Free Essay

Intelligence Analysis

In: Business and Management

Submitted By eraugrad11
Words 1515
Pages 7
Chris Fagin SCTY 385: Intelligence Analysis, Writing, and Briefing FINAL EXAM—SPRING 2008 50 Questions—3 points each (150 points total / 15% of final grade)

1. With respect to intelligence requirements and the National Security Council, who is the final adjudicator within the intelligence community for collection requirements on the National Level? a. President of the United States b. Secretary of Defense c. Secretary of State d. Director of National Intelligence (DNI) e. Director of Central Intelligence (DCI)

2. Identify the “stakeholders” for the target-centric process. a. Collectors, Processors, Analysts, Force Modernization Staff b. Collectors, Processors, Policy Makers, Force Modernization Staff c. Collectors, Processors, Investigators, Policy Makers d. Processors, Analysts, Force Modernization Staff, Policy Makers e. None of the above

3. What are the 3 major components of a “system?” a. Structure, Function, Endstate b. Structure, Function, Process c. Structure, Process, Endstate d. Definition, Function, Process e. Definition, Process, Endstate

4. What is the purpose of a “Normative Model?” The purpose is to describe a best or preferable course of action.

5. Identify the major shortcoming of the traditional intelligence cycle. The traditional Intelligence Cycle is different because it fails to link customers’ process and intelligence professional

6. Identify the two major reasons that all intelligence targets are complex systems. They are dynamic and evolving. They are nonlinear, in that they are not adequately described by a simple structure such as a tree diagram or the linear structure previously illustrated for the traditional intelligence cycle.

7. Differentiate between a Single Target and a Target as a Complex System. A single target is some like a BMP in Afghanistan, no matter how you try and change it; it is still going to be a BMP. A Target as a Complex System is like Pablo Escobar. Each level of his drug cartel had its own sublevel and many different components. You could target one part of it and still not get all of it unless you knew the many levels and that would take time.

8. TRUE / FALSE: The “synthesis / analysis paradigm” is the heart of the intelligence process?

9. What is the difference between a physical and conceptual model? A physical model is a tangible representation of something. Things like a map, globe, calendar / the earth and time. Conceptual models are invention of the mind or abstract thoughts.

10. List the four items never incorporated into a model. Ethnocentric Bias Wishful Thinking Parochial Interests Premature Closure

11. Define Accessibility according to the CARVER methodology. Accessibility is ease with which a target can be reached, either physically or by standoff fire.

12. According to the CARVER methodology, what factor considers public reaction in the vicinity of the target—both on a domestic and international level? E- Effect-on-Population

13. When establishing the needs for defining an intelligence problem, what four major questions need to be answered? What is happening? Who are the key players involved, what is their intent, and what are their capabilities. Where are the key people and things located? What is inside a facility or thing?

14. What is the most important step in the intelligence process? a. Developing trust in your contacts b. Knowing what the customer wants as a final briefing product c. Understanding the problem accurately and in detail d. Resourcing funds to collect on the target e. Projecting early warning signs of threats

15. What is a KIT? An EEI? An SIR and a PIR? KIT= Key Intelligence Topics EEI = Essential Element of Information SIR= Specific Intelligence Requirements PIR= Priority Intelligence Requirement

16. What does “Strategies-To-Task” mean when defining the intelligence problem? It help to understand the problem accurately and in detail.

17. For a Time-Event Chart, what does a triangle represent? Rectangle? Triangles are used to show shifts in method of operation or change in ideology. Rectangles are used to indicate significant events or activities.

18. What is the purpose of an Association Matrix and what does it represent? To displays a relationship between individuals. It reflects associations within a group or similar activity, and is based on the assumption that people involved in a collective activity know one another.

19. What does an Activities Matrix reveal? Activities Matrix reveal an organization’s membership, organizational structure, cell structure and size, communications network, support structure, linkages with other organizations and entities, group activities and operations, and national or international ties.

20. How does an analyst use a Link Diagram? Analyst uses the link diagram to support investigate efforts in terrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal activity, and to graphically portray pertinent information from the association matrix and activities matrix, independently or synthesized.

21. What is gap analysis the process of? Identifying and prioritizing gaps based on the importance of the underlying need and size of the gap. Classifying gaps as to their nature: do they occur in collection, processing, analysis, or dissemination. Sorting gaps as either short term, for current collection systems “tuning” or long term, for new capabilities development.

22. TRUE / FALSE: An enigma is a form of a knowledge gap?

23. TRUE / FALSE: Tactical intelligence deals with issues that require immediate action.

24. TRUE / FALSE: Strategic intelligence deals with long-range issues.

25. “I & W” generally stands for what with respect to the analytical spectrum? Indication and Warning

From the Decision Matrix (DECMAT) below answer questions 26-31:

Safety (x 2) Cost Availability Technology Totals
| | | | | |
|4 (8) |3 |3 |2 |12 (16) |
| | | | | |
|3 (6) |5 |2 |4 |14 (17) |
| | | | | |
|2 (4) |2 |4 |5 |12 (14) |




Note: Higher number is better on scale

26. What is the best COA from this DECMAT without weighting? With weighting? COA 2 COA 2

27. What factor is most important with “weighting?”

a. Safety b. Cost c. Availability d. Technology

28. What COA is the worst based on the DECMAT? COA 1&3

29. Which COA is most available? COA 3 30. Which COA costs the most? COA 2

31. Which COA has the best technology? COA 3

32. SIGINT stands for? NSA stands for what in relation to SIGINT? Signature Intelligence National Security Agency is the federal that agency that uses this primarily

33. IMINT stands for? NRO stands for what in relation to IMINT? Imagery Intelligence National Reconnaissance Office is the federal agency that uses this primarily.

34. MASINT stands for? Name one form of MASINT technology being used. Measurement Geophysical

35. COMINT stands for? What are the two major sub-elements of COMINT? Communications Intelligence TELINT and ELINT

36. HUMINT stands for? DIA stands for what in relation to HUMINT? Human Intelligence Defense Intelligence Agency

37. OSINT stands for? What is the greatest source of OSINT? Open Source Intelligence The World Wide Web

ASSOCIATION MATRIX: Questions 38-42 [pic]

38. SUSPECT—A is potentially affiliated to whom? Suspect H&S

39. SUSPECT—D is positively affiliated to whom? Suspect G, H&O

40. SUSPECT—J is potentially affiliated to whom? Positively affiliated to whom? Suspect M, N&S Suspect K

41. Who is SUSPECT—S affiliated to? Suspect A, J, K, M, &N

42. SUSPECT—H is potentially affiliated to whom? No one

ACTIVITIES MATRIX: Questions 43-50

[pic] 43. Who has weapons experience? Smith, Ontwon, Walid, and Deng

44. Who takes part in nightlife activities? Smith Ontwon, Dnerst, Lafayette, Walid

45. Williams is associated closest to whom from this matrix? Deng, Tikriti Or Deng, Walid, Ontwon, and Smith I couldn’t read the matrix due to some of the letters not being legible.

46. Smith is associated closest to whom from this matrix? Ontwon, Walid, Williams, and Deng

47. What activity is Taylor suspected of? Culture/Political Events

48. Neesen might be connected to which of the following individuals? Williams and Deng

49. Who are couriers? Suspected couriers? Wenyok and Arabal Neesen and Tikriti

50. Who buys weapons? Karloff

EXTRA CREDIT (6-points each):

1EC. With respect to technology—explain the statement “the advantage of being number two.” If you are number one then you have to work out all of the bugs and problems that you will have be creating and putting it into production. By being number two you have seen someone else do the hard work and you learn from their mistakes.

2EC. Who is Robert M. Clark? Why is he important to intelligence analysis? Dr. Clark is the author of the book 'Intelligence Analysis: Estimation and Prediction' published in 1996 and of 'Intelligence Analysis: A Target-Centric Approach', published in 2003. Robert M. Clark served in the USAF as an Electronics Warfare Officer and Intelligence Officer; in CIA as an analyst and Chief of the Directorate of Intelligence's Analytic Support Group; and was President and CEO of Stac, Inc., a technical intelligence and software company. He holds a Ph.D in electrical engineering from the University of Illinois, with postdoctoral studies in communications engineering, and a J.D. from George Washington University. He is a Presidential Interchange Executive, a Professional Engineer, a member of the Virginia State Bar, and a Patent Attorney. He currently is a faculty member of the Intelligence Community Officers' Course.


Similar Documents

Free Essay

Intelligence Testing Analysis Paper

...Intelligence Article Analysis Paper PSY 450 November 4, 2013 Intelligence Article Analysis Paper Intelligence Testing and Theories Intelligence measuring is important for individuals for various reasons. Testing intelligence throughout the years has changed. People change and not the same factors can determine one’s intelligence. The majority of individuals who take intelligence testing are for placement, such as children starting school, college, and employment. Children for example, take testing, and evaluations to see what cognitive development level the child is at and to see if that child meets the basic standard for that age group (Benson, 2003). Intelligence testing determines the level for college students, and adults, such as entering college, and employee candidates for job placement. Today in society there are several testing options for intelligence, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), Standford-Binet Intelligence Scale, and College Admission Test (SAT), (Benson, 2003). The American Psychological Association uses the intelligent intelligence approach for testing, as other professionals do. The intelligence testing determines effectiveness, and analyzes theories in this paper. Intelligence Testing Theories Intelligence testing is determined through a series of tests and evaluations. The evaluations are administered first to determine what type of testing is acquired. College student entering college must take a SAT test first before entering......

Words: 873 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Intelligence Testing Article Analysis

...Intelligence Testing Article Analysis PSY/450, 2014 Intelligence Testing Article Analysis Mapping out the definition of intelligence is not a simple task, it is an ambiguous term that has a variety of definitions. When defining intelligence there appears to be common ground in phrases such as one’s ability to acquire knowledge, ‘he ability to solve problems, or the ability to understand and follow instructions. There are many more phrases and terms that one associates with intelligence, and this may be in part because, the differences of defining intelligence may lie in the fact that questions for evaluating intelligence may not have the same connotation in differing cultures. Shiraev and Levy state that intelligence is the necessary factor that allows an organism to adapt to its surroundings, a way of understanding one’s world (Shiraev, 2010). Along with understanding one’s world, intelligence allows one to make and complete goals, and overcome obstacles that may come into one’s life. This understanding of intelligence sets a good basis for understanding and defining intelligence, however, a do develop a greater understanding it is necessary to study the different theoretical testing of intelligence. This review will also examine the effectiveness of these various theories. Multiple Intelligence Theory In the late 1980’s Howard Gardner introduces a different viewpoint to the traditional theories of intelligence. He did this by including, language, logical-math,......

Words: 1088 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Intelligence Testing Article Analysis

...Intelligence Testing Article Analysis PSY 450 May 21, 2012 Joseph Gaines Intelligence Testing Article Analysis In earlier years many of the intelligence test that had been developed were culturally biased. The early intelligence test favored people that were from urban areas and not people from rural areas. The early intelligence test also favored people who were of the middle class status and not those of the lower class status. The earlier intelligence test also favored people who were white rather than people who were black. In this paper the author will review several different articles that are related to intelligence testing. The definition of intelligence may vary among the different cultures (Rogoff, 1990). An example of the differences among cultures and the way they view intelligence is European Americans think of intelligence in technical skills terms whereas people that are from Kenya consider intelligence to be someone who is an active participant in family and social life. Another example of the way culture views intelligence is people from Uganda view someone as being intelligent if they know the right thing to do and then they follow through with the right actions. Another example is the of the variations on how intelligence is viewed from culture to culture is the latmu people that are from Papua New Guinea, they believe people who have the ability to remember 10, 000 to 20,000 clans as intelligent. The people of the Carolina Island people believe......

Words: 846 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Comparative Analysis of Business Intelligence Tools

...Business Intelligence: Business intelligence (BI) is a technology-driven process for analyzing data and presenting actionable information to help corporate executives, business managers and other end users make more informed business decisions. Business intelligence tools are a type of application software designed to retrieve, analyze, transform and report data for business intelligence. The tools generally read data that have been previously stored, often, though not necessarily, in a data warehouse or data mart. BI Tools Analyzed: When preparing the analysis of the business intelligence tools, I made a personal preference of analyzing the tools leading in the Gartner chart, and that these tools must have efficient service and customer usage. The 5 business intelligence tools which I have selected are as follows: 1. IBM Cognos Link: 2. Oracle BI 12c Link: 3. SAS Enterprise Intelligence Platform Link: 4. Microsoft SQL Server + MS SharePoint Server Link: 5. MicroStrategy Link: Criteria used for Evaluation: I have researched for multiple criteria and then grouped them into 5 main groups......

Words: 1293 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Analysis of the Relationship Between Cultural Intelligence and Transformational Leadership

...Unit V Article Review- Analysis of the Relationship between Cultural Intelligence and Transformational Leadership Columbia Southern University The purpose of this article was to analyze the relationship between cultural intelligence and transformational leadership. The article also evaluates how cultural intelligence, the ability to communicate with employees and comprehend their cultural intricacies are vital skills for transformational leaders.The target audience of this article were the managers and supervisors who sought to gain an understanding of the correlation between cultural intelligence and effective leadership in trade offices. This article could also be appropriate for managers and supervisors at any level in support of their professional development. The authors explain how modern organizations require more managers and supervisors with the ability to distinguish the cultural differences well and communicate appropriately with other cultures (Ismail, A., Reza, R., Mahdi, S., 2012). Transformational leadership was defined as the inspiring proves and motivating the followers in the direction of a common aim or the influencing, motivating, and stimulating others in the direction of doing extraordinary actions is in the way that leaders want (Nielsen, K., Yarker, J., Randall, R., Munir, F., 2009).According to Ismail et al (2012), “an important leadership theory in management literature is transformational leadership which has been theorized to motivate others...

Words: 696 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The Fundamental Value Analysis as the Basis of Management Business Intelligence

...сравнения доходности капитала и расходов на капитал. Формирование расходов на капитал находится в фокусе финансовой аналитики, а обоснование соответствующих решений по структуре капитала происходит на основе традиционно определенных критериев. Ключевые слова: фундаментально-стоимостной анализ, капитал, стоимость, ценность, ликвидность, риск, доходность. THE FUNDAMENTAL VALUE ANALYSIS AS THE BASIS OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE This research paper presents the author's vision of using fundamental value analysis as a basis for management of business intelligence. Logic substantive content of the fundamental value of the research presented in the context of values, the fundamental value and market capitalization. The methodology fundamental cost analysis based on the concept of economic profit, which is based on comparing the return on capital and cost of capital. Formation of the cost of capital is the focus of the financial analysts and the rationale of the relevant decisions on capital structure traditionally takes place on the basis of certain criteria. Keywords: fundamental value analysis, capital cost, value, liquidity, risk, profitability. У сучасних умовах господарювання національних підприємств актуалізується потреба у розвитку методології та аналітичного інструментарію економічного аналізу, основний зміст якого полягає у комплексному системному дослідженні прийомів і способів досягнення економічної ефективності та безпеки розвитку суб’єктів......

Words: 2201 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Analysis of Intelligence

...he United States today is becoming more and more dependent upon technological developments to gather intelligence. The "secret agents" of yesterday are very close to being obsolete. With technology becoming the prime source of intelligence gathering, there is an assumption that other countries are gathering intelligence in similar ways. The only way to combat intelligence gathering against the United States is to know what technological intelligence collection resources are being used for gathering information. This is the job of Multidisciplinary Counterintelligence (MDCI). How does the government know that lines are secure from signals intelligence of foreign adversaries? One of the main tasks of MDCI is the "communication line" of the American Government. Radio waves can easily be detected with the right equipment anywhere within the area, and even microwaves can be detected with a receiver in the right place. MDCI combats these problems with encryption for messages and secure lines for voice communication. The encryption process is found on the governments SIPRnet web, which is used for the transfer of classified information only. For voice communications, the government uses secured lines that will scramble communications into meaningless sounds or scratches. The only problem with these types of devices is that they cannot be located just anywhere and can be very expensive to maintain; furthermore, facilities must be able to support these classified mediums. With all...

Words: 290 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Intelligence Analysis

...generate an intelligence research question and produce a literature review. Select an intelligence topic of your choice that calls for either an explanatory study (why question) or predictive study (what will happen question). Once you have developed your research question, you will conduct a literature review. General Requirements1. Document Format.a. MS Word documentb. One-inch (1”) marginsc. Times New Roman fontd. Twelve (12) pitche. Not including your title page, this assignment should be 4 pages. This does include your annotated bibliography.f. Double space, except for your bibliography’s citations (see example below).2. Citation Format: Turabian. As stated in the Academic Integrity Briefings, information taken directly from another source must be placed in quotations and cited following the Turabian format contained in the week one “lessons” folder. You must cite all other information from your sources, even if you do not quote directly. DIRECT QUOTING SHOULD BE KEPT TO A MINIMUM. | You should include the following elements in your paper Title Page Section I: Introduction In your introduction, you will give the background of your research topic. What is the broader intelligence issue? Why should you reader care about this topic? What are the implications for US national security? Your specific research question will be an element of this larger problem. *Note: An intelligence issue is NOT the evaluation of US policy or process. An intelligence......

Words: 875 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Competitive Intelligence Analysis

...Mini Cases NWM: I believe the software system that best supports the company’s strategy is the “knowledge base and network” management system. The organizations mission is to “Help Clients Achieve Financial Security over a Lifetime.” The description they give for the path of getting there is as follows: “They want to leverage the traditional strengths of customer relationships, expert advice and strong product value to become the premier company helping clients achieve lifelong financial security. They will add specialists that will enable the traditional life insurance sales force to draw upon product and investment experts as needed to address clients increasing complex financial security needs. The knowledge base and networking system will “enable agents to examine the knowledge base for simple issues and bring in (virtually) financial product experts as needed when advising clients.” This system fits perfectly into the balanced scorecard. Under financial, the company wants to manage operating expenses. By only utilizing financial product experts when they are needed, this will allow the company to control costs for their services. Within the customer section of the scorecard, they want to provide expert guidance and needs-based planning. With the knowledge and networking system, they can tailor their approach to each customer individually to provide the best customer service. Under Process, they want to enhance representative productivity. Again, the knowledge......

Words: 739 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Business Intelligence Applications

...What Is Business Intelligence? Business intelligence has become a critical element of information technology. It’s an old term with general or even ambiguous meaning. It has been used synonymously with decision support, analysis, and data warehousing, but today business intelligence has a more specific definition and a better understood application. Taken literally, business intelligence is just that—intelligence or understanding of your business. You get that understanding by analyzing your business operations. That analysis is accomplished by collecting the information that represents your marketing, sales, and service activities, the behavior of your customers in responding to these activities, and the behavior of your internal systems and your suppliers’ systems in responding to your customers’ behavior. Once you have collected this information, and its collection is a continuous process, not a one-time event, you organize and store it in a manner to facilitate its access, processing, and presentation through a broad range of techniques including, reporting, query and analysis, OLAP, and data mining. Finally, you use the results of applying these techniques to improve your business operations and start the analysis cycle all over again. This business intelligence process can deliver significant, bottom-line results. Implementing its technologies and applying its process can help make your business more effective and more efficient, increasing revenue, decreasing......

Words: 2189 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Evolution of American Intelligence

...The Evolution of Intelligence in the United States John Doe Utica University The Evolution of Intelligence in the United States The beginning of intelligence in the United States dates back to the Revolutionary War and America’s first president, George Washington. President Washington requested that Congress set aside a ‘secret service fund’ for clandestine and secret activities (Revolutionary Ideas, 2007). After leading the Continental Army during the war, he knew how important it was to have secret agencies analyze and protect the new country. The use of secret agents, counterintelligence, and the clandestine paramilitary, have been used extensively to set up elaborate deceptions, gather sensitive information, and coordinate operations to cause sabotage towards other adversaries or countries that wished to cause us harm throughout the history of our country (Revolutionary Ideas, 2007). Although President Washington set a growing foundation of creating and fostering the need and use of foreign intelligence, it was President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) that helped combined the efforts of the state and war departments to coordinate efforts on a combined government-wide level (History of the CIA, 2007). The events of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 prompted FDR to make a change to all government intelligence. FDR asked World War I veteran William J. Donovan to draft a new plan for an intelligence service that would combine all those departments’ efforts and make...

Words: 2722 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Final Essay Assignment

...Final Essay Assignment James Peterson What biases, if any, might be common to U.S. intelligence agencies? Give two examples from history or modern day? & Explain what role policymakers play and what problems they face in relation to threat analysis. Course: INTL634 March 3, 2013 What biases, if any, might be common to U.S. intelligence agencies? Give two examples from history or modern day? There are a number of different types of bias mentioned in our text books. In their book, “Analyzing Intelligence” Bruce and Bennett discuss the denial and deception (D&D) bias traps than an analyst can fall into. They mention that there are three major categories: 1) Cultural and personal bias; 2) Organizational bias; & 3) Cognitive heuristics bias. Such biases can taint the analysts opinions based on their type of biases. (George & Bruce. 2008, 127-130) Cultural and personal bias may allow the perception of the intelligence to be tainted by personal beliefs and pre-conceptions that the analyst has developed over his lifetime. This type of bias also may be influenced by personal experiences, morals, customs, habits, and social environments. Organizational bias is “generally associated with the limitations and weaknesses of large bureaucratic organizations”. This type of bias is the result of actual or perceived goals, policies, and traditions of an organization. Bruce also says that the differences are even more extreme when “classified information” is......

Words: 2232 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay


...Business Intelligence Concepts and Approaches Saeed Rouhani Islamic Azad University, Firoozkooh Branch Department of Industrial Engineering, Firoozkooh, Iran E-mail: Tel: +98-912-2034980 Sara Asgari MehrAlborz University, Tehran, Iran E-mail: Seyed Vahid Mirhosseini MehrAlborz University, Tehran, Iran E-mail: Abstract In today’s challenging business environment, it is a vital for organization to access useful information and knowledge. Business Intelligence (BI) is an umbrella concept for tools, techniques and solutions that helps managers to understand business situation. And BI tools can support informational knowledge needs of organizations. With respect to increasing trend of BI researches in BI concepts and applications, in this paper, recent researches and papers of academic journals in this field is systematically review to classify and prioritize the concepts and approaches of business intelligence. Consequently researches was classified in three, managerial, technical and system enables approaches to BI, and specification of each approach and future research quid was described. Keywords: Business Intelligence; Enterprise Intelligence Approaches Systems; Review Study; Business 1. Introduction Today, in the rapidly changing environment, need to correct and just-in-time information is not only necessary for success but also is required for remaining in competition. Business......

Words: 6923 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay


...The comprehensive roles of crime and intelligence analysis they relate to the future of policing and homeland security. The role of the criminal intelligence analyst is to help predict and prevent crimes and also monitor ongoing criminal activity. Analysts do this by gathering information from surveillance, databases, technology (such as GIS geographic information systems), informants, financial records, telephone and other communication records and public information sources. A criminal intelligence analyst takes all of this information, evaluates it, verifies its accuracy and transforms it into viable intelligence to assist law enforcement officers in preventing crime, making arrests or gathering essential evidence for prosecution down the road. Law enforcement intelligence analysts must be capable of finding relationships among the information they are analyzing; at the same time they must understand the criminal mind to create suspect profiles and also discover connections between several suspects. Thus criminal intelligence analysts must have logical, technical, investigative and criminology skills. Intelligence analysts assist with a variety of cases included those related to terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, auto theft rings, narcotics, gangs, money laundering, child pornography rings and other organized crimes, as well as homicides, sexual assaults, burglaries, and so forth. Criminal intelligence, as a process, offers the law enforcement a coherent, rational,...

Words: 1201 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Economic and Business Intelligence

...BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE 8.1- DEFINITION OF BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE: * Business intelligence (BI) refers to computer-based techniques used in spotting, digging-out, and analysing business data, such as sales. * The term Business Intelligence (BI) represents the tools and systems that play a key role in the strategic planning process of the corporation. These systems allow a company to gather, store, access and analyse corporate data to aid in decision-making. Generally these systems will illustrate business intelligence in the areas of customer profiling, customer support, market research, market segmentation, product profitability, statistical analysis, and inventory and distribution analysis to name a few. * Business intelligence is the process of gathering information in the field of business. Information is typically obtained about customer needs, customer decision making processes, the competition and competitive pressures, conditions in the industry, and general economic, technological, and cultural trends. Business intelligence is carried out to gain sustainable competitive advantage, and is a valuable core competence in some instances. Every business intelligence system has a specific goal, which is derived from an organisational goal or from the Vision statement. Goals could be short term (e.g.: quarterly numbers to Wall Street) or long term (shareholder value, target industry share / size etc.). 8.2-background and process: Business......

Words: 2478 - Pages: 10