Free Essay


In: English and Literature

Submitted By rh53063
Words 822
Pages 4
Intertextuality is a word coined in 1966 by literary theorist, Julia Kristeva. What she was attempting to shed understanding upon with the development of this term, was the sophisticated and occasionally, hazy, supportive interconnectivity between works of literary art set in various historical periods. More specifically, it was her intent to demonstrate how words, phrases, definitions, and even context set in literary environments, are all related to one another, at varying extents. She set about to show that regardless of what works were created, or by whom, and when, all context, words, and phrases can trace their textual and descriptive lineage back to earlier works and vocabulary and literary prose contained in those works. The relationships between these words are rooted principally in how there are used in a particular work.
Since the type of works that may be considered for comparison to other works may span the width of time marking different historical eras, with perhaps hundreds of years separating them, it may not always be easy to recognize how one work written in the last ten years is even remotely related to another written even as recently as fifty years before that. However, it can be solidly proven, through all manner of media, from books, to movies, how words and phrases definitely share specific kinships among each other. One such example is a well-known line uttered by the supporting character, Morpheus to the main character, Neo, in the hit movie, The Matrix. Morpheus said that he would show Neo, “how deep the rabbit hole goes”. To the reader familiar with American Civil War era literature, this modern movie line would clearly present itself as an allusion, a very common intertextuality type relationship, that in this case, points to a very popular work of fiction called, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, written in 1865, by Lewis Carroll. In the realm of academic and professional disciplines, acquiring a clear understanding of how intertextuality binds compositional samples to one another, is a critical one. In this respect, Charles Bazerman discusses the various interconnecting relational nuances that occur between words used throughout time, and different periods. Bazerman indicates how we arrive continually arrive at giving value and importance to words due to their familiar relationships with other texts, noting that this type familiarization occurs because all of the words we use in our speech, and in textual language, originated in what he refers to as a, “sea of former texts.” (Bazerman and Prior, 2009, 1) These kinds of associative movements that we tend to formulate in relation to the words we use and hear, happens because we’ve ‘heard it all before’, as the saying goes, and it’s all been said, before. Bazerman further illustrates this point, thusly, and aptly: “When we read or listen to others, we often don't wonder where their words come from, but sometimes we start to sense the significance of them echoing words and thoughts from one place or another. Analyzing those connections helps us understand the meaning of the text.” (Bazerman and Prior, 2009, 1) Another area of immense and critical interest regarding textual relationships is the connection between onscreen words and verbiage, and how they relate to the art of creating meaningful dialogue, and conveying ideas. Typically, this is accomplished for the purpose of establishing compelling reasons for an audience to pay attention to what’s being communicated. Here again, the text is a critical relational element used to facilitate that purpose. Contextualization is also one of the chief elements at work in this circumstance, and it’s here that text serves as the adhesive agent that holds ideas, “words, drawings, colors, photographs, animations, sound, video, and so on”, to quote Anne Frances Wysocki, an expert in visual text technology. (Wysocki 2009, 123)
The fact that texts can have visual components to them that use graphics as a means of directly communicating ideas, or in the support of the communication of ideas in conjunction with worded texts, may seem very odd to those outside of the business of negotiating such elemental relationships. The history of visual texting is a very long one, as evidenced by ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic messages depicting Egyptian lore, history and mythology on old Egyptian buildings from the days of the old god-kings. The use of visual texts are driving force behinds the vast majority of high exposure advertising, and for good reason; it’s visual cues, not what is spoken, or written, leaves a deeper impression on the mind. This is a major divergence from traditional composition theories and accepted practices.
Composition, like other forms of textual practice, is an evolutionary process, with purposes and techniques that have changed over the centuries to facilitate specific interests and needs. It has been referred to as a, ”largely conservative” practice that mostly “clings to the idea of writing about representation systems in verbal test because that’s what we do in composition”. (Williams 2001, 1)

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

I Spy

...Intertextuality is the shaping of a text meaning by another text. Intertextual figures include: allusion, quotation, calque, plagiarism, translation, pastiche and parody.[1][2][3] An example of intertextuality is an author’s borrowing and transformation of a prior text or to a reader’s referencing of one text in reading another. The term “intertextuality” has, itself, been borrowed and transformed many times since it was coined by poststructuralist Julia Kristeva in 1966. As philosopher William Irwin wrote, the term “has come to have almost as many meanings as users, from those faithful to Kristeva’s original vision to those who simply use it as a stylish way of talking about allusion and influence.”[4] Contents [show] Intertextuality and poststructuralism[edit] Kristeva’s coinage of “intertextuality” represents an attempt to synthesize Ferdinand de Saussure’s semiotics—his study of how signs derive their meaning within the structure of a text—with Bakhtin’s dialogism—his examination of the multiple meanings, or “heteroglossia”, in each text (especially novels) and in each word.[5] For Kristeva,[6] “the notion of intertextuality replaces the notion of intersubjectivity” when we realize that meaning is not transferred directly from writer to reader but instead is mediated through, or filtered by, “codes” imparted to the writer and reader by other texts. For example, when we read James Joyce’s Ulysses we decode it as a modernist literary experiment, or as a response to......

Words: 1599 - Pages: 7

Free Essay


...Intertexuality: Intertextuality is the shaping of texts' meanings by other texts. It can include an author’s borrowing and transformation of a prior text or to a reader’s referencing of one text in reading another. The term “intertextuality” has, itself, been borrowed and transformed many times since it was coined by poststructuralist Julia Kristeva in 1966. As critic William Irwin says, the term “has come to have almost as many meanings as users, from those faithful to Kristeva’s original vision to those who simply use it as a stylish way of talking about allusion and influence.” or The word intertextuality refers to when an author or artist borrows ideas or refrences to the work of others.When someone uses intertextualitly, they are using an idea they have previously encountered and incorporate it into their own work. Sometimes when an author or an artist chooses to use intertextuality they may only slightly hint to another piece of work to get their point across. They leave it up to the reader to decide if the piece they are reading is completely original or has actually adopted bits and pieces from something else. Other times an author or artist may be heavy handed in the use of intertextuality to make sure their audience receives their message. With the help of the piece an author or artist is borrowing from the audience becomes able to draw a parallel to what they are reading at the moment to something they are familiar with from the past. This gives the audience a......

Words: 507 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Milton's World

...passed on from generations before. Because this antiquity underlies nearly all of the poems by Milton, examining it first will be perhaps most useful in understanding a large part of his world-view. In nearly all of his poetry, there are numerous intertextual references to Greek and Roman legends, as well as many pieces of then-obsolete astronomy. There are so many of these references in his works that pointing out all or even a great part of them in any given poem would be tedious and virtually unprofitable, except to express the degree to which he makes use of allusion to add depth to his poetry. Instead, minor clips from particular poems will be at first chosen as representative of his larger style. Examples of this intertextuality can be seen even in early works of his such as "On the Morning of Christ's Nativity." In the poem, when Christ is born, all of the pagan gods trudge from reality to their new home in hell. This provides an opportunity for Milton to exhibit his knowledge, as he lists the Genius; Greek oracles; nymphs; Greek, Canaanite, Phoenician, and Egyptian gods (minor and major) as they each make their exit with a brief visual linked to their background (ll. 173-218). The breadth of this reference to then-unworshipped gods displays both Milton's depth of learning and the difficulty inherent in attempting to fully comprehend his verse. Similar antiquitic...

Words: 1486 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

5 ’Crazy People’ Who Were Right All Along Analysis

...irony can be found in the introduction to the article: “…Guru Cobain was shortly thereafter taken from us by the Ant People who secretly rule our media.” The irony clearly appears in this quote, because as a reader, you know that the author does not mean what he writes, he more likely means the opposite. Furthermore, you see the author’s use of humour in his colourful language. He uses expressions like “kick a battleship’s ass” and “he wasn’t just full of hot air”, which both are metaphors to interest and entertain the reader. Both of the quotes are from paragraph #5, but playful language is used during the entire text. The used language is overall very casual, and the author makes use of an informal tone. In the text you also find intertextuality, which is references to other movies or texts, the readers know. For example the author makes a reference to the character James Bond from the movies of the same name, when he says “Asian 007’s” and he references to the American pop-culture when he mentions American actress Sandra Bullock in a casual tone. These intertextual references create a space where the reader feels at home in the text because of the many recognizable elements. The function of the text is both delighting and persuading the reader. The delighting shows in the great the use of humour and playful language, which engages the reader and makes the article interesting...

Words: 478 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Allusions Chart

...Patty Cake ____ ENG 4U0 July 17, 2011 Allusion | Literal meaning | How it develops theme | Sources | I would have such a fellow whipped for o’erdoing Termagant (III,ii,14) | In this quote, Hamlet says that he would have whipped whoever was playing the role in the play, if they overdid their part. A “termagant”, is a deity often worshipped by Muslims, who was described as violent, overbearing personage in long robes. ( must go exactly to plan of his father’s murder reenactment, hence why Hamlet is being so strict towards the actors. | This quote really shows how mentally insane Hamlet is going. If he threatens to whip actors for doing their job and over exaggerating a little, then perhaps this develops the theme of “mental issues”, which Hamlet seems to be carrying, and they seem to be getting worse and worse according to the passage. Throughout the play, his mental condition seems to be worsening, or he is doing a better job at pretending, either way, he seems more insane than ever. | "t”termagant." Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 17 Jul. 2014. <>. | It out herods Herod (III,ii,14) | This allusion is from the bible, and specifically King Herod. King Herod was a ruthless king, who did anything and everything he could to get what he wanted, so this passage is alluding to, if the actor screws up, he would have out did King Herod, and that is not easy to achieve,......

Words: 777 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Analysis of a Passage from T.S. Eliot's the Waste Land

...Analysis of a Passage from T.S. Eliot's the Waste Land T.S. Eliot writes very deliberately, including just the right details and organizing the poem so that each phrase and section is arranged in the most effective way possible. The following passage is from Eliot's The Waste Land: There is shadow under this red rock, (Come in under the shadow of this red rock), And I will show you something different from either Your shadow at morning striding behind you Or your shadow at evening rising to meet you; I will show you fear in a handful of dust (25-30) This passage seems to be strategically placed after several lines that allude to a passage from Ecclesiastes 12 of the Bible and directly before a number of allusions and examples that illustrate the "fear in a handful of dust" (Eliot 1-76). To completely understand the meaning of the passage above, the context in which it is used and the allusions that are employed must first be recognized and understood. First, the several lines preceding the above passage allude to Ecclesiastes 12 of the Bible which portrays feelings of hopelessness and of meaninglessness; meanwhile, the selected passage contains a small sense of hope as well as an invitation to the reader to see what Eliot sees. "A heap of broken images" or "And the dry stone no sound of water" are both phrases included in the preceding lines that lack a sense of hope and that support the allusion to Ecclesiastes 12 in which "Everything is meaningless!" (Eliot 22,......

Words: 1638 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Intertextuality in Slumdog Millionaire

...Narisha Reddy Professor Gohar Siddiqui English 2250 - 01 Intertextuality in Slumdog Millionaire Scenes: First question and back-story Slumdog Millionaire is a film adapted by the novel, Q&A (2005) written by Indian author and diplomat Vikas Swarup. The film tells a story of a young boy named Jamal Malik who lived in the slums of Mumbai, India. While he was a tea server at a call center, he ended up on the Indian TV show version of a British TV show called Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? On the show he is asked a series of questions in which he correctly answers all of them. Because he gets so many questions right the police are suspicious that he is cheating. As a result, Jamal is taken to the police office and tortured into telling how he cheated. However, when the police officers replay each question, Jamal explains to them how he knew the answers with flashbacks that end up being linked to different key events in his life. Throughout this film there are many examples of intertextuality. Intertextuality is when some text makes a reference to another text. In the movie Slumdog Millionaire, intertextuality is used to reference Hindi Cinema and the original TV show, Kaun Banega Cororepati. The scene that I will analyze in this paper is the scene where Jamal is in the hot seat of the TV show Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? and he is asked his first question. The scene then goes onto a flashback to his childhood and unreels how he knows the answer to the question “Who......

Words: 858 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Summary Of Tim O Brien's Going After Cacciato

...In chapter five, Foster discusses the recurrence of familiar pictures, archetypes, and figures in different literary works. He analyzes Tim O'Brien's Going After Cacciato (1978), in order to explain his point on how literature repeats. He shows methods in which authors get inspired by stories they’ve read that are written by different writers who might share the same personal experience. An example of such would be the character of Sarkin Aung Wan. The idea of working on other texts that are not one’s own is a purposeful process by the writer, and helps him/her in their creative process. Borrowing from other writers happens for one reason: to share the human experience. Foster states that when a reader starts recognizing similarities and patterns...

Words: 254 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Meme Discussion

...first. Having used Facebook periodically, I've noticed that memes are used for various things, it emotionally expresses anger, struggles, moods, stereotypes, relationships, happiness, enjoyment, and influences humour. Most of the time, we understand the reference of the meme because we all feel the same way and can relate to it instantly. That's what makes it amusing. Sometimes memes don't even have words and yet deliver the same message. For example, animal's face expression grabs the best appearances. For instance, when someone makes a silly status, I upload the awkward seal meme. This meme represents an awkward reaction and shows exactly how I feel about the post. Cultural values of memes come directly from intertextuality and templatability. The intertextuality of a meme is to express emotional concerns from two different aspects; the image and the text. This ties in with templatability, which becomes important since films, music and arts are used as a reference for the meme. Cultural values in memes are often represented as an opinion towards a specific topic, question, theme or a video. However I do feel that memes...

Words: 471 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Wife Of Bath's Prologue Analysis

...In Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, intertextuality represents specific aspects of the character’s ideals and personalities, and Chaucer uses it to meet his ends by calling attention to the continual misinterpretation of words. In the Wife of Bath’s Prologue, biblical excerpts in the “Book of Wikked Wyves” are misrepresented by both the compiler of the text and the clerk, Jenkyn, current husband of the Wife of Bath. The compiler of the book believed that what he wrote was true, based on pieces of text he picked through to find those that comply with the view he already had of women. The Wife of Bath combats the “Book of Wikked Wyves,” as well as every reading therein, with her question of “Who peynted the leoun, tel me who?” arguing that if women...

Words: 1490 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Macbeth And Ransom

...Shakespeare’s play Macbeth and Malouf’s novel Ransom both explore themes about freedom. The themes of freedom are largely characterised by their modes of textual representation – the play and the novel. Malouf’s novel is a heteroglossic text and is able to explore the themes relating to freedom through multiple focalisations and intertextuality with Homer’s Iliad. On the other hand, Shakespeare’s Macbeth explores the theme of freedom with asides, soliloquies and the supernatural. However, despite these differences in their representations of freedom there is a convergence for the reader in the implications for narrative meaning. Regardless of their contexts both texts elevate free will over predestination. Malouf’s novel Ransom reimagines...

Words: 1619 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Business Dilemma

...An Doan Ms. Valtinson ENGL 1113-08 May 1, 2015 Individuality through Transferability Writing is something that everyone does. Whether one likes it or not, they end up using their words. People tend to write about subjects that interest or relate to them. Everyone has their own way of writing, but their way was influenced by another source whether they know it or not. Individuality in writing is influenced through transferability. Technical writing is something that is learned. In school everyone was taught how to format an essay or different types of writing like poems or stories. Anything that I did in class I was always given a template of how the instructor wanted the paper to be written. This would have word count, the format, and what the paper should be about. All throughout school we learned the fundamentals of writing starting with letters, words, sentences, paragraphs, to structures of writing like essays and poems. The thing that is learned from writing is technical. As my English education grows the technical side is less focused on while the content is the most important thing. Content is the writing that I am doing now. The content portion of writing is not learned but influenced by others. My writing becomes influenced through examples like essays. In this English class, I believe that that’s how these three previous essays worked out. The Scholarly Discourse Unit paper was a paper that had us synthesize how we thought the writers Gee, Swales, and......

Words: 1003 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Film Analysis: The Columbine High School Massacre

...The Columbine High School massacre in Littleton Colorado will always be remembered as an unforgettable horrific event that still leaves a mark on the town today. The controversial filmmaker Michael Moore took his take on it and ventured into the creation of events that took place that day. The documentary that was produced, directed, and written by Moore deconstructs the events of this particular decimation and uses his techniques to compose a use of visuals, sounds, editing, and political messages. He portrays his viewpoints as well as cultural perspectives through archival footage, interviews and intertextuality. He makes sure to have a purpose for each shot to leave a harsh yet defying impression in our minds. "In Moore’s eyes, the Columbine...

Words: 446 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Perspectives in Micheal Ondaatje's in the Skin of a Lion

...forced to speak a different language and accept a foreign culture and this aspect of his life influences the strong emphasis placed on the impotence of migrants to communicate with society within the novel. As I read this novel in the 21st century, I have lived in Australia my whole life and am not fully aware of the implications of being marginalised in society. ISOL is a text that can be appreciated in many ways and not only gives readers a chance to understand the social and political history of Canada in the 1960’s but the social and political issues that are ongoing in our society. ISOL has many post-modern characteristics such as the clever elliptical fractured structure, intriguing authorial intrusions as well as thoughtful intertextuality. “Let me now re-emphasise the extreme looseness of the structure of all objects”; Ondaatje alludes to the loose structure of the novel which allows a vast number of interpretations. The memories and stories that are told are incomplete, fragmented and move cinematically...

Words: 1203 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Humane Society- a Discourse Community

...Alyssa Standridge Section 014 M. Silva March 27, 2016 The Humane Society as a Discourse Community According to the Linguist John Swales, a discourse community is “a group that has goals or purposes, and uses communication to achieve these goals.” One example of a discourse community is the Humane Society of Memphis and Shelby County. The Humane Society of Memphis and Shelby County is a non-profit organization that cares for over 6,000 animals each year. The Humane Society has numerous goals and ambitions, but one strong mission. The mission is to assure a better life for companion animals by providing shelter, finding loving homes and promoting respect for their place in our lives. The discourse community of the Humane Society of Memphis and Shelby County uses both written text and graphics to communicate between its rhetors and readers.             The Humane Society of Memphis and Shelby County has been living out its mission and goals since it was founded in 1933. One of its main goals, which is continuously being fulfilled by the members in its discourse community, is to place adoptable animals in “forever homes.” Their goals are to serve the people and animals of Memphis and surrounding areas by providing several services, such as low cost spay and neuter programs, humane sheltering for lost, abandoned and neglected pets, return of lost pets to families, humane education, pet therapy services, strengthening the human-animal bond, providing disaster preparedness,......

Words: 1732 - Pages: 7