Free Essay

Interpreting the Un-Interpretable

In: English and Literature

Submitted By ambalu
Words 667
Pages 3
Danny Ambalu 06/04/12 Interpreting the Un-Interpretable In Poulet’s A Phenomenology of Reading, he asserts that in a sense the reader, by reading and thinking about a text, creates the text. When the reader reads a text, his consciousness unites with the consciousness of the author, and their ideas combine and transform the text from a “dead object”, or objective words on a page, into a living, dynamic work. In other words, Poulet gives the reader license to provide his own reasonable interpretation of a text, because the reader is the author’s partner in creating the text. This is especially true with regards to John Ashbery’s “Farm Implements and Rutabagas in a Landscape”, where a straightforward explanation of the poem is almost impossible. Therefore, in accordance with Poulet’s literary theory, I would like to unite my consciousness with Ashbery’s and provide my own interpretation of the poem: the poem is not meant to be understood. Upon reading the poem, the reader is immediately confronted with numerous questions. Who is sending the messages in the first and third stanzas? What do they mean? What is all the scratching about? Why is Swee’pea sad? Why is Popeye shooting green thunderbolts, and what is he laughing about at the end of the poem? These are merely questions about the plot of the poem, but there are also several technical questions. For example, in line 23 the thunder is described as loving. Since when does thunder have emotions? These are some of the questions I faced upon examining the poem. At some point, the reader should realize that the poem’s ambiguity cannot be coincidental; there are simply too many questions. Perhaps the poem is sending the reader the following message: certain things are not meant to be understood. (This is reminiscent of Oedipus Rex, where Oedipus searches for Total Knowledge against the warnings of the other characters, resulting in devastating consequences.) The poem hints at this through its consistent use of seemingly random, non-sequitor dialogue. In the first stanza, the poem begins by describing a coded message, but jumps to the Sea Hag reclining on a couch without mentioning who received the message or what it has to do with the Sea Hag sitting on a couch. In the following stanza, Wimpy says “no pleasant/Inspiration plunge us now to the stars (lines 11-12)”, which is his way of asking if this is all there is to life, but then, seemingly out of the blue, he says “For this is my country (ibid.)”. The note on Swee’pea’s bib also lacks a clear connection to the rest of the poem. There are other hints to the poem’s conscious lack of intelligibility as well. The poem begins with a coded message, which can be interpreted to refer to the entire poem, not just the phrase in quotes. It also says that the phrase is the first of several coded messages without ever mentioning what the other ones are, leaving the reader in the dark and implying once more that the entire poem is an undecoded, or rather undecodable, message. The tangram mentioned in the first stanza may be symbolic of the poem as a whole being a puzzle, and the characters’ constant scratching, as if they were having difficulty understanding something, may be the poem’s way of hinting at the futility of attempting to decipher it. Even the Sea Hag’s use of Spanish in the first stanza is another throwaway hint saying “Don’t try to understand. It’s hopeless.” To recap, my interpretation of Ashbery’s poem is the futility of interpretation. The moral of the poem is that some things are simply not meant to be understood. Whether my interpretation is that intended by the author is uncertain. However, even if it is not, it is a valid interpretation according to Poulet, because I am Ashbery’s partner in creating the poem. Accordingly, I have now united my consciousness with that of Ashbery, and I believe Poulet would be proud.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Whatever

...grows in complexity by widening its focus gradually. The author explains with clarity and precision the concepts and theoretical positions explored within each chapter and relates these to authentic examples of translated texts in a variety of languages, although a knowledge of English is all that is required to understand the examples presented. Each chapter ends with a series of practical exercises which provide the translator with an opportunity to test the relevance of the issues discussed. This combination of theoretical discussion and practical application provides a sound basis for the study of translation as a professional activity. Mona Baker is Chairman of the Education and Training Committee of the Institute of Translation and Interpreting. She has more than seventeen years’ experience as a translator and has taught at a number of academic institutions such as the University of Birmingham and the University of...

Words: 109520 - Pages: 439

Premium Essay

Lecture 7

...COMPREHENSIVE EXAM QUESTIONS IN RESEARCH METHODS(1) 1. PHILOSOPHY, LOGIC AND ETHICS OF SCIENCE A) General A1. A2. A3. Starbuck has suggested that "the properties shared by all organizations ought to be uninteresting TH and unimportant." He also notes that "although statements about averages bother very few, they ought to bother many" (Journal of Management Studies, vol. 30(6), 1993). Do you agree with these statements? If so, why, and what are the implications of your beliefs for research methods in strategic management and organization science? If not, why not, and what are the implications of your beliefs for research methods in those areas? Lay out the components of the Runkel and McGrath (1972) Research Cycle and the Martin (1982) Garbage Can Model of the research process. What are the aims of either approach? What assumptions does each approach make? What basic themes does each approach emphasize? What kinds of constraints on the process of doing research does each approach highlight? How are the two approaches alike and different in other ways? What are the likely pitfalls of viewing the research process from only one of these two viewpoints? Define (and discuss important features or issues concerning) the following constructs of Philosophy and Logic of Science. (Define any four terms). 1. Null hypothesis 3. Paradigm 4. Independent variable 5. Operational definition 6. Nomological network 8. The fallacy of affirming the consequent 9. Theory 2....

Words: 21963 - Pages: 88

Premium Essay

Educationa Research

...1 EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH Unit Structure 1.0 Objectives 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Sources Acquiring Knowledge 1.3 Meaning, Steps and Scope of Educational Research 1.4 Scientific Method, aims and characteristics of research as a scientific activity 1.5 Ethical considerations in Educational Research 1.6 Paradigms of Educational research 1.7 Types of Research 1.7.a Fundamental 1.7.b Applied Research 1.7.c. Action Research 1.0 OBJECTIVES : After reading this unit, you will be able to: 1 To explain the concept of Educational Research 2 To describe the scope of Educational Research 3 To state the purpose of Educational Research 4 To explain what is scientific enquiry. 5 To explain importance of theory development. 6 To explain relationship among science, education and educational research. 7 To Identity fundamental research 8 To Identity applied research 9 To Identify action research 10 To Differentiate between fundamental, applied, and action research 11 To Identify different paradigms of research 2 1.1 INTRODUCTION : Research purifies human life. It improves its quality. It is search for knowledge. If shows how to Solve any problem scientifically. It is a careful enquiry through search for any kind of Knowledge. It is a journey from known to unknown. It is a systematic effort to gain new knowledge in any kind of discipline. When it Seeks a solution of any educational problem it leads to educational...

Words: 78659 - Pages: 315

Premium Essay

Econometrics

...A Guide to Modern Econometrics 2nd edition Marno Verbeek Erasmus University Rotterdam A Guide to Modern Econometrics A Guide to Modern Econometrics 2nd edition Marno Verbeek Erasmus University Rotterdam Copyright  2004 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ, England Telephone (+44) 1243 779777 Email (for orders and customer service enquiries): cs-books@wiley.co.uk Visit our Home Page on www.wileyeurope.com or www.wiley.com All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except under the terms of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4LP, UK, without the permission in writing of the Publisher. Requests to the Publisher should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ, England, or emailed to permreq@wiley.co.uk, or faxed to (+44) 1243 770620. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required,...

Words: 194599 - Pages: 779

Free Essay

Artificial Neural Network for Biomedical Purpose

...ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS METHODOLOGICAL ADVANCES AND BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS Edited by Kenji Suzuki Artificial Neural Networks - Methodological Advances and Biomedical Applications Edited by Kenji Suzuki Published by InTech Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia Copyright © 2011 InTech All chapters are Open Access articles distributed under the Creative Commons Non Commercial Share Alike Attribution 3.0 license, which permits to copy, distribute, transmit, and adapt the work in any medium, so long as the original work is properly cited. After this work has been published by InTech, authors have the right to republish it, in whole or part, in any publication of which they are the author, and to make other personal use of the work. Any republication, referencing or personal use of the work must explicitly identify the original source. Statements and opinions expressed in the chapters are these of the individual contributors and not necessarily those of the editors or publisher. No responsibility is accepted for the accuracy of information contained in the published articles. The publisher assumes no responsibility for any damage or injury to persons or property arising out of the use of any materials, instructions, methods or ideas contained in the book. Publishing Process Manager Ivana Lorkovic Technical Editor Teodora Smiljanic Cover Designer Martina Sirotic Image Copyright Bruce Rolff, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com First published March, 2011 Printed......

Words: 43079 - Pages: 173

Premium Essay

The Advent of Social Progress Index to Measure Competitiveness

...Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress Professor Joseph E. STIGLITZ, Chair, Columbia University Professor Amartya SEN, Chair Adviser, Harvard University Professor Jean-Paul FITOUSSI, Coordinator of the Commission, IEP www.stiglitz-sen-fitoussi.fr Other Members Bina AGARWAL Kenneth J. ARROW Anthony B. ATKINSON François BOURGUIGNON Jean-Philippe COTIS Angus S. DEATON Kemal DERVIS Marc FLEURBAEY Nancy FOLBRE Jean GADREY Enrico GIOVANNINI Roger GUESNERIE James J. HECKMAN Geoffrey HEAL Claude HENRY Daniel KAHNEMAN Alan B. KRUEGER Andrew J. OSWALD Robert D. PUTNAM Nick STERN Cass SUNSTEIN Philippe WEIL University of Delhi StanfordUniversity Warden of Nuffield College School of Economics, Insee, Princeton University UNPD Université Paris 5 University of Massachussets Université Lille OECD Collège de France Chicago University Columbia University Sciences-Po/Columbia University Princeton University Princeton University University of Warwick Harvard University London School of Economics University of Chicago Sciences Po Rapporteurs Jean-Etienne CHAPRON General Rapporteur Didier BLANCHET Jacques LE CACHEUX Marco MIRA D’ERCOLE Pierre-Alain PIONNIER Laurence RIOUX Paul SCHREYER Xavier TIMBEAU Vincent MARCUS INSEE INSEE OFCE OCDE INSEE INSEE/CREST OCDE OFCE INSEE Table of contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY I. SHORT NARRATIVE ON THE CONTENT OF THE REPORT Chapter 1: Classical GDP Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

Words: 147885 - Pages: 592

Premium Essay

Bhopal Complete

...- DRAFT - International Dimensions of Ethics Education in Science and Engineering Case Study Series Bhopal Plant Disaster – Situation Summary by MJ Peterson Revised March 20, 2009 During the night of 2-3 December 1984, a leak of some 40 tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas mixed with unknown other gasses from a chemical plant owned and operated by Union Carbide (India) Limited, a partly-owned subsidiary of the US-based Union Carbide Corporation, caused one of the highest-casualty industrial accidents of the 20th century. At least 2000 people died immediately and another 200,000 to 300,000 suffered respiratory and other injuries of varying severity. Property damage consisted mainly of contamination to nearby areas by various chemical residues. The defoliation of trees immediately afterward is clearly attributable to the gas leak; contamination in the nearby settlements may have multiple sources, the contamination of the plant site resulted from many years of general production activity. India’s Economic Ambitions When India attained independence from Great Britain in 1947, its new political leaders wanted to make the country wealthier by encouraging development of modern industry. It had strong support from the citizens, who generally agreed that India’s current lack of industrialization and economic development were the result of these colonial-era policies. Thus the new government could expect widespread support for any policy that appeared to set the......

Words: 35250 - Pages: 141

Premium Essay

The Effect of Brain Based Teaching

...Appraising Research in Second Language Learning: A practical approach to critical analysis of quantitative research Graeme Keith Porte John Benjamins Publishing Company Appraising Research in Second Language Learning Language Learning and Language Teaching The LL< monograph series publishes monographs as well as edited volumes on applied and methodological issues in the field of language pedagogy. The focus of the series is on subjects such as classroom discourse and interaction; language diversity in educational settings; bilingual education; language testing and language assessment; teaching methods and teaching performance; learning trajectories in second language acquisition; and written language learning in educational settings. Series editors Birgit Harley Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto Jan H. Hulstijn Department of Second Language Acquisition, University of Amsterdam Volume 3 Appraising Research in Second Language Learning: A practical approach to critical analysis of quantitative research by Graeme Keith Porte Appraising Research in Second Language Learning A practical approach to critical analysis of quantitative research Graeme Keith Porte University of Granada John Benjamins Publishing Company Amsterdam / Philadelphia Dr Graeme Keith Porte is currently Senior Lecturer at the University of Granada in Spain, where he lectures on Second Language Writing and Applied Linguistics Research......

Words: 113700 - Pages: 455

Premium Essay

The Study of Language

...This page intentionally left blank The Study of Language This best-selling textbook provides an engaging and user-friendly introduction to the study of language. Assuming no prior knowledge of the subject, Yule presents information in short, bite-sized sections, introducing the major concepts in language study – from how children learn language to why men and women speak differently, through all the key elements of language. This fourth edition has been revised and updated with twenty new sections, covering new accounts of language origins, the key properties of language, text messaging, kinship terms and more than twenty new word etymologies. To increase student engagement with the text, Yule has also included more than fifty new tasks, including thirty involving data analysis, enabling students to apply what they have learned. The online study guide offers students further resources when working on the tasks, while encouraging lively and proactive learning. This is the most fundamental and easy-to-use introduction to the study of language. George Yule has taught Linguistics at the Universities of Edinburgh, Hawai’i, Louisiana State and Minnesota. He is the author of a number of books, including Discourse Analysis (with Gillian Brown, 1983) and Pragmatics (1996). “A genuinely introductory linguistics text, well suited for undergraduates who have little prior experience thinking descriptively about language. Yule’s crisp and thought-provoking presentation of key issues......

Words: 114096 - Pages: 457

Premium Essay

Phsco

...www.it-ebooks.info www.it-ebooks.info Praise “A must-read resource for anyone who is serious about embracing the opportunity of big data.” — Craig Vaughan Global Vice President at SAP “This timely book says out loud what has finally become apparent: in the modern world, Data is Business, and you can no longer think business without thinking data. Read this book and you will understand the Science behind thinking data.” — Ron Bekkerman Chief Data Officer at Carmel Ventures “A great book for business managers who lead or interact with data scientists, who wish to better understand the principals and algorithms available without the technical details of single-disciplinary books.” — Ronny Kohavi Partner Architect at Microsoft Online Services Division “Provost and Fawcett have distilled their mastery of both the art and science of real-world data analysis into an unrivalled introduction to the field.” —Geoff Webb Editor-in-Chief of Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Journal “I would love it if everyone I had to work with had read this book.” — Claudia Perlich Chief Scientist of M6D (Media6Degrees) and Advertising Research Foundation Innovation Award Grand Winner (2013) www.it-ebooks.info “A foundational piece in the fast developing world of Data Science. A must read for anyone interested in the Big Data revolution." —Justin Gapper Business Unit Analytics Manager at Teledyne Scientific and Imaging “The authors, both renowned experts in data science before it had a name,......

Words: 146629 - Pages: 587

Premium Essay

Cognitive Poetics

...This page intentionally left blank This practical coursebook introduces all the basics of semantics in a simple, step-bystep fashion. Each unit includes short sections of explanation with examples, followed by stimulating practice exercises to complete the book. Feedback and comment sections follow each exercise to enable students to monitor their progress. No previous background in semantics is assumed, as students begin by discovering the value and fascination of the subject and then move through all key topics in the field, including sense and reference, simple logic, word meaning, and interpersonal meaning. New study guides and exercises have been added to the end of each unit (with online answer key) to help reinforce and test learning. A completely new unit on non-literal language and metaphor, plus updates throughout the text, significantly expand the scope of the original edition to bring it up-to-date with the modern teaching of semantics for introductory courses in linguistics as well as intermediate students. JAMES R. HURFORD is Professor of General Linguistics, University of Edinburgh. BRENDAN HEASLEY is Consultant (Postgraduate Training), Sharjah Women’s College, United Arab Emirates. MICHAEL B. SMITH is Associate Professor of Linguistics, Oakland University. Semantics A Coursebook SECOND EDITION JAMES R. HURFORD Professor of General Linguistics, University of Edinburgh BRENDAN HEASLEY Consultant (Postgraduate Training), Sharjah Women’s......

Words: 122224 - Pages: 489

Free Essay

Financial Risk Measurement for Financial Risk Management

...NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES FINANCIAL RISK MEASUREMENT FOR FINANCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT Torben G. Andersen Tim Bollerslev Peter F. Christoffersen Francis X. Diebold Working Paper 18084 http://www.nber.org/papers/w18084 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 May 2012 Forthcoming in Handbook of the Economics of Finance, Volume 2, North Holland, an imprint of Elsevier. For helpful comments we thank Hal Cole and Dongho Song. For research support, Andersen, Bollerslev and Diebold thank the National Science Foundation (U.S.), and Christoffersen thanks the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (Canada). We appreciate support from CREATES funded by the Danish National Science Foundation. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research. NBER working papers are circulated for discussion and comment purposes. They have not been peerreviewed or been subject to the review by the NBER Board of Directors that accompanies official NBER publications. © 2012 by Torben G. Andersen, Tim Bollerslev, Peter F. Christoffersen, and Francis X. Diebold. All rights reserved. Short sections of text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. Financial Risk Measurement for Financial Risk Management Torben G. Andersen, Tim Bollerslev, Peter F. Christoffersen, and...

Words: 41700 - Pages: 167

Premium Essay

Book

...Basic Econometrics with Stata Carl Moody Economics Department College of William and Mary 2009 Table of Contents 1 AN OVERVIEW OF STATA ......................................................................................... 5 Transforming variables ................................................................................................... 7 Continuing the example .................................................................................................. 9 Reading Stata Output ...................................................................................................... 9 2 STATA LANGUAGE ................................................................................................... 12 Basic Rules of Stata ...................................................................................................... 12 Stata functions ............................................................................................................... 14 Missing values .......................................................................................................... 16 Time series operators. ............................................................................................... 16 Setting panel data. ..................................................................................................... 17 Variable labels. ......................................................................................................... 18 System variables ...

Words: 75823 - Pages: 304

Premium Essay

Politics, Theology

...POLITICS, THEOLOGY AND HISTORY RAYMOND PLANT CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Politics, Theology and History is a major new book by a prominent academic and an active politician. It ranges widely across the disciplines of theology, political theory and philosophy and poses acute questions about the basic moral foundations of liberal societies. Lord Plant focuses on the role that religious belief can and ought to play in argument about public policy in a pluralistic society. He examines the potential political implications of Christian belief and the ways in which it may be deployed in political debate. The book is a contribution to the modern debate about the moral pluralism of western liberal societies, discussing the place of religious belief in the formation of policy and asking what sorts of issues in modern society might be the legitimate objects of a Christian social and political concern. Raymond Plant has written an important study of the relationship between religion and politics which will be of value to students, academics, politicians, church professionals, policy makers and all concerned with the moral fabric of contemporary life. r ay m on d pl an t is Professor of European Political Thought at the University of Southampton and a Member of the House of Lords. He was a Home affairs spokesperson for the Labour Party from 1992 to 1996, and Master of St Catherine's College, Oxford, from 1994 to 2000. Lord Plant's main publications are Social and Moral Theory in......

Words: 144283 - Pages: 578

Free Essay

Machine Learning

...Foundations of Machine Learning Adaptive Computation and Machine Learning Thomas Dietterich, Editor Christopher Bishop, David Heckerman, Michael Jordan, and Michael Kearns, Associate Editors A complete list of books published in The Adaptive Computations and Machine Learning series appears at the back of this book. Foundations of Machine Learning Mehryar Mohri, Afshin Rostamizadeh, and Ameet Talwalkar The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts London, England c 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any electronic or mechanical means (including photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval) without permission in writing from the publisher. MIT Press books may be purchased at special quantity discounts for business or sales promotional use. For information, please email special sales@mitpress.mit.edu or write to Special Sales Department, The MIT Press, 55 Hayward Street, Cambridge, MA 02142. A This book was set in L TEX by the authors. Printed and bound in the United States of America. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Mohri, Mehryar. Foundations of machine learning / Mehryar Mohri, Afshin Rostamizadeh, and Ameet Talwalkar. p. cm. - (Adaptive computation and machine learning series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-262-01825-8 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Machine learning. 2. Computer algorithms. I. Rostamizadeh, Afshin.......

Words: 137818 - Pages: 552