Integrated Circuit Technology

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Christle Comstock June 20, 2013
Unit 1 Assignment 1: Integrated Circuit Technology
The table:

The processor model and year when two billion transistors were placed on a single processor chip is:
Intel is expected to give attendees at the super-techie conference a rundown on Tukwila specs, and on its upcoming low-power Silverthorne processor.
The new 65-nanometer Tukwila Itanium processor, which is expected to be released at the end of this year, will run at up to 2 GHz, have dual-integrated memory controllers and use Intel's QuickPath interconnect instead of a front-side bus. The processor also will have 2 billion transistors on one chip, according to Rob Shiveley, a spokesman for Intel.

Itanium, which first hit the market in 2001, targets enterprise servers and high-performance computing machines.
"The more transistors on a chip, the more work you get out of that chip," said Dean Freeman, an analyst at Gartner Inc. "With one of these new chips, you should get better performance than you would with two chips out of the previous generation."
For some perspective, an earlier Itanium processor, Montecito, was built on 90nm technology and held 1.7 billion transistors. And Penryn, Intel's new 45nm chip for the desktop, which it released last November, has 820 million newly designed transistors.
Shiveley noted that Tukwila is expected to have double the performance of Montvale, another Itanium processor that was released late last year, while using only 25% more power. He added that the low power-consumption increase is based on new voltage frequency management technology.
"You double the performance of the previous processor for only 25% more power. That's pretty significant," said Freeman. "Before, with each new generation of processor, the power consumption would basically go up to match the performance. This is impressive. They've done some good…...

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Integrated Circuit Technology

...Christle Comstock June 20, 2013 Unit 1 Assignment 1: Integrated Circuit Technology The table: The processor model and year when two billion transistors were placed on a single processor chip is: Intel is expected to give attendees at the super-techie conference a rundown on Tukwila specs, and on its upcoming low-power Silverthorne processor. The new 65-nanometer Tukwila Itanium processor, which is expected to be released at the end of this year, will run at up to 2 GHz, have dual-integrated memory controllers and use Intel's QuickPath interconnect instead of a front-side bus. The processor also will have 2 billion transistors on one chip, according to Rob Shiveley, a spokesman for Intel. Itanium, which first hit the market in 2001, targets enterprise servers and high-performance computing machines. "The more transistors on a chip, the more work you get out of that chip," said Dean Freeman, an analyst at Gartner Inc. "With one of these new chips, you should get better performance than you would with two chips out of the previous generation." For some perspective, an earlier Itanium processor, Montecito, was built on 90nm technology and held 1.7 billion transistors. And Penryn, Intel's new 45nm chip for the desktop, which it released last November, has 820 million newly designed transistors. Shiveley noted that Tukwila is expected to have double the performance of Montvale, another Itanium processor that was released late last year, while using only 25% more...

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Integrated Circuit Technology

...Computer Structure and Logic NT1110 Unit 1 Assignment 1: Integrated Circuit Technology Table 1 Processor Model | Year | Transistor Count | | | | 4004 | 1971 | 2,300 | 8008 | 1972 | 2,500 | 8080 | 1974 | 4,500 | Intel 8085 | 1976 | 6500 | Intel8086 | 1978 | 29,000 | Intel 8088 | 1979 | 29,000 | Intel 286 | 1982 | 134,000 | Intel 386 Processor | 1985 | 275,000 | Intel   486 Processor | 1989 | 1,200,000 | Intel Pentium Processor | 1993 | 3,100,000 | Pentium Pro | 1995 | 5,500,000 | Intel Pentium II Processor | 1997 | 7,500,000 | Pentium III | 1999 | 9,500,000 | Pentium 4 | 2000 | 42,000,000 | Itanium 2 McKinley | 2002 | 220,000,000 | Itanium 2 Madison 6M | 2003 | 410,000,000 | Core 2 Duo | 2006 | 291,000,000 | Atom | 2008 | 47,000,000 | Core i7 (Quad) | 2008 | 731,000,000 | Quad-Core + GPU Core i7 | 2011 | 1,160,000,000 | Intel 9300 Tukwila Processor | 2010 | 2,000,000,000 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Comment on the growth of the number of transistors used in integrated circuits over the years.  The growth of transistors used in integrated circuits has nearly doubled every 18 months give or take a little. This growth falls in line with Moore’s Law.   Gordon Moore a founder of Intel noticed the trends in computer memory and made an observation of the trends.   Moore stated that the amount of transistors on a chip would double every 18 months to 2 years. This has held true for the......

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... simpler way to explain is that the earlier CPUs on the market had a single speed or frequency rating while the newer models have a rating which refers to more than one CPU. If you have purchased a computer recently you might have an idea of what this means as salespersons may have sold you on the wonders of multi-core CPUs. The speeds over a large number of years went between 1.3 and 2.8, which is barely double but what needs to be kept in mind is that the 2.8 is a QUAD CORE while the 1.3 is a single CORE. This means that the actual power of the 2.8 would be found if you multiply by four- which would give you a whopping 11.2 which is a far cry from 1.3. Due to the rapid rate that technology has grown in the past few years, most computer technicians you speak with – weather they have heard of Moore’s Law or not will tell you that CPU speeds double each years. Though Moore’s Law had said every two years, this rapid increase in technological production has lessened the period in the minds of technicians and users alike. The limitation which exists is that once transistors can be created as small as atomic particles, and then there will be no more room for growth in the CPU market where speeds are concerned. The growth of transistors used in integrated circuits has nearly doubled every 18 months give or take a little. In the semiconductor sector, where the challenge is to double the number of transistors you can fit on a chip every 18 months, transistor widths are...

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Integrated Circuit Technology

...Integrated Circuit Technology 1971: The Intel 4004 was a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971. It was the second complete CPU on one chip (only preceded by the TMS 1000), and also the first commercially available microprocessor. Such a feat of integration was made possible by the use of then-new silicon gate technology allowing a higher number of transistors and a faster speed than was possible before. 1974: The Intel 8080 was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and was released in April 1974. It was an extended and enhanced variant of the earlier 8008 design, although without binary compatibility. The initial specified clock frequency limit was 2 MHz, and with common instructions having execution times of 4, 5, 7, 10, or 11 cycles this meant that it operated at an effective speed of a few hundred thousand instructions per second. 1978: The 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel between early 1976 and mid-1978, when it was released. The Intel 8088, released in 1979, was a slightly modified chip with an external 8-bit data bus (allowing the use of cheaper and fewer supporting logic chips[note 1]), and is notable as the processor used in the original IBM PC. The 8086 gave rise to the x86 architecture which eventually turned out as Intel's most successful line of processors. 1993: Pentium microprocessor was introduced on March 22, 1993. Its microarchitecture, dubbed P5, was Intel's fifth...

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...Processor | Transistor count | Date of introduction | Manufacturer | Process | Area | Intel 4004 | 2,300 | 1971 | Intel | 10 µm | 12 mm² | Intel 8008 | 3,500 | 1972 | Intel | 10 µm | 14 mm² | MOS Technology 6502 | 3,510 | 1975 | MOS Technology | | 21 mm² | Motorola 6800 | 4,100 | 1974 | Motorola | | 16 mm² | Intel 8080 | 4,500 | 1974 | Intel | 6 μm | 20 mm² | RCA 1802 | 5,000 | 1974 | RCA | 5 μm | 27 mm² | Intel 8085 | 6,500 | 1976 | Intel | 3 μm | 20 mm² | Zilog Z80 | 8,500 | 1976 | Zilog | 4 μm | 18 mm² | Motorola 6809 | 9,000 | 1978 | Motorola | 5 μm | 21 mm² | Intel 8086 | 29,000 | 1978 | Intel | 3 μm | 33 mm² | Intel 8088 | 29,000 | 1979 | Intel | 3 μm | 33 mm² | Intel 80186 | 55,000 | 1982 | Intel | | | Motorola 68000 | 68,000 | 1979 | Motorola | 4 μm | 44 mm² | Intel 80286 | 134,000 | 1982 | Intel | 1.5 µm | 49 mm² | Intel 80386 | 275,000 | 1985 | Intel | 1.5 µm | 104 mm² | Intel 80486 | 1,180,000 | 1989 | Intel | 1 µm | 160 mm² | Pentium | 3,100,000 | 1993 | Intel | 0.8 µm | 294 mm² | AMD K5 | 4,300,000 | 1996 | AMD | 0.5 µm | | Pentium II | 7,500,000 | 1997 | Intel | 0.35 µm | 195 mm² | AMD K6 | 8,800,000 | 1997 | AMD | 0.35 µm | | Pentium III | 9,500,000 | 1999 | Intel | 0.25 µm | | AMD K6-III | 21,300,000 | 1999 | AMD | 0.25 µm | | AMD K7 | 22,000,000 | 1999 | AMD | 0.25 µm | | Pentium 4 | 42,000,000 | 2000 | Intel | 180 nm | | Atom | 47,000,000 | 2008 | Intel | 45 nm | | Barton | 54,300,000 | 2003...

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Unit 1 Assignment1: Integrated Circuit Technology

...YEAR | MODEL | TRANSISTOR COUNT | 1971 | 4004 | 2,250 pMOS | 1972 | 8008 | 3,500 pMOS | 1974 | 8080 | 6,000 NMOS | 1974 | 4040 | 3,000 pMOS | 1977 | 8085 | 6,500 | 1978 | 8086 | 29,000 | 1979 | 8088 | 29,000 NMOS HMOS | 1982 | 80186 | 55,000 | 1982 | 80188 | 29,000 | 1982 | 80286 | 134,000 | 1985 | 80386 | 275,000 | 1988 | 80386SX | - | 1988 | i960 | 250,000 | 1989 | 80486 | 1,180,000 | 1989 | i860 | 1,000,000 | 1993 | Pentium | 3.1 | 1995 | Pentium Pro | 5.5 | 1997 | Pentium II | 7.5 | 1999 | Pentium III | 9.5 | 2000 | Pentium 4 | 42 | 2001 | Itanium | 25 | 2002 | Itanium 2 | 410 | 2003 | Pentium M | 77 | 2005 | Pentium D | 115 | 2006 | Core Duo | 151 | 2006 | Core 2 | 291 | 2006 | Itanium "Montecito" | 1720 | 2008 | Atom | 47 | 2008 | Core i7 | 730 | *2010 | Itanium "Tukwila" | 2000 * | 2010 | Xeon "Nehalem-EX" | 2300 | 2010 | Intel "Westmere" | 1170 | 2011 | Intel "Sandy Bridge" | 995 | 2011 | Xeon E7 | 2600 | 2012 | Itanium "Poulson" | 3100 | 2013 | Intel "Haswell" | 1400 | UNIT 1 ASSIGNMENT1: Integrated Circuit Technology * Indicates the processor model and year when two billion transistors were placed on a single processor chip* Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microprocessor_chronology http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tukwila_%28processor%29 1. According to Computer Structure and Logic, Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers pg. 15, “The growth in the number of......

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...The Transistor is a staple in modern computing. A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electric power. It is composed of a semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. The transistor has become a fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is omnipresent in modern electronic systems. The need for the transistor arose due to its’ predecessor, the vacuum tube’s numerous inefficiencies. Vacuum tubes were notoriously unreliable, due to the heat they generated, and in larger instillations, one failed every couple hours or so. In order to counteract the problem, two Bell Laboratory engineers went to work. In 1947, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain created the transistor. It was smaller, more reliable, and consumed much less power; it made the vacuum tube obsolete. A few short months later, Bell associate William Shockley created the junction transistor, and together the three men were awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics. Moore's Law observes that over the history of computing technology, roughly every two years the number of transistors in dense integrated circuitry doubles. In 1971 Intel created the 4004, the first microprocessor. A microprocessor is a piece of integrated circuitry that contains all the functions of a computer's CPU. the Intel 4004 housed 2,300 transistors, in a chip that was only 2 inches large. Just a few decades prior it would've taken an...

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Unit 1 Assignment 1: Integrated Circuit Technology

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...Joseph Coots 7/17/2015 NT1110 Processor Model Year/ Transistor Count Intel 4004 1971/ 2,300 Intel 8008 1972/ 2,500 Intel 8080 1974/4,500 Intel 8085 1976/ 8,500 Intel 8086 1978/29,000 Intel 8088 1979/29,000 Intel 80186 1982/55,000 Intel 286 1982/ 134,000 Intel 386 1985/ 275,000 Intel 486 1989/1,200,000 Intel Pentium 1993/3,100,000 Intel Pentium II 1997/7,500,000 Intel Pentium III 1999/ 9,500,000 Intel Pentium 4 2000/42,000,000 Intel Itanium 2001/2 5,000,000 Intel Itanium 2 2003/220,000,000 Intel Itanium 2 (9MB cache) 2004/592,000,000 Core 2 duo 2006/291,000,000 Core i7 (quad) 2008/731,000,000 Quad-core Itanium 2012/2,000,000,000 Six-Core core i7/ 2011/2,270,000,000 8-Core Itanium 2012/ 3,100,000,000 62-Core Xeon Phi 2012/5,000,000,000 The processor chip to hold 2 billion transistors model is Quad-Core Itanium Tukwila and it was launched in 2010. http://www.intel.com/pressroom/kits/events/moores_law_40th/?iid=tech_mooreslaw+body_presskit http://www.wagnercg.com/Portals/0/FunStuff/AHistoryofMicroprocessorTransistorCount.pdf Is the growth reasonable? I say that it is reasonable why, because computing power rose and if the trend continues like it has done and it is still as accurate it will rise even more. Does the growth look surprisingly fast or surprisingly slow? I think it’s going surprisingly fast, every 2 years they are doing double of the previous amount of transistors......

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...Integrated Circuit Technology (U1AS1) Processor Model | Transistor Count | Year | Intel 4004 | 2,300 | 1971 | Intel 8008 | 3,500 | 1972 | Intel 8080 | 4,500 | 1974 | Intel 8086 | 29,000 | 1978 | Intel 286 | 134,000 | 1982 | Intel 386 | 275,000 | 1985 | Intel 486 | 1,200,000 | 1989 | Intel Pentium | 3,100,000 | 1993 | Intel Pentium Pro | 5,500,000 | 1995 | Intel Pentium II | 7,500,000 | 1997 | Intel Celeron | 7,500,000 | 1998 | Intel Pentium III | 9,500,000 | 1999 | Intel Pentium 4 | 42,000,000 | 2000 | Intel Xeon | 42,000,000 | 2001 | Intel Pentium M | 55,000,000 | 2003 | Intel Core 2 Duo | 291,000,000 | 2006 | Intel Core i7 (quad) | 731,000,000 | 2008 | Intel Quad-Core Itanium | 2,000,000,000 | 2010 | Intel Six-Core i7/8 | 2,270,000,000 | 2011 | Intel 8-Core Itanium | 3,100,000,000 | 2012 | The processor chip that has two billion transistors placed in it was the Intel Quad-Core Itanium, which was released in 2010. Source: 1. http://www.intel.com/content/dam/www/public/us/en/documents/corporate-information/museum-transistors-to-transformations-brochure.pdf 2. http://www.wagnercg.com/portals/0/funstuff/AHistoryofMicroProcessorTransistorCount.pdf The growth of the transistor is reasonable because computer technology grew and it will keep growing, which Moore’s law proves that the......

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Unit 1 Assignment 1: Integrated Circuit Technology

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Unit 1 Assignment 1 Integrated Circuit Technology

...Unit 1 Assignment 1 Year Processor Model Transistor Count 1971 4004 2300 1972 8008 2500 1974 8080 4500 1978 8086 29000 1982 Intel286 134000 1985 Intel386 Processor 275000 1989 Intel486 Processor 1200000 1993 Intel Pentium Processor 3100000 1997 Intel Pentium II Processor 7500000 1999 Intel Pentium III Processor 9500000 2000 Intel Pentium 4 Processor 42000000 2001 Intel Itanium Processor 25000000 2003 Intel Itanium 2 Processor 220000000 2004 Intel Itanium 2 Processor (9MB cache) 592000000 The first processor with more than 2 billion transistors on it was the Intel Itanium 9300 series, codenamed Tukwila, in 2010 (Takahasi, 2010). The growth of transistors in integrated circuits over the years is right on track with what was predicted in Moore’s Law. Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors on integrated circuits would double every two years. Sometimes the number of transistors has doubled in less than two years. I think the growth is reasonable based on what Gordon Moore predicted. If Moore’s Law continues to be the truth then I estimate that around 2022 is when 100 billion transistors will fit on a single chip and around 2028 is when one trillion transistors will fit on a single chip. References: Moore’s Law 40th Anniversary. Intel. Retrieved from http://www.intel.com/pressroom/kits/events/moores_law_40th/ Takahasi, D. (2010, February 8). Intel’s monster of a chip: an Itanium microprocessor with 2 billion transistors. Venture......

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