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CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 THE INDUSTRY
Tyre industry consumes over 60% of the total rubber production with respect to Indian economy. But in actuality only just around 52% of the tyre is natural rubber. Remaining 48% consist of synthetic rubber, carbon, chemicals, etc.
The origin of tyre industry in India dated back to 1926 when Dunlop Rubber Limited set up the first tyre factory in West Bengal. MRF followed the suit in 1946. Since then the Indian tyre industry has grown rapidly. Transportation industry and tyre industry go hand in hand as the two are interdependent. Transportation industry has experienced 10% growth rate year after year with an absolute level of 870 billion ton freight with an extensive road accounts for over 85% of all freight movement in India.
The tyre industry in India is classified under 4 categories based on the year of commencement of production namely 1. 1st Generation Companies - which included Dunlop and Firestone. 2. 2nd Generation Companies - which included MRF, CEAT, Goodyear, and Premier. 3. 3rd Generation Companies - which included Apollo, Vibrant, Modi Rubber, and J.K.Tyres. 4. 4th Generation Companies - includes the companies started after 1970 and also which are yet to start production.

Pneumatic Tyres are manufactured according to relatively standardized processes and machinery, in around 450 tire factories in the world. Over 1 billion tyres are manufactured annually, making the tyre industry the majority consumer of natural rubber. Tire factories start with bulk raw materials such as rubber, carbon black, and chemicals and produce numerous specialized components that are assembled and cured.

1.2 HISTORY OF THE TYRE The very first tyres were made of wood, lined with iron. They were used on all carts and wagons thus making the rides very uncomfortable. Then in the mid 1800’s rubber was used in these wheels, which absorbed most bumps making it more comfy. The first pneumatic tyre was invented by R.W.Thomson which was later patented. In 1888, John Boyd Dunlop reinvented the pneumatic tyre. This tyre did not get any attention until a rider won the race by using his tyres in a bike race in Belfast. Andre Michelin and Edouard Michelin were the first to use pneumatic tyres on automobiles, in place of solid rubber tyres. Thus the age of pneumatic tyres began.
In 1948 Michelin introduced the steel belted radial. These had a longer life due to the 90 degree arrangement of the tyre ply and also had a lower rolling resistance which improved the mileage. Later on many improvements have taken place in the manufacture of the tyre and the tyre itself. BFGoodrich announced the tubeless tyre. Goodyear introduced the usage of polyester fibres for tyre plies. Firestone and Goodyear brought out the poly/glass tyre. Pirelli came out with the low aspect ratio radial.

1.3 TYRE MAKING – A BRIEF A tyre is made up of various components, of which natural rubber is a major ingredient. The mix of components is cured in a press where intense heat and pressure is applied to form a tyre. A polymerization reaction occurs under the heat which crosslinks rubber monomers to create long elastic molecules. These polymers create the elastic quality that permits the tire to be compressed in the area where the tire contacts the road surface and spring back to its original shape under high-frequency cycles. The components of a tyre are: 1. Inner Liner- A halo butyl rubber sheet compounded with additives which ensures its capacity to hold air inside at high pressure. 2. Body Ply – A calendared sheet consisting of a layer of rubber, a layer of reinforced fabric and a second layer of rubber. Textiles used currently are rayon, nylon, polyester and Kevlar. The body ply gives tyres structural strength. 3. Sidewalls – Non-reinforced profiles with additives that gives the sides of the tyres abrasion and environmental resistance. Sidewalls have a layer of thick rubber and carry the names and specifications of the tyres. 4. Beads – Beads are high tensile steel wire encased in a rubber compound. Bead wires are coated with alloys of bronze or brass to prevent corrosion. Since they include additives to improve their toughness, they help retain the shape of the tyre while fixing it to the wheel. 5. Apex – An apex is filler between the beads and the ply of a tyre. 6. Belt Package - Belts are calendared sheets consisting of a layer of rubber, a layer of closely-spaced steel cords, and a second layer of rubber. The steel cords are oriented radially in radial tire construction, and at opposing angles in bias tire construction. Belts give the tire strength and dent resistance while allowing it to remain flexible. Passenger tires are usually made with two or three belts. 7. Tread – The tread is the thick rubber profile that surrounds the tyre carcass. Treads carry wear and environmental resistance. A tread has to compromise between better traction and minimal wear. 8. Cushion gum – High performance tyres have an extruded component that prevents the tread from mechanical wear from the steel belts.

Materials used: * Natural rubber or polyisoprene - Basic elastomer used in tyre making * Styrene-butadiene - Substituted in part for natural rubber based on the comparative raw materials cost * Polybutadiene - Used in combination with other rubbers because of its low heat-buildup properties * Halo butyl rubber - Tubeless inner liner compounds. * Carbon Black - Gives reinforcement and abrasion resistance * Silica - Used together with carbon black in high performance tires, as a low heat buildup reinforcement * Sulphur - Crosslinks rubber molecules during the vulcanization process * Activators - Assist the vulcanization. The main one is zinc oxide * Antioxidants and antiozonants - Prevent sidewall cracking due to the action of sunlight and ozone * Textile fabric - Reinforces the carcass of the tire
CROSS SECTION OF A TYRE

Manufacturing Process: The tyre manufacturing process occurs in the following steps:

1. Compounding and Mixing:
Compounding is the process of bringing together the components to mix a batch of rubber compound. It involves the application of mechanical force in order to bring the components together into a homogenous substance. Mixing is done in 3 or 4 stages.
The rubber is dropped into a chute or a rubber mill batch off system to form a sheet. The sheet is pulled off the rollers in the form of strips which are then cooled, dusted with talc and laid down in a pallet bin. Mixers are controlled well so that carbon black does not excessively accumulate in different areas of the rubber sheet. 2. Component Preparation
Components fall into one of the three categories namely Extrusion, Calendering and Bead Building.
Extrusion applies two conditions to the compound – heat and pressure. Extrusion also provides additional mixing to the compound. The rubber is then rolled or spooled. This process is also in making treads and sidewalls.
Calender is a set of large rollers that squeeze the rubber into thin sheets usually 2 meters wide. There are fabric calenders that produce n upper and lower layer of rubber with a layer of fabric sandwiched in between. Steel calenders do it with steel cords. Calenders are used in making body plies and belts.

3. Tyre Building
This is the stage in which all the components are assembled together in a tyre building drum. The first stage has the wrapping of inner layer, body plies and sidewall around the drum. The beads are then placed. In the second stage, the belt package and tread are applied. Thus a green tyre is inflated and shaped.
The tyre building process can be manual or fully automatic. 4. Curing
Curing is the stage in which pressure is applied to the green tyre in a mould in order to give it the final shape. Heat is also applied to stimulate a chemical reaction between the compounds. The green tyre is first transferred to the lower part of the mould and a rubber bladder is inserted into the green tyre. As the mould is closed and high pressure is applied, the bladder inflates and causes the green tyre to flow into the mould. The bladder is filled with recirculating heat transfer medium such as steam, hot water or inert gas.
Curing presses can be mechanical or hydraulic. Hydraulic presses are more cost effective. Large off-road tyres are cured in ovens for upto 24 hours.

5. Final Finish
After the tyres are cured, it may go through the processes such as: * Tyre uniformity measurement – Measurement of force variation by mounting the tyre on wheel halves and run on simulated road surfaces. * Tyre Balance Measurement – Measurement of imbalance by mounting the tyres on wheel halves and rotated at high speeds. * X-Rays to measure the steel cord structure on large truck and bus tyres * Human inspection – Checking for visual defects such as incomplete mould fills, exposed cords, blemishes, blisters etc.

CHAPTER-2
COMPANY PROFILE

Vision
“A leader in the Indian Tyre Industry and a significant player, providing customer delight and enhancing stakeholder value”

Core Values
C –Care for Customers
R – Respect for Associates
E – Excellence through Teamwork
A – Always Learn
T – Trust Mutually
E – Ethical Practices

Objectives * Employee satisfaction * Customer delight * Revenue growth * Operating marginal improvement

OWNERSHIP PATTERNS
Board of Directors NAMES | DESIGNATION/OTHER DETAILS | TYPE | Onkar S. Kanwar | Chairman & Managing Director,Apollo Tyres Limited | Whole Time Director | Neeraj R.S. Kanwar | Chief Operating Officer,Apollo Tyres Limited | Whole Time Director | Sunam Sarkar | Chief Strategy & Business Operations,Apollo Tyres Limited | Whole Time Director | U.S.Oberoi | Chief Corporate Affairs,Apollo Tyres Limited | Whole Time Director | T.Balakrishnan | Principal Secretary, Industries,Govt. Of Kerala | Nominees | L.C.Goyal | Principal Secretary, Finance,Govt. Of Kerala | Nominees | Jean Marc Franwis | President,Asia Pacific Michelin Group | Other Directors | Nimesh N. Kampani | Chairman,JM Morgan Stanley Pvt Limited | Other Directors | Rauja Kanwar | Managing Director,Apollo International Limited | Other Directors | Dr.S.Narayan | Former Principal Secretary To Prime Minister Of India | Other Directors | M.R.B.Punja | Former Chairman,IDBI | Other Directors | K.Jacob Thomas | Managing Director,Vaniampara Rubber Co. Limited | Other Directors | Shardul S.Shroff | Advocate & Managing Partner,Amarchand & Mangaldow And Suresh A.Shroff & Co. | Other Directors | Robert Steinmetz | Former Chief Of International Business,Continental AG,Germany | Other Directors |

PRODUCTION FACILITIES
Plants in India Sl.No. | PLANT LOCATION | 1 | Apollo Tyres Limited., Perambra | 2 | Apollo Tyres Limited., Kalamassery | 3 | Apollo Tyres Limited., Baroda | 4 | Apollo Tyres Limited., Pune | 5 | Apollo Tyres Limited., Chennai |

MILESTONES AND OTHER DETAILS

* Apollo Tyres Limited get registered in 1972 * Head office is situated at New Delhi (corporate office) and registered office of Kerala plants at Kochi * Apollo Tyres Limited has been pioneer in the implementation of ‘Six Sigma’ among all the tyre companies in India * 7th fastest growing tyre company in the world * 1st tyre company to obtain ISO 9001 Certification for all its operations * Apollo Tyres Limited is in the list of top 15 tyre manufacturing companies in the world in terms of revenue(14th rank) * Has about 2400 exclusive dealers * The R&D centre is functioning at Baroda plant in Gujarat * Tube manufacturing is done on the Pune plant, Maharashtra. Tubes for the entire requirement of all plants are produced here and balance requirement is met from outside. Flaps are also purchased from outside. * In 1995 Apollo Tyres Limited acquired Premier Tyres Limited in Kalamassery,Kochi (Kerala) * In 2004 Apollo Tyres Limited launched Apollo Acelere ‘H’Speed rated car radials * In 2006 January 30th Apollo Tyres Limited acquired Dunlop Tyres in South Africa * In 2007 launched Dura Tyre (rethreaded tyre) for the first time in India * In 2007 it also launched Regal truck and bus radial tyres * Again in 2007 Apollo Tyres Limited launched the “Apollo Tennis Initiative & Mission 2018” * In 2008 Apollo Tyres Limited announced the public greenfield plant to be ready by 2010 for the European markets * In 2009 Apollo Tyres Limited announced the acquisition of VBBV Tyres, Netherlands

2.1 PRODUCTS
Truck
Overload Technology | * Loadstar Super * Loadstar Super Gold * Loadstar Super Hercules * Kaizen 50L | Load & Mileage Technology | * XT7 * XT7 Gold * XT7 Haulug * Amar Deluxe * Amar * Commando * Kaizen 36L * Kaizen 99 Plus * Kaizen 77R | Premium Mileage Technology | * XT9 * XT9 Gold * Amar Gold * Kaizen XTD | Mileage Technology Segment | * Champion * Champion Gold * Champion DLX * Amar AT Rib * Kaizen 27L |

Light Commercial Vehicles Load and Mileage Technology | * Mile Star | Overload Technology | * Load star Super | Premium Mileage Technology | * Amar Deluxe * Amar Gold Rib * XT9 * XT9 Gold * Duramile (radial) | Regular mileage | * Champion |

Passenger Car Radials Tubeless Radial Passenger Car | * Acelere * Amazer LX | Tubeless Radial MUV & SUV | * Hawkz | Tube Type Radials ForPassenger Car | * Amar * Amazer XL * Quantum | Tube Tyre Radial ForMUV & SUV | * Amar * Amazer XL * Storm * Hawks | Passenger Car & Jeep Bias | * Armour * Panther * Gripper Maha Trooper |

Farm Cultivation | * Krishak Super * Sarpanch | Haulage | * Power Haul | Multipurpose | * Farm King (Radial) * Krishak Premium (Bias) | Tractor Trailer Type | * Dhruv * Hunter |

2.2 CURRENT MARKETS

Apollo’s home market India is its primary and largest market worldwide. The second home market is South Africa, especially after its acquisition of Dunlop Tyres.
Under the Dunlop brand name, Apollo tyres covers several territories in Africa like Angola, Botswana, Burundi, D.R.C, Egypt, Equ.Guinea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
In the India ocean they cover Mauritius and Seychelles islands.
After the acquisition of VBBR, Netherlands, Apollo tyres spans across the European territory in countries like Netherlands, Austria, Germany, Hungary, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sweden, Norway, UK, France and Belgium, and also sells in the USA.

2.3 FUTURE

Apollo tyres has been in the path of innovation and product development. Currently one of the top tyre makers in the country, Apollo is aiming to spread itself on a global scale. Some of the pioneering activities by Apollo tyres include – Acelere Wheelz – an alloy wheels franchise, Apollo DuraTyre – india’s first branded retreading system etc. Apollo is hoping to take its efforts forward so that they emerge out to be the country’s best tyre brand and maintain a healthy relationship with its customers.

CHAPTER-3
INTERNSHIP WORK

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...Chapter-1 Introduction 1.0 ------------------------------------------------- Introduction The industry of investment banking is large and far-reaching. It is complex and confusing. It is mysterious and even frightening. Fortunes and lives depend on it. What happens behind the walls of an investment bank each day can affect millions of families, even entire nations. In case of Capital market investment bank plays great role to maintain its efficiency. The journey of Bangladesh capital market is not too old. Still it has a long way to go. The capital market of Bangladesh has yet to find a solid ground and the investor confidence in the market is significantly high, especially after the stock market crash in1996. Observing the poor performance of the market over the years the government has taken initiatives to reform the market. One of such step is to allow banks and non-banking financial institutions offering other financial and banking services to open up their investment banking wing. Investment banks facilitate flows of funds and allocations of capital. They are financial intermediaries, the critical link between users and providers of capital. They bring together those who need money to invest with those who have money to invest and they make the markets that allocate capital and regulate price in these financial transactions. One of the renowned names in Bangladesh financial market is IDLC Finance Limited. It started its operation in the year 1985 as......

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Internship Report

...INTERNSHIP REPORT ON ORGANIZATIONAL STUDY AT ORIENTAL GRANITES By T A VENKATESH BABU-13MB5198 III SEMESTER MBA Guide PROF. DR U N LAKSHMAN Internship Report submitted to the University of Mysore in partial fulfillment of the requirements of III Semester MBA degree examinations – 2014 [pic] Ramaiah Institute of Management Studies #15, New BEL Road, MSRIT Post, M S Ramaiah Nagar | | | | | | Bangalore – 560054 Ramaiah Institute of Management Studies Bangalore – 560054 DECLARATION I hereby declare that this Internship Report on Organizational Study at ORIENTAL GRANITES submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for III Semester MBA Degree examinations 2014 of University of Mysore through Ramaiah Institute of Management Studies is my original work and not submitted to any other university. This work has been done under the supervision of PROF DR U N LAKSHMAN in Ramaiah Institute of Management Studies, Bangalore. Place: Bangalore Date: T A VENKATESH BABU (13MB5092) Ramaiah Institute of Management Studies/ Sciences Bangalore - 560054 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that this Internship Report on Organizational Study at ORIENTAL GRANITES is a bonafide study of VENKATESH BABU......

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