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International Finance Crosswell's Brazilian Diapers

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31/7/07

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International Trade Finance
The purpose of this chapter is to explain how international trade—exports and imports—is financed. The contents are of direct practical relevance to both domestic firms that merely import and export and to multinational firms that trade with related and unrelated entities. The chapter begins by explaining the types of trade relationships that exist. Next we explain the trade dilemma: exporters want to be paid before they export and importers do not want to pay until they receive the goods. The next section explains the benefits of the current international trade protocols. This discussion is followed by a section describing the elements of a trade transaction and the various documents that are used to facilitate the trade’s completion and financing. The next section identifies international trade risks; namely, currency risk and noncompletion risk. The following sections describe the key trade documents, including letters of credit, drafts, and bills of lading. The next section summarizes the documentation of a typical trade transaction. This section is followed by a description of government programs to help finance exports, including export credit insurance and specialized banks such as the Export-Import Bank of the United States. Next, we compare the various types of short-term receivables financing and then the use of forfaiting and countertrade for longer term transactions. The mini-case at the end of the chapter, “Crosswell International’s Precious Ultra-Thin Diapers,” illustrates how an export requires the integration of management, marketing, and finance.

21
CHAPTER

Eiteman-2 US CHAPTERS

31/7/07

4:01 PM

Page 40

❙ International trade finance / 21

The trade relationship
Trade financing shares a number of common characteristics with the traditional value…...

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