Free Essay

Intenational Business

In: Business and Management

Submitted By nyazish
Words 3914
Pages 16
Table of content What is data? 3 Qualitative data 3 Quantitative data 3 Types of data sources 3 Primary data 3 Secondary data 4 Example of primary and secondary data 5 Research Topic 5 Introduction to gender discrimination 5 Research objectives 6 Literature review 6 Evaluation of tendencies of gender discrimination 6 Pregnancy as a basis for discrimination 7 Family responsibilities lead to gender discrimination 8 Research Methodology 9 Target of respondents 9 Methods of collection 9 Ethical considerations 9 Types of data analysis method 9 Expected result 10 Questionnaire 10 References 13

Nature of data sources
What is data?

Data, basically, represents facts which were transferred to a state which is more appropriate for a process. After processing the data, it converts into information which is very essential for life of people, organizations and other work processes. Globalization and current trends demand from businesses actively reacting to any variations in environment or preferences of clients. As for that potential for collecting, analyzing and data processing is tremendously significant for any business. (Hox & Boeije, 2008)
All above-stated, data, firstly, have to be collected. There are 2 main natures that data can be in:
Qualitative data

Based on the collection and analysis of non-numerical data qualitative data are used opinions, beliefs, motivation, criteria are needed to be found out. Commonly used questions in this case are "how?" and "why?" Qualitative data is less clear than quantitative, so their usefulness is largely dependent on the skills of the researcher. Group discussions, individual interviews, observations, and etc. usually are considered to be qualitative in nature. Qualitative research is often seen as preparation for the quantitative. As a rule, these types of data are difficult for measuring, counting or expressing in figures. (Cooper & Schindler, 2001)
Quantitative data
It is based on the fact that any research can be expressed in numerical values, which are then analyzed using statistical methods. It includes a lot of figures, tables, graphs, indication of proportion and etc. that makes sometimes it being complicated. Quantitative research methods include surveys which is the most popular one. (Saunders et al., 2007)
Types of data sources
Primary data
Primary data are the data that have not previously existed, and which was first collected for a specific purpose. That is why it is considered to be very specific in nature and as for that appropriateness of it is much helpful since it was analytically collected. But the main shortcoming of this type of data source is that it is quite expensive and time consuming. (Sparrow, 2013)
1.1. Group discussions (focus groups). Focus groups - it's a small group of six to eight people selected from typical representatives of any segment of the market. Attention of all members of the group is focused on a particular topic or issue, familiar to all of them. This topic is discussed with a group for usually half an hour according to pre-arranged plan- this process generally is being recorded in video or audio, and then carefully analyzed. Focus groups can be useful and commonly used in marketing, for example, in the development of new or improving existing product, selecting the names for product, to identifying consumer response to the marketing efforts of the company, etc. (Marczak & Meg Sewell, 2013)

1.2. Individual interviews. This method involves one-on-one conversation between qualified interviewer and the respondent. Subject of the interview is usually extensive. Interview lasts about an hour and is usually recorded as well. The questionnaire is not used, instead of it there is list of topics that is followed by conducting of discussion to obtain the views of respondents on issues of interest of interviewer. These interviews are useful in cases where it is important to understand the nuances of human behavior, motivations to probe, or when discussions are too confidential. It has been found that personal face-to-face interview generates more interesting ideas than other methods. (Guion et al., 2013)

1.3. Observation is based on the assumption that the best way to find out what people are doing - is to observe them in their natural environment. Observation can be carried out either with the consent, or without the knowledge of the observables. It may be the only way to obtain information about the behavior of people in situations when they are not aware of its behavior. For example, it is important to watch how employees deal with new technology, the frequency of usage these unfamiliar devices and etc. (Frances & Rowley, 2000)
Secondary data
Secondary data are the data that already exist somewhere in the final form, being collected before by someone for different other purposes. So the most important thing when using secondary data is to get more familiar with it, for example, how data was actually gathered, who are respondents of study and etc. Secondary data are considered to be easily obtainable and inexpensive to receive. As an example for secondary data followings can be mentioned * book * journal articles * electronically published sources * annual reports * videos * audio records (Robinovich & Cheon, 2011)

Example of primary and secondary data
As an example, we can look at any organizational survey that tends to learn more about experience of employees of returning after injury received at workplace. Research was partly conducted through questioning workers by phone and requesting information such as duration of absence from work and possible difficulties related to returning to work process.
Answers of workers are seen as primary data. As a result, researchers received answers to concrete information about returning to process of employees, as well as rates of work accommodation suggests and the reason employees refusing it.
In the same research, claims for a reward by employees for a loss of working hours or quantity of workers’ salary replacement remunerations can be used as an example of secondary data.
Combining these data sources allows researchers to define, what aspects anticipated short-term works absence amongst injured employees. This material was provided to HR professionals as an assistance to improve returns to workplace for other injured employees.
Both - primary and secondary data have own benefits and drawbacks. Primary data tends to provide more specialized information, but, as a rule, expensive to carry out and requires a lot of time to process. Secondary data are, as a rule, inexpensive, in terms of obtaining it, and could be evaluated faster. Though, as it was collected for other reasons, teasing out process may be required to obtain the useful information. (Rabianski, 2003)

Nature and type of data sources can be used differently by different researchers depending on many aspects, including budget, availability of resources, research questions, and skills. On the basis of these they can choose using primary or secondary data, or even both.
Research Topic
Introduction to gender discrimination
In today’s world, discrimination is manifested in one practice or another. This phenomenon is contrary to the age-old aspirations of humanity for freedom, equality and justice. It is perceived painful, especially, in the field of labor relations, as it affects the most important aspects in terms of meeting the physical and spiritual needs: the right to equal access to employment, equal pay for equal work, equal opportunities for promotion, equal protection against unemployment and etc. (Heyman et al., 2013)
Gender discrimination is the restriction or denial of rights and freedoms, as well as belittling the dignity on the basis of sex. Along with the term "gender discrimination", the term "sexism" is used as well. Gender discrimination is the most common type of discrimination.
In most societies, gender discrimination is regarded as discrimination favoring men to the detriment of women, i.e. discrimination against women. (Segal, 2013)There are two types of gender discrimination: * Direct discrimination is when particular employee is being treated more meticulously and rigorously by employer than the rest * Indirect discrimination is more about creating less favorable conditions for a staff member over the rest of the staff which is very difficult to identify.
Research objectives * to evaluate the tendency of gender discrimination * to analyze gender discrimination on the basis of pregnancy * to understand effect of family responsibilities
Literature review
Evaluation of tendencies of gender discrimination
During long periods of time, one of the bases of the formation of gender roles was the division of labor by sex, the main criterion for what is the biological ability of women to give a birth. In today's world, the role has shifted somewhat, but the traditional gender ideology and traditional gender roles still remain: it is still required from women to concentration on domestic sphere, while for men- getting on with the social sphere (labor). (Ignatius, 2013) That is the most widespread perception based on the inequality of the genders that affects reinforcing this practice, giving it legitimacy and turning back to normal. As an example, 71% of CEOs of major companies are men while 29% are women, respectively. This term is well known as a “glass ceiling” when females are not able to go vertically up within their career path. For small firms, this ratio varies slightly - the proportion of women increases to 42%.

(Rich, 2011)
The highest concentration of women workers is observed in the public sector, the service sector, education, medical services, trade, catering. Men predominate in the construction and transport. This is where the distinction between "male" and "female" occupations comes from. For example, 91% of men and 9% of women are occupied in construction sector- in education and health care - 25% and 75%; (Macarie & Moldovan, 2012)

(Rich, 2011) Today millions of females are discriminated due to gender making them fall out from major social activities, causing depression, burns-out since they work times harder than males in a hope to achieve their goals, and etc. But they still receive no results since gender discrimination is still supported by many people and no real actions are taken to avoid this. (Gluck, 2013)

Long-term observation and analysis led to two important conclusions about the state of the employment market: first, the level of participation of women in employment is lower than that of men (this applies to women of any age, but especially great difference in the age group of 20 to 40 years: the share of employed men over 90%, women - just over 70%), and secondly, in the sphere of women's labor workplace time is shorter than that of men, in particular, by the need to care of children and home. Ten-hour working day during normal employment is common for 20% of men and only 8% of women. (Yuracko, 2013)

A very important indicator of a socially unequal position of women is their job without a permanent contract or a fixed-term contract which means they are under the constant threat of dismissal. At the age of 25-45 years 4/5 of all employed men are working on permanent contracts, but working women it is only half from total number. (Ibarra et al., 2010)
Pregnancy as a basis for discrimination
One of the common reasons of gender discrimination is affected by pregnancy. Most of low level salaries received by women are the consequences of so-called «general tendency of discrimination" when they are forced to take un-paid leave by employers having learned about their pregnancy. (Bowtell, 2013)
In 2010, Commission on equal opportunities found out that 30 000 women annually lost work caused by gender discrimination based on pregnancy. Today, experts describe increase of level of biased selection of pregnant women and young mothers for ensuring redundancy and define discrimination as more and more "flagrant". (Banks & Russell, 2008)
The main reason for it is that employers have to perform followings: * To cover medical insurance of health conditions related to pregnancy; * To refund the expenses connected with pregnancy; (Tomkovicz, 2008) * To provide to pregnant women, being on leave, with ability to ensue seniority, holidays, increase of a salary and short-term disability assistances; * To provide equitable accommodation that includes: change of the working tasks, alternative services, maternity leaves, or paid leaves on pregnancy (Equal Opportunity Commision, 2011)
This demonstrates that employers do not favor women as there is a possibility they become pregnant. Maintaining pregnant women requires a lot of time, effort and most importantly expenses which employers try to avoid.
Sadly, statistics still show that every seventh woman lost work during a maternity leave and it is considered that as long as employers aren't ready to afford any possible risks for profit and growing business, discrimination concerning women on a workplace probably will increase. (Mellon, 2011)
Family responsibilities lead to gender discrimination
This topic refers to both- male and female employees- but most cases on family responsibilities discrimination involved women- out of 10 employees 9 were woman. (Grossenbacher, 2010)
Women, who have little children at their home, are likely to be biased during interview considering family responsibilities. Though the law forbids the potential employer from questioning about family duties directly, it often occurs during the interview time in many cases. It can instigate employing manager to overpass highly qualified woman applicant if he thinks that she will be disrupted between her house and work obligations. Even if the woman is being already hired, her line manger are able to regard to her employee file to see that there little children are signed on insurance or other advantages. Employers often typecast woman caregivers who are likely to engage in part time or flexible working programs. As for that, they are believed to be less dedicated to the workplace comparing to their full time coworkers. Overall, this proceeding still exists at modern office. (Rainer, 2008)
The women having children are most likely, to face this type of gender discrimination. It was established that 79% of female employees have less chances to be recommended for employment, 100% of them are less likely to be offered a promotion, and generally, will be offered $10 000, at least, less salary for the similar job, comparing to men. (Shelton, 2008)

The main explanation is that employers’ decision on hiring female is mostly based on following statistics: * the typical caregiver to aging parents is an average woman with a full time job(almost 62%!) having different family duties and commitments * Stress and burn-outs for caregivers increased up to 27% (Miller, 2011) * Approximately 2/3 of caregivers experience various conflicts concerning burdens at home and employers’ demand to fulfill responsibilities * More than a third of respondents reported that their jobs were affected by caregiving – either quitting completely, or retiring earlier, reduction of work hours and etc. (Recoules, 2011)

All above mentioned there is now clear image why females are being biased- the perception and supporting statistics affects even single women that are not falling in mentioned categories. But even if the women are struggling to handle both- family and home duties, they should not be discriminated considering the fact that they are successfully carrying part-time or flexible working programs.
(O'Leary & Kornbluh, 2013)
Research Methodology
Target of respondents
In context gender discrimination, target respondents will be all employees (male/female) within all levels of the organization who may have experienced discrimination within the workplace at any point of their career in the organization.
Methods of collection
As for method to collect data on discrimination self-governed questioning methods, apparently, is the most effectual one as it makes it possible to obtain information from a large number of people in non-menacing way as it will be carried out anonymously. Low-cost of management of whole research process is seen as one more advantage of this method. Also it is supposed to make questioning easily when it comes to comparing and analyzing results.
Ethical considerations No matter which elements of business you are researching, there has to be ethical consideration while conducting researches. Ethics are considered as guidelines or behavioral criteria that adjust the research in a way that it is not offensive or discriminatory in nature. That is why the purpose of ethics in researches is believed to be that no one suffers from negative impact of conducting research. This aim should include aspects such as informed consent, right to privacy, deception and etc. it is very crucial elements since it benefit a lot to response rate and truthfulness of the answers. As a rule, researches should be arranged so that respondents don't feel discomfort, confusion of consciousness, etc. (Saunders et al., 2007)
Types of data analysis method
As for data analysis, exploratory data analysis is seen to be the most appropriate one. It is a various combinations of tools which are used generally for research of data that helps to find tendencies, exceptions, correlations and other statistical views which are not obvious. This method is comprehensive view of existing data from existing and historical researches conducted by the company.
The purpose of exploratory data analysis is to define the viability of predictive model for concrete business problems and if yes, what form of modeling is the most suitable.
As a result, low risk level and the inexpensive comprehensive report of conclusions are made and recommendations are provided that help to business in terms of usage of additional modeling to overcome its problems. At least, it can disclose aspects of activity of your company that others are not likely to see. (Fire, 2013)
You do not come up with trustworthy conclusions from large volume of data, simply gleaning over that - so, you have to explore it attentively and logically so it helps you to find mistakes, to discredit assumptions, and also to recognize statement between key variables.
Expected result
As a result of research and questionnaire, it is likely to observe the trends, frequency and areas of gender discrimination. It is also reveals the factors and terms effecting gender discrimination at workplace in most often cases. Questionnaire helps to analyze which elements of the organization should be improved and monitored carefully in order to avoid gender discrimination.
The questionnaire allows researcher to ask employees appropriate questions on gender discrimination. The employees will be given 2 weeks to answer these questions anonymously. Questionnaire can also be used to analyze specific policy of the company which, probably, brought into the person to suffer from direct/indirect gender discrimination and etc.

Q1. Your gender Female Male Transgender

Q2. Which level of the company you operate within?

Top management Middle-level management First-level management

Knowledge worker Operational level

For how long have you been working?

Q3. From your experience, do you think male & female are being treated similarly in recruitment & selection?

Male & Female equally Men less favorably Women less favorably

Q4. Remuneration

Male & Female equally Men less favorably Women less favorably

Q5. Appraisal or Performance Management
Male & Female equally Men less favorably Women less favorably

Q6. Training & Development
Male & Female equally Men less favorably Women less favorably

Q7. Promotion Opportunities
Male & Female equally Men less favorably Women less favorably

Q8. Family-Friendly Policies
Male & Female equally Men less favorably Women less favorably

Q9. Flexible Working
Male & Female equally Men less favorably Women less favorably

Q10. Do you think that general gender culture is present at a workplace?

Yes No

(a). Could you remember an event at workplace, where you were treated less favorably or in a discriminatory way based on gender?

Yes No

(If yes, please go to Q11b) (If no, please go to Q12)

(b). Which of following aspects did it cover? Pregnancy

Family responsibility

Other (comment):

(c). Please, comment on the outcomes of your discrimination:

Q12. What can you recommend company to encourage gender equality?

Q13. Were there any significant gender problems or subjects missed? If yes, please comment:

Banks, J. & Russell, , 2008. Pregnancy Discrimination in the Workplace: Legal Framework and Review of Legal Decisions 1999 to 2008.
Bowtell, H., 2013. With pregnancy discrimination cases rising, flexibility is key to retaining talented women. Legal Week, 15(13), p.13.
Cooper, D. & Schindler, P., 2001. Business Reseach Methods. 7th ed. New York: McGraw Hill.
Equal Opportunity Commision, 2011. Information on ‘Pregnancy in the workplace’.
Fire, D., 2013. A Closer Look at Exploratory Data Analysis: What and Why. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 12 August 2013].
Frances, S. & Rowley, J., 2000. Observation: Perspectives on research methodologies. Management Research News, 23(12), pp.10-16.
Gluck, S., 2013. The Effects of Gender Discrimination in the Workplace. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 11 August 2013].
Grossenbacher, K., 2010. Discrimination Against Employees with Caregiving or Family Responsibilities. Law Journal Newsletters, p.3.
Guion, L.A., Diehl, D.C. & McDonald, , 2013. Conducting an In-depth Interview. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 8 August 2013].
Heyman, F., Svalerid, H. & Vlachos, J., 2013. COMPETITION, TAKEOVERS, AND GENDER DISCRIMINATION. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 66(2), pp.409-32.
Hox, J.J. & Boeije, H.R., 2008. Data Collection- Primary vs. Secondary.
Ibarra, H., Carter, N.M. & Silva, C., 2010. Why Men Still Get More Promotions Than Women. Harvard Business Review8, 88(9), pp.80-126.
Ignatius, A., 2013. "Now Is Our Time". Harvard Business Review, 91(4), pp.84-88.
Macarie, & Moldovan, O., 2012. THE IGNORED RESOURCE: GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN THE LABOR FORCE. Managerial Challenges of the Contemporary Society. Proceedings, 4, pp.12-19.
Marczak, M. & Meg Sewell, 2013. USING FOCUS GROUPS FOR EVALUATION. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 10 August 2013].
Mellon, D.R., 2011. FAMILY RESPONSIBILITIES DISCRIMINATION. The Councellor, 12(3), pp.4-6.
O'Leary, A. & Kornbluh, , 2013. Family Friendly for All Families. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 12 August 2013].
Rabianski, J.S., 2003. Primary and secondary data: Concepts, concerns, errors, and issues. The Appraisal Journal, 71(4), pp.43-55.
Rainer, H., 2008. Gender discrimination and efficiency in marriage: the bargaining family under scrutiny. Journal of Population Economics, 21(2), pp.305-29.
Recoules, M., 2011. How can gender discrimination explain fertility behaviors and family-friendly policies? Review of Economics of the Household, 9(4), pp.505-21.
Rich, M., 2011. Gender Gap on Wages Is Slow to Close. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 12 August 2013].
Robinovich, E. & Cheon, S., 2011. Expanding Horizons and Deepening Understanding via the Use of Secondary Data Sources. Journal of Business Logistics, 32(4), pp.303-16.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Adrian, T., 2007. Research Methods for business students. 4th ed. Harlow: Prentice Hall.
Segal, J., 2013. Boys Just Want to Have Fun. HR Magazine, 58(3), pp.73-75.
Shelton, B.A., 2008. The Face of Discrimination: How Race and Gender Impact Work and Home Lives. Contemporary Sociology, 37(4), pp.323-24.
Sparrow, P., 2013. Primary Research Advantages And Disadvantages. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 10 August 2013].
Yuracko, K.A., 2013. SOUL OF A WOMAN: THE SEX STEREOTYPING PROHIBITION AT WORK. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 161(3), pp.757-805.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Intenational Business

...REPORT ON Submitted To Submitted By TanziaNasrin. ID#123 051 057 Adnan Hasan. ID#123051058 Afsana Zaman . ID# MD.Niaz Morshed. ID#123051039 Date Of Submission Index Particulars | Page No. | Objective, Methodology, Scope | 3 | Executive Summery | 4 | MNE, Red bull Strategy | 5 | Foreign Direct Investment in Bangladesh | 6 | Key Factors for Red Bull’s Market Strategy in Bangladesh:(Challangeges) | 7-9 | Investment Climate | 10-13 | Reference | 14 | Objective · To Analyze the Global strategy of Red Bulls’s to enter in Bangladesh · To identify the position of Red Bulls’s in the consumers mind relative to its competitors. · To recognize how Red Bulls’s can compete with other brands · Analyze the branding strategy of Red Bulls’s · Identify the legal issue · Analyze the international challenge · To make recommendations, how Red Bulls\s ......

Words: 2741 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Blood Sale

...Question 1: Is Sol Levin running a business ‘just like any other business’, or is his company open to moral criticism? Defend your answer by appeal to moral principle. Sol Levin’s business has adopted the practices that would create injustices or would violate the rights of individuals due to this business is allowing blood to be bought and sold in unfair manner. Every person has an equal right to life. To protect this right, society has an obligation to ensure that every person whether rich or poor has equal access to medical benefits. But if a market in blood were to develop, ability to pay would determine who could buy blood, while economic need would determine who would be motivated to sell their blood. The very wealthy would end up buyers of the blood being sold by the very poor. A market in blood would thus benefit the wealthy while putting pressures on the poor to endanger their own health. Such an unequal distribution of health benefits and burdens would be unjust. (Brock and Wikler, 2006) Moreover, individuals have a right to live their lives with freedom and dignity. A market in blood would inevitably lead to abuses that would violate the freedom and dignity of individuals. Allowing blood to be bought and sold would lead to what one critic called the "plundering of peasants' parts for profits", the exploitation of the poor and ignorant, especially in impoverished third-world countries....

Words: 1542 - Pages: 7

Free Essay


...Đặt vấn đề Trong những năm qua, EU luôn tái khẳng định cam kết của mình trong việc hỗ trợ quá trình chuyển đổi của Việt Nam dưới nhiều hình thức khác nhau nhằm giúp Việt Nam từng bước hội nhập với nền kinh tế toàn cầu. Đáp lại, chúng ta cũng tạo nhiều điều kiện thuận lợi cho các doanh nghiệp EU tiếp cận và thâm nhập thị trường Việt Nam. Những chương trình hộ trợ thương mại song phương như vậy đã góp phần thúc đẩy và gắn kết mối quan hệ thương mại giữa đôi bên và là một nền tảng quan trọng cho sự ra đời của Hiệp định thương mại tự do (FTA) EU-Việt Nam trong tương lai. A. Giải quyết vấn đề I. Giới thiệu một số chương trình hỗ trợ song phương giữa Việt Nam và EU 1. Dự án Hỗ trợ Chính sách Thương mại và Đầu tư của châu Âu (EU-MUTRAP) Một vài thông tin về dự án : - Ngân sách: 16.5 triệu Euro, trong đó Liên minh châu Âu EU tài trợ 15 triệu Euro. - Cơ quan điều hành và thực hiện Dự án: Bộ Công Thương. - Thời gian thực hiện Dự án: từ ngày 20 tháng 9 năm 2012 đến ngày 31 tháng 1 năm 2018. - Mục tiêu tổng thể của Dự án: hỗ trợ Việt Nam hội nhập sâu hơn vào hệ thống thương mại toàn cầu, ASEAN và hợp tác tiểu vùng, tăng cường quan hệ thương mại và đầu tư giữa Việt Nam và EU, tối đa hóa lợi ích của quá trình phát triển kinh tế, bao gồm tăng trưởng kinh tế toàn diện và xóa đói giảm nghèo[1]. - Mục tiêu cụ thể của Dự án: hỗ trợ Bộ Công Thương tiến hành thuận lợi hóa thương mại quốc tế và đầu tư thông qua việc tăng cường năng lực hoạch định chính sách, tham gia vấn chính sách,......

Words: 2023 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Hsbc Bank Report

...AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY-BANGLADESH Presentation Report Group Name: Prepared For ERFAN HAQUE Faculty of Business school AMERICAN INTENATIONAL UNIVERSITY-BANGLADESH Prepared By * RABBI, MD. FAZLAY 12-20952-1 * RABI, OBAIDUL ISLAM 12-20984-1 * RINKY, ROZINA AKTER 12-20929-1 * HABIBA UMMA 12-20930-1 * CHOWDHURY, MD. RIASAT IMTIAZ 12-20934-1 * SHAWON, SHAHRAJ HOSSAIN 12-20950-1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. History 2. Cascade Approach 3. Mission & Vision 4. Different Objectives 5. Human Resource Planning 6. Marketing Mix 7. Training 8. Remuneration/Benefits 9. Privacy & Security System 10. Loans 11. Types Of Banking 12. Conclusion History The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited is a prominent bank established and based in Hong Kong since 1865 when Hong Kong was a colony of the British Empire. It is the founding member of the HSBC Group and since 1990 is now a wholly owned subsidiary of HSBC Holdings plc. The company's business ranges from the traditional High Street roles of personal finance and commercial banking, to corporate and investment banking, private banking and global banking. It is the largest bank in Hong Kong with branches and offices throughout the Asia Pacific region including other countries around the world....

Words: 1670 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...2014 Kerry Taylor 30137553 12/2/2014 2014 Kerry Taylor 30137553 12/2/2014 Marketing Management and Strategy Marketing Management and Strategy Contents Introduction 2 Aldi 3 Buyer's bargaining power: 4 Suppliers' bargaining power: 4 Threats of substitutes: 4 Threats of new entrants: 5 Recommendations 6 Bibliography 7 Introduction Retailers differentiate themselves from one and other, this terminates the consumer's perception of competing stores. This is promoted through the strategic development, the marketing‐oriented application of technology, and precise targeting of consumer demands. The author's Strategic Choice Grid indicates that, through insightful and innovative marketing, UK grocery retailers can avoid the stagnation threatened by saturation. Aldi Aldi started in 1946, when the Albrecht brothers took over their mother’s grocery store in Germany. According to (Ruddick, 2014) from the small provincial store, they built one of Germany’s biggest retailers, which is renowned for its low prices. Aldi arrived in the UK in 1990 and has opened over 500 stores and has over 9000 stores in 18 countries. Aldi’s product range specialises in their own brand, which are cheaper than well-known brand labels. This is because they can control their prices at its distribution level. Aldi does not only stock food products, they also stock items such as; underwear, toiletries and fishing equipment. Comparing Aldi to the four......

Words: 2061 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay


...Question 1 Choice of relevant incoterms available to parties From the facts of the given case, it is apparent that the buyer, Bai Yun Incorporated, located in Beijing, China intends to iniatiate a sale of goods contract with the seller, Susie Seller located in Melbourne, Australia. Although neither party made any mention to the type of incoterm to be used, the buyer in this instance specifically requested that the terms of contract provide for main carriage to be arranged for and borne by the buyer. In addition to that, the buyer also insists on using China Ocean Shipping Company (COSCO). Because of this, it would be reasonable for us to assume that the main carriage will be through sea. Incoterms, the brainchild of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), is a standardised set of trade terms for the carriage of goods domestically and internationally[1]. It is not mandatory to use Incoterms as it is not binding law. However, having incoterms incorporated as part of a sale of goods contract, can reduce uncertanties arising from different trade customs[2]. In this instance, 3 out of the possible 11 Incoterms may be considered by the parties. They are as follows; (a) FCA – Free Carrier This term requires the seller, Susie, to bring the goods to Bai Yun's appointed carrier and have them cleared for export. This term can be used on any mode of transportation[3]. (b) FAS – Free Alongside Ship Here, Susie is responsible for more; transporting the goods to the port where......

Words: 2416 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Cruise Industry

...Overview of the Cruise Industry The Florida-Caribbean Cruise Association stated that the industry forecasted roughly 16 million passengers in 2011, which is a 6.6% increase over the year 2010. In 2010 a record of 15 million passengers were forecasted to have cruised, with 11.1 million originating in North America. The cruise industry is the fastest-growing category in the leisure travel market. Since 1980, the industry has experienced an average annual passenger growth rate of approximately 7.4% per annum. Since 1990, over 169 million passengers have taken a two or more day cruise; over 67% of the total passengers have been generated in the past 10 years, and nearly 40% in the past 5 years. The average length of cruises is nearly 7 days. The cruise product is completely diversified. Throughout the history of the industry, it has responded to the vacation desires of its guests and encompassed innovation to develop new destinations, new ship designs, new and diverse onboard amenities, facilities and services, plus wide-ranging shore side activities. Cruise lines have also offered their guests new cruise themes and voyage lengths to meet the changing vacation patterns of today’s travelers. The cruise industry’s establishment of over 30 North American embarkation ports provides patrons with unprecedented convenience, cost savings and value by placing cruise ships within driving distance of 75% of North American vacationers. By providing significant cost savings......

Words: 2913 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

(91204980) Brand Image of Islamic Banks

...BRAND IMAGE OF ISLAMIC BANKS SUBMITTED BY TARIQ JALEES LT.COL(RETD) RAZA KAMAL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR DIRECTOR ACADEMICS COLLEGE OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE PAF-KARACHI INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGY KORANGI CREEK , KARACHI-75190 WWW.PAFKIET.EDU.PK UAN 111-723-733 TELEPHONE 5091114-7 FAX 92215091118 RESIDENCE ADDRESS OF TARIQ JALEES 87-Q, BLOCK-2, PECHS, KARACHI, RESIDENCE TELEPHONE 9221-4556308 MOBILE 0300-82007019 EMAL TARIQUEJ2004@YAHOO.COM TARIQJ@PAFKIET.EDU.PK 1 BRAND IMAGE OF ISLAMIC BANKS 1.0.0 Introduction What is Islamic banking? What is brand Image? Both the topics independently have been researched, discussed and deliberated so many times that the readers generally don’t fancy reading them. However, there is not a single research to best of our knowledge wherein researchers may have combined both the diversified topics. Lack of research on “brand image of Islamic bank” was one of the major motivator for undertaking this research. Thus the objective of this paper was to measure the brand image of Islamic banks, and develop the profile of the customers of Islamic banks. 1.1.0 Literature Survey In order to develop the conceptual background, the literature review has been structured as follows: 1.1.2 A brief over view on Islamic banking and literature on consumer behavior, characteristics and perception towards Shariah banks A brief overview of branding imaging concept An Overview Islamic Banking There are about 270 Islamic banks around the world (including......

Words: 4145 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Training and Development

...Note: ---This Project is made with the help of internet and some other books. This is not linked with any organization. This project will help the students to make their assignments and projects. ( TABLE OF CONTENTS |CHAPTER |TITLE |PAGE NO | | |ACKNOWLEDGEMENT |Ii | | |ABSTRACT |iii | | |LIST OF TABLES |iv | | |LIST OF CHARTS |v | | I |INTRODUCTION |1 | | |Profile of Organization |8 | |II |REVIEW OF LITERATURE |16 | |III |OBJECTIVES |18 | |IV |RESEARCH METHODOLOGY...

Words: 5172 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Foreign-Market Entry Strategies in the European Union

...A popular way for a firm to secure a business presence in a foreign nation is through foreign direct investment (FDI) in production, marketing, and/or distribution facilities. Formally defined, FDI is an investment in which a multinational enterprise (MNE) acquires a substantial controlling interest in a foreign firm or in some other manner establishes fixed assets on foreign soil. Prior to 1970, multinational operations were often characterized as an exclusively American institution (Erdilek 1985). However, during the 1970s the U.S. shifted from being the largest “home” country to being the largest “host” country. Indeed, post-1960s FDI activities had quickly become far less centralized, with an active exchange of capital assets moving within the “Triad” group (United States, European Union, Japan). Table 1 contains the share of FDI monetary inflows to various regions around the world. The average share of inflow into the EU was...

Words: 7034 - Pages: 29

Free Essay


...DEMOCRACY * Give a comprehensive appraisal of the revival of democracy after the interregnum of 1999-2002. (2002) * Debate, National Interests VS Democratic Values in the context of recent political and constitutional developments in Pakistan. (2003) * The rise of religious extremism and militancy has become a major challenge to Pakistan’s internal stability and promotion of democracy. Elaborate. (2008) * Why most countries of the Muslim world are devoid of democratic governance? What changes would you recommend to make them modern democratic states? (2009) * Democracy in Pakistan has remained an elusive dream. Why it has taken so long to develop a road map and follow it with necessary modification? Explain (2009) GOVERNANCE * Governance through ordinances has been the hallmark of all regimes, democratic or otherwise, in Pakistan. In this context briefly review Pakistan’s political, constitutional and judicial landmarks. (2000) * Note: Ramification of Taliban’s style governance. (2000) * Pakistan is suffering from crises of governance at Institutional level. Suggest remedies to mitigate this situation. (2007) GLOBALIZATION * Discuss politics of World Trade Organization and Globalization. (2000) * Globalization, as being shaped by the World Trade Organization in a world of un-equal nation-slates, has un-manageable implications. Discuss. (2003) 911 CONSEQUENCES * “A single catastrophic event –‘Nine Eleven’ – has turned the......

Words: 6308 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

3g Historically

...It also includes high quality of service requirements for multimedia support (real time audio, high speed data, HDTV video content, mobile TV, etc). 4G is coming, but is not here yet, because the specs are still being worked over at the ITU (Intenational Telecom Union) in Geneva.  A 3G/4G network is one where the network meets all the 3G ITU Specifications, and also has upgraded to meet the 4g Specifications as they are ratified by the ITU. What they want to say when they Announce the 3G/4G Network is that they are ready for the future. Most engineers will tell you that they really mean they'll say anything to sell their phones. Millions of consumers in the UK are now used to connecting to the...

Words: 5324 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Costing the Banking Services a Management

...EADA Business School EADA, c/o Aragó 204, 08011 Barcelona, Spain E-mail: Tel: 934 520 844; Fax: 933 237 317 Web: Xavier Sales Professor at the Management Control Department. EADA Business School E-mail: Abstract The present study aims to outline the characteristics of the cost systems used in banking institutions. It does so by describing the partial costs and full cost systems in banking institutions. It then looks at the limitations of these approaches to the current competitive conditions and goes on to consider the applicability of the activity based costing system in the allocation of indirect transformation costs to branches, products and customers. Finally, we will look at the findings of a questionnaire to Spanish savings banks in order to evaluate how widespread these systems are and how they are used in savings banks. We found that direct costs systems predominate in customer and products entries whereas full costs systems are much more widespread in the case of branches. Furthermore, we also found that the use of activity based costs systems is very limited. Keywords: Saving banks Cost structure Management accounting Cost systems Activity based costing. JEL Classification Codes: M41 – Accounting G21 - Banks; Other Depository Institutions. 1. Introduction Historically, management accounting in banking institutions was introduced considerably later in comparison with companies in other sectors....

Words: 10513 - Pages: 43