SPP physics congress of the physical society of the Philippines.

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School Profile • Classification

• Enrolment

• Number of Teacher

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