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Team Performance Management: An International Journal
Managing complex team interventions
Robert Barner

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Robert Barner, (2006),"Managing complex team interventions", Team Performance Management: An
International Journal, Vol. 12 Iss 1/2 pp. 44 - 54
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Managing complex team interventions Robert Barner
Belo Corp., Plano, Texas, USA

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Abstract
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Purpose – To provide readers with a better understanding of the organizational conditions that lead to complexity in team structure, operation, and dynamics, and introduce guidelines for facilitating complex team interventions.
Design/methodology/approach – This article is based on the author’s 20 years’ experience as an internal OD executive, external consultant, and associate professor in the areas of organizational change and team building.
Findings – The article concludes that team-building failures frequently occur when facilitators operate from team archetypes that are radically outmoded, and severely underestimate the complexity of certain team-building issues. Readers are introduced to six guidelines for managing complex team interventions. Practical implications – This article is designed to help OD practitioners plan extremely complex and difficult team-building interventions. The article should serve as a useful tool to experienced OD consultants who are attempting to tackle more advanced team-building interventions. An organizational example is provided to illustrate key concepts.
Originality/value – The author believes that this article provides a unique perspective, by examining issues of organizational complexity that must be faced by experienced team facilitators.
Keywords Team working, Teambuilding, Organizational planning, Change management
Paper type Conceptual paper

Why team interventions go wrong
We have all encountered team-building programs that have gone wrong. What begins with great fan-fare and high expectations ends with a frustrated team facilitator, and a very disappointed and increasingly cynical work team. My heart-felt belief is that such failures cannot always be attributed to a lack of OD competence on the part of the facilitator. Instead, I would contend that quite often when OD practitioners experience such failures it is due to the fact that they:
.
work from a team model that is out of sync with the realities of today’s workplace; and/or
.
attempt to force-fit a team-building approach that is not applicable to complex team performance issues.
In the remainder of this article I would like to summarize each of these two problems, and proposed four guidelines that team facilitators can use to tackle complex team interventions. Team Performance Management
Vol. 12 No. 1/2, 2006 pp. 44-54 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited
1352-7592
DOI 10.1108/13527590610652792

The myth of the archetypical team
While the past 20 years have witnessed a radical transformation in the organizational workplace, many OD practitioners still adhere to facilitation approaches that are based on an outmoded archetype of what constitutes a “team”. The result is a bit like a family

therapist who fails in her task because she is working from a mental model of the family that resembles a 1950s sitcom. Just as today’s families are more likely to be represented by single parent or blended-family households, in the same way during the past two decades the concept of the “team” has undergone an intense metamorphosis.
Table I shows seven of the most prevalent team myths. Let us briefly consider some of ways in which these myths fail to convey current realities.

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The myth: teams are intact
The team myth assumes that the team intervention will involve an intact team; that is to say, a team that is comprised of permanent, full-time members. The reality is that that one of the fastest-growing areas for team building involves the specialized needs of project teams and task forces, which are comprised of entirely of temporary, part-time members. For these individuals, one big challenge involves balancing the conflicting demands of their team with the daily demands of their “real” jobs. Another challenge falls to the team leaders, who are tasked with directing work groups over which they seldom have direct line authority. Still another challenge that temporary teams face, is the need to find ways to jump-start their performance over the course of their brief lifespan. Given these potential scenarios, teambuilding needs to be brief, intense, and task-focused, and focused on the issues of team decision making and member accountability.
The myth: teams are unitary
The team myth also assumes that are teams are unitary, that is, headed up by a single leader, who operates within a clear and unambiguous reporting structure. However, the reality is that many teams operate within matrix environments, in which direction and authority are split between functional and program leaders. In other organizations, teams may receive conflicting direction from leaders who share overlapping authority.

Teams myth
(archetype)

Teams reality

Implications for facilitation

Intact

Fragmented and temporary

Teambuilding must be brief, fast, task-focused.
Issues involve team decision making and member accountability
Issues of goal alignment, reporting relationships

Unitary

Matrix structure, or overlapping reporting structures Manager-led teams Self-directed or manager-coached teams
Equalitarian
Power inequalities
Co-located

Distributed

Culturally homogeneous Encapsulated

Different cultural norms
Permeable and political

Issues of shared ownership and role clarity
Impacts openness and open disclosure of issues; safety becomes a key issue
Key issues are team communication, shared decision making, and the sustainability of improvement Different cultural assumptions about teams and team facilitation approaches
Team issues are often reflective of broader organizational issues

Table I.
Seven factors that distinguish team myths from team realities

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For the facilitator, these types of ambiguous reporting relationships translate into the team’s need to explore the issues of goal alignment, and clarity on reporting relationships. The myth: teams are manager-led
The team myth is also based on the concept of the manager-led team. This archetype calls forth the image of a strong, dominant, more experienced and knowledgeable manager, who uses his personal judgment and authority to set objectives, direct work activities, and reward the performance of his less experienced team members. The reality is that manager-led teams are increasingly being supplanted by self-directed or manager-coached teams. As a result of this change team members are increasingly expected to provide thought-leadership for setting team objectives, standards, and even the allocation of team rewards. Even in those cases where manager-led teams are formally retained on the work chart, the reality is that quite often, particularly in high-tech work organizations, managers increasingly find themselves dependent upon the specialized knowledge and expertise of their team members. For team facilitators, these factors highlight the issues of shared ownership and role clarity.
The myth: teams are equalitarian
The traditional team model assumes that all work groups operate within an equalitarian power base. Unfortunately, while readily acknowledging that team members are likely to constitute different reporting levels, in planning their teambuilding approaches many facilitators fail to consider the more subtle power relationships that are present within a team. Even if all members share the same grade levels and titles they may represent very different levels of power and influence, due to such factors as their access to senior managers, or varying levels of technical expertise.
In teams that are characterized by subtle but significant differences in power and authority, low-power members may fail to candidly disclose their concerns, due to feelings of vulnerability and the fear of retribution. Accordingly, team facilitators need to construct approaches that address concerns regarding safety and power inequality.
The myth: teams are integrated
Another common assumption is that teams will always be incorporated into an integrated structure, represented by team members who work within the same time zones, locations, and work shifts. In reality, members may be geographically or temporally distributed, with the extreme case being virtual teams that are held together entirely by groupware and telecommunications.
For team facilitators, distributed teams pose team-building challenges that extend well beyond the logistical problems of configuring meeting times and design formats.
Such teams are also at a severe disadvantage when it comes to constructing the types of unifying experiences that bond members together. They may also encounter communication breakdowns because they are unable to access the various non-verbal clues that members come to depend on to guide their interpersonal communications. In addition, recent communications research suggests that virtual communications can substantially alter power relationships. This reveals itself in the fact that low-status team members tend to be more willing to “push back” against the ideas presented by their more powerful counter-parts, when they are engaged in online communications.

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Additional studies have shown that, compared to their on-site co-workers, those members who work out of remote locations or telecommute tend to be more cut off from important social networks and their organizational power base. For the team facilitator, these factors may results in team-building issues that center around the issues of intra-team communications, shared decision making, and creating avenues for member recognition. Moreover, since they are not co-located the members of distributed teams face the unique challenge of finding creative ways to manage and sustain any improvement actions that they initiate as the result of their team-building experience. The myth: teams are culturally homogeneous
Family counselors may mistakenly assume that all of the members of a family unit come from the same ethnic, religious, and cultural background. In the same way, team facilitators may fall into the trap of assuming that their client teams are homogeneous, in that members share the same corporate values and social norms. The reality is that we may be asked to support teams that span different national cultures, or radically different corporate cultures. Examples include team building that is designed to support: . international teams;
.
US-based teams that are strongly dedicated towards certain customer markets, such as the growing Hispanic market;
.
blended organizational units arising from M & A activities; or
.
the bridging of departments, functions or locations that represent divergent organizational sub-cultures.
In these types of situations facilitators can easily find themselves faced with team members who hold very different assumptions about how “effective teams” function, the role of the team leader, or the degree to which they feel comfortable publicly discussing sensitive issues or questioning their team leaders’ ideas. In addition, it is important to remember that we, as team facilitators, do not enter into the team-building process from a “value neutral” position. All of us come to the table armed with strong convictions regarding such elements as the conditions that foster strong team performance, the role that team members and leaders should play in decision making, and the team leader’s role in the change process. Before we direct a team-building engagement we have an ethical obligation to put our own set of values out on the table for the team’s review.
The myth: teams are encapsulated
Still another team myth is that the work groups who require team building will be encapsulated. Some facilitators treat teams as if they are self-contained units that are somehow hermetically sealed off from the rest of their organizations. In reality, teams are tightly interwoven into the fabric of their organizational structures, and the issues that they present for review are sometimes representative of broader organizational concerns. Consider a senior manager who requests team building for one of her newly-hired managers, because the manager’s director reports have communicated that they are

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anxious about this leader’s stringent performance standards, and the manager’s tendency to provide tough, critical feedback. It is easy to fall into the trap of framing this teambuilding issue as a manager-team conflict that’s exacerbated by the leader’s low level of interpersonal competence, and his inability to adapt to a new organizational culture. But what if the team is currently caught up in a broader departmental reorganization and team members are concerned about their job security? What if the manager was brought in to institute draconian changes to get the team’s performance back on line? What if the company’s overall performance has gone into a protracted slide, and the company is making a desperate attempt to reduce costs and improve revenue?
The point that I am making here is that teams are not encapsulated; rather they are both permeable and political. They are permeable in that they are not magically sealed off from the rest of the organization, but stand as a microcosm of broader organizational issues. Reductions in force, shifts in market strategy, or changes in the prevailing culture are all factors that are reflected in the smaller stage of the team-building process. In the same way, teams are highly political, in that presented team-building issues may mask more salient issues and hidden agendas that are politically motivated. A common example is the senior manager who requests a team-building intervention for one of her managers, when she knows that the underlying issues center around the manager’s leadership style – a problem that could be more appropriately addressed through executive coaching.
Given that teams are both permeable and political, facilitators have an obligation to learn more about the contextual setting that defines and constrains the team-building process for a particular work group. Concurrently, they need to determine whether the team performance issues they face mask broader organizational issues that require a more extensive OD intervention.
Applying the right tool: team development programs versus team interventions The second reason why OD practitioners have difficulty facilitating complex team-building issues is that they sometimes fail to make the critical distinction between team development programs and team interventions. Its important for facilitators to understand how these two team-building approaches differ, because this difference has significant implications for the types of services in which the facilitator specializes, and the team performance issues that are likely to be addressed by these services. Team development programs employ a training approach to team-building that relies heavily on the use of team exercises and simulations to help team members develop the competencies needed to perform better as a unified group. This may include introducing team members to new methods for establishing work priorities, generating ideas, and resolving intra-team conflicts. These types of programs work best with either new teams that are attempting to formulate ground rules for their operation, or established teams that are attempting to prepare for impending changes to their structure and function, such as the integration of a new leader.
Team interventions, on the other hand, employ a problem-solving approach to team-building that helps established work groups identify and address obstacles and constraints to high performance. Examples include resolving power struggles between

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team members, addressing communication breakdowns between members and their leaders, and tackling process and charter issues that have arisen with other work teams. Team interventions are designed not only help team members resolve existing problems, but also to set into place agreed on guidelines and norms for resolving similar issues in the future.
While both team development programs and team interventions can help improve organizational capability, team interventions represent a higher degree of complexity on the part of facilitators. This is because they require facilitators to help team members extract from their history and organizational setting their most important performance issues. In addition, team interventions constitute a more intense and emotional experience for team members, and contain a higher element of risk for both the client and the facilitator. The reason for this is that interventions are usually undertaken after teams have experienced a certain degree of emotional trauma or conflict, and the steady erosion of their performance. To use a seagoing analogy, team development programs take the form of redesigning boats when they are dry-docked, where as team intervention engagements involve repairing leaky vessels while they are still at sea. As a result, team interventions require a greater degree of facilitation expertise on the part of OD practitioners.

Managing complex team interventions
Each of the seven emerging “team realities” that we have just reviewed can result in teambuilding situations that can prove challenging to facilitators. Going further, there are times when these characteristics interact to produce teambuilding scenarios that are so difficult and convoluted that they can only be addressed through the use of complex team interventions. Such scenarios tend to be characterized by one or more of the following conditions:
.
they involve team performance issues that are tightly embedded within broader and more complicated organizational issues;
.
They require the coordinated direction of multiple team interventions at several intersecting organizational levels; and/or
.
the participants of these interventions hold very different assumptions regarding the goals of team building, the roles that members and leaders should play in the team-building process, and the relative legitimacy of alternative approaches to the assessment and resolution of team performance issues.
When any conditions of these conditions are present, facilitators must be able step back and reframe team building, not as a set of problem-solving techniques or activities, but as an important organizational assessment and intervention. In my experience, there are six guidelines that can assist facilitators in this reframing process.
While these guidelines stop short of a paint-by-the-numbers system, I believe that they can provide useful guidance in the design and implementation of difficult team-building engagements.

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The six guidelines
Check your assumptions
It is easy to leap to conclusions about the underlying factors that are contributing to a team’s performance problems, based on only a cursory discussion with the team leader.
Instead of yielding to this temptation, identify questions that can help you to construct a more accurate and detailed mental model of your client team. Use the seven “team realities” summarized in Table I as a check sheet for developing these questions. For example, you can select interview questions that can help you determine the degree to which the team is fragmented, temporary, geographically or temporally distributed, or comprised by members who represent different national and/or corporate cultural norms. Once you have gathered your information, let the data guide you in discerning what is uniquely different about your client team.
Step outside the circle
Another step you can take check your assumptions is to “step outside the circle.” This means, whenever possible, moving outside the team to conduct interviews with senior managers, internal customers, and support groups. The purpose of these interviews is to see how the team’s view of itself matches up against the reputation that it has gained with its key organizational stakeholders. Adhering to this guideline also means being willing to honestly discuss your own assumptions regarding the factors that you feel are contributing to the team’s problems. If you feel that the team leader’s leadership style is part of the issue, tell her so. If you are concerned that the team’s performance issues are linked to broader organizational changes currently under way in the company, then you should test this assumption by sharing it with your team.
Map the organization
Consider having participants graphically sketch out on a flipchart where their team sits in their organizational structure. When employing this procedure I use blue and red markers to indicate inter-departmental relationships that are either strong or eroded. In the same way, I ask the team to draw different size circles to indicate the degree of influence that each department has on the team’s performance. Finally, I ask them to indicate on this map any impending changes to their organizational structure, as a result of such factors as departmental reorganizations and reductions to staff.
Determine your path of entry into the intervention
When dealing with a complex team-building issue involving several teams, an important facilitation decision involves determine the in which you will attack team-building issues. This decision is especially important when the work group is question is a senior-level executive team, and the team-building request may involve related performance issues that extend across multiple teams that are nested within the same organizational unit. In this situation, it is important to work with the senior team to think through the most effective order of what may be several successive team interventions. As a general rule of thumb, if team members express confusion or disagreement regarding the direction and focus of their overall organizational unit, and wish to obtain stronger alignment on the unit’s vision, strategy, or business priorities, I find it useful to take an outside-in approach and focus the initial intervention on the broadest

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area of influence – the senior team. I might then attempt to address those conflicts that exist between the work groups that report up to the senior team. My last intervention would center on those subordinate issues that are unique to, and lie within the scope of, particular teams. On the other hand, when the most prevalent and important team issues appear to center on fractured relationships, communication breakdowns or lack of role clarity, I follow the inside-out approach. Accordingly, I would start out by resolving issues that lie inside each team before attempting to develop secondary interventions that address broader inter-team issues.
Use triangulation to explore alternative perspectives
In preparing for complex team interventions, a common facilitation mistake is to attempt to create a model of how the team operates based on a single assessment technique (a 3608 feedback instrument or team performance survey), limited information sources (interviewing only the team leader), and restricted viewpoints
(the team facilitator’s). When we fall into this trap we tend to view the team’s performance problems from a very limited perspective, much like attempting to paint a room by peering through a keyhole.
This limitation can be overcome by employing the research technique of triangulation, which involves making use of multiple assessment components to obtain a more comprehensive and balanced perspective of a how a team functions. One way to do this is utilize several assessment tools, such as a multi-rater instrument, to assess leadership style, team questionnaires and organizational assessments, to evaluate both micro and macro-level team performance factors. Facilitators can also broaden their perspective by including input from the team’s internal customers, suppliers and senior managers. A third approach involves making use of a second facilitator to assist in data gathering and in the analysis of findings. Having someone function as an independent set of eyes and ears is one way to insure that we do not become trapped in our own viewpoints.
Understand the context for change
Teams operate within the two-dimensional matrix of history and organizational setting. Understanding this backdrop means discovering how a team has evolved over time, and the broader organizational context in which it is currently embedded. While most team-building facilitators do not have the opportunity to perform a detailed organizational assessment, I have found that there are certain questions that can provide insight on the team’s history and organizational setting:
.
How has your team has changed over the past year? What differences would I have noticed if I had observed your team’s performance over this time period?
.
Tell me the story of how your team got to be where it is today.
.
Looking ahead, how does the story end? Assume that no changes are made in your team’s operation. Tell me what you see ahead for your team a year down the path. .
Every team has its own unique personality. If I were an invisible observer, what would I notice about your team that makes it stand out from other teams in this business unit?

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What change events or initiatives (reduction-in-force, changes to organizational structure, changes in departmental roles and accountabilities) are happening in your organization right now that could be affecting your team’s performance?
Which of these events or initiatives are within your team’s control or influence?

It is important to pose these questions not only to team members and leaders, but also to senior managers and (if possible) and key organizational stakeholders. Sometimes these individuals can provide a broader business perspective that helps establish a meaningful context for understanding the team’s performance issues.
Not too long ago I was asked to provide team-building support to a procurement team within a franchise company. During their interviews team members voiced a great deal of frustration with the changes that their new manager was attempting to install, and the aggressive leadership approach that she had adopted to implement these changes. During conversations with the team leader and senior managers it soon became clear to me that there were several critical contextual pieces that members were missing. The fact was that the company was experiencing serious financial trouble.
Furthermore, an important part of their long-term recovery strategy depended upon transforming the team from a traditional procurement function into a one that could help the company generate incremental revenues by forming strategic alliances with other corporate partners. While team members understood the general outline for this transformation, what they lacked was a clear understanding of how these changes translated into the need to quickly ramp up their performance, and to graft on new technical competencies. Through discussions during the team-building session, members were able to more carefully separate out issues of leadership style, from those involving the need to more clearly understand changes to their team’s new organizational charter and their own roles in this change process.
Complex team interventions: two illustrations
Example one: addressing cross-cultural factors
Several years ago, I attempted to design my first cross-cultural team-building program.
The team in question was an international sales function that included some members from the US corporate office as well as others from the countries of France, England,
Australia, and Demark. Working with the team’s American leader, I put together what
I thought at the time was a first-rate teambuilding design, that was to include an initial written multi-rater feedback instrument and written team audit, followed by individual interviews with each team member. While the team leader liked the idea, it received mixed reactions from the other team members. The greatest resistance came from the three French team members, who voiced strong concerns about how the survey instrument and audit were going to be used.
I quickly backed away from my original teambuilding design, once I realized that I was operating from a team-building model that did not reflect the different national cultures represented by this team. Consequently I spent a lot of time attempting to better understand members’ biases and preferences regarding alternative approaches to data gathering, alternative vehicles for presenting issues for team review, and the roles that they want their team leader and me, as their facilitator, to play in this process. This discussion gave me a lot of insight regarding the very different ways that professionals from different countries construct the concepts of “teams”, “team leaders”

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and “team facilitators”. By taking the time to explore these areas and carefully negotiate with team members regarding the facilitation approach that I would be using, we were able to have a much more successful team-building experience.
Example two: intervening at multiple organizational levels
The most complicated team intervention that I ever directed was focused on four major departments of a US-based telecommunications company. These functions were:
(1) sales;
(2) international operations (the installation and maintenance of facilities and support equipment at international locations);
(3) engineering; and
(4) manufacturing.
The leaders of these teams struggled with a number of issues, including territorial disputes regarding which function was best equipped to take the lead on managing follow-on sales to international clients. While all department heads agreed that the sales function drove all new sales, the question of follow-on sales was more convoluted.
While the sales department claimed a major stake to this territory, the reality was that quite often, as the result of their frequent face-to-face contact with their international clients, the leaders of the international operations and engineering functions encountered many opportunities to secure follow-on business for the company.
The situation was made more difficult by the fact that the sales team’s two sales groups, on of which managed sales to members of NATO countries, and the other which directed national sales activities within several European countries, engaged in a fierce rivalry within several overlapping sales locations. These two groups not only had their own internal issues, but they frequently took very different positions on important inter-team issues, such as the issue of follow-up business.
In addition, there were several specialized inter-team issues that lay across the interface shared by the engineering and sales teams. These issues involved the extent to which commitments and promises were made by sales on behalf of engineering.
Engineering felt that sales “over-promised”, while the sales team felt that the engineering team had a tendency to slide out from under their commitments to customers. Heading up this division was a divisional vice president who saw the team’s issues as a relationship problem that centered on himself, those direct reports who headed up the four major departments, and the heads of four other supplementary departments.
The most difficult design challenges that I faced in this teambuilding intervention involved mapping these issues and getting all parties to agree on an acceptable on entry-path for their successive review. This, in turn, involved getting all of the key stakeholders to agree on the following points:
.
how we defined and framed each of the perspective challenges;
.
the participants who were needed to be included in discussions of key issues;
.
the degree to which certain issues could be most effectively attacked through discussions with small groups of senior leaders, or through larger groups that afforded greater representation by each respective group;

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the roles that the divisional president and the divisional SVP of HR would play in each session; the order of attack for these respective issues; and the degree to which session participants were willing to share with non-participants, information on the outcomes of these sessions.

After three weeks of intense discussion with the divisional president and his reports we were able to work through these design details. However, by taking the time to carefully construct this process, the participants entered into team building knowing our agreed upon ground rules for engagement, and where each group fit into the overall game for change. As a result, during the subsequent team-building program that extended over the next three months we were able to go much further in the resolution of team issues.
Some final thoughts
Managing a complex team intervention can be an arduous and tedious project, but the results are well worth it. As OD practitioners are increasingly called on to help facilitate broad-based organizational change, we can anticipate that knowing how to manage complex team interventions will become a critical OD competency. Although there are no simple rules for success, by carefully thinking through the design of a team-building process and by adhering to a few simple guidelines, team facilitators are more likely to increase their changes for success.
Corresponding author
Robert Barner can be contacted at: ibscribe@earthlink.net

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...organization's effectiveness and/or efficiency and/or to enable the organization to achieve its strategic goals. The primary purpose of OD is to develop the organization, not to train or develop the staff. “Interventions” are principal learning processes in the “action” stage of organizational development. Interventions are structured activities used individually or in combination by the members of a client system to improve their social or task performance. They may be introduced by a change agent as part of an improvement program, or they may be used by the client following a program to check on the state of the organization's health, or to effect necessary changes in its own behavior. TATA CONSULTANCY SERVICES (TCS) * About the company Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS) is an IT services, business solutions and outsourcing organization that delivers real results to global businesses, with a high level of certainty. TCS offers a consulting-led, complete and integrated portfolio of IT and IT-enabled services delivered through its unique Global Network Delivery Model, recognized as the benchmark of excellence in software development. * Intervention I: PROPEL- CULTURE BUILDING AT TCS (Human Process Intervention) PROPEL was introduced as a revolutionary intervention with the dual objectives of facilitating the exchange of ideas and helping in immediate problem solving, while also encouraging bonding and self-development among and within teams.  As the......

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Free Essay

Crisis Intervention

...Joann Ellison April 22, 2014 HN220:Prevention and Crisis Intervention Professor Elizabeth Whitaker Unit 4 Assignment In the state of Georgia I live in Clayton County. Clayton County is located 20 minutes from the city of Atlanta, Ga. In Clayton county they have a workshop that you can attend to become a volunteer in any crisis intervention center in the county. Volunteering at a crisis intervention center or hotline is an amazing and important job. Through your training and patience, you will be able to help individual through very difficult situations and hopefully help set them back on course and even save some lives. During the training, there is 8 steps that you have to achieve and remember to become a volunteer at any crisis intervention center or hotlines service. Remembering these step will not only help you succeed being a good volunteer but help better others and help saved a persons life at the right moment. The 8 steps consist of Assess yourself, Compile a list of all the local crisis centers and their contact information, Pick two or three crisis centers that you would like to contact, so that you can focus on your favorite or most convenient ones, Call the center of your choice and find out what kind of screening process they have for potential volunteers, Meet with the center director or head volunteer, If all goes well, you should be able to start training, Once you pass all the criteria that the center has for you, they may team you up with......

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Humanitarian Intervention

...Humanitarian intervention is a label that has been employed to describe economic to military intervention. The main types of intervention include military, diplomatic, developmental and economic sanction. Mill’s (1859) stated that "There seems to be no little need that the whole doctrine of non-interference with foreign nations should be reconsidered, if it can be said to have as yet been considered as a really moral question at all... To go to war for an idea, if the war is aggressive, not defensive, is as criminal as to go to war for territory or revenue; for it is as little justifiable to force our ideas on other people, as to compel them to submit to our will in any other respect”. This essay will demonstrate how humanitarian intervention efforts are not reaching the goals that are needed to properly aid the disadvantaged nations in developing nations. Economic humanitarian intervention emerged at the end of the Second World War. Historically, it is apparent that foreign aid was used explicitly to prevent the expansion of communism during the Cold War, and not solely to help those in need. It can be argued that humanitarian intervention has done more harm than good to the nations. Northern/ Western countries have enriched themselves from their unequal relation with Southern either under colonialism or under the trading system, which has the Southern nations paying more towards their ongoing debt and receiving an irrelevant amount of foreign aid to help assist these......

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Free Essay

Crisis Intervention

...Running head: A Biblical Approach to Crisis Intervention A Biblical Approach to Crisis Intervention and Brief Therapy Brandon Carpenter Liberty Theological Seminary Abstract The paper discusses the brief counseling approach to crisis intervention as utilized by the author. After a crisis is defined and determined, the author uses a short-term counseling methodology adapted from the ABC model as introduced in Kristi Kanal’s text. The counseling pedagogy blends the elements of the ABC model with biblical principles which may be used by the Christian counselor for the purpose of short-term crisis management. A Biblical Approach to Crisis Intervention and Brief Counseling Every believer in Jesus Christ is called to a ministry of encouraging and helping others, especially to other brothers and sisters in the faith whose lives have been encroached upon by a crisis. Many times the abundant life that was promised by Jesus is disrupted when a crisis presents itself. Although every believer can experience the joy of their salvation through the ministry of the Holy Spirit which inwardly resides in them, Christians are not exempt from the distress and vulnerability that crises are capable of producing. Counseling, which is bathed in prayer and which appropriately uses and applies the Word of God, is an essential responsibility of Christian life and fellowship. Moreover, various intervention models and presuppositions are......

Words: 4126 - Pages: 17

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Response to Intervention

...Introduction As America’s educational system continues to strengthen and develop, a focus on individualized instruction and intervention within the regular education classroom has been brought forth in an attempt to keep struggling students from falling behind. This specific additional instruction and intervention, known as Response to Intervention in most states (RtI), is not only viewed as a push towards the improvement of education for all students, but is also being used as the means by which decisions regarding a student’s special education eligibility is based upon. However, for such a program to ultimately be beneficial, it will be up to the schools to ensure that the education professionals are putting forth significant effort in using the most appropriate type of intervention for that specific student. It will be the RtI team’s duty to define the student’s problem, plan an intervention, implement the intervention, and regularly evaluate the student’s progress (Martinez & Young, 2011, p. 44). Various interventions should be attempted if the scheduled improvement is not initially apparent. Statement of the Problem The groundbreaking passage of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act in 1975, the long overdue act which provided official protection of the rights and individual needs of those with disabilities within the educational system, sparked the remarkable increase of students being quickly diagnosed with a learning disability in whatever subject......

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Nursing Interventions

.................................................................................................................................. 8 Recommendation 3 Commission interventions from services willing to share intervention details and data ......................................................................................................................................................... 9 Recommendation 4 Commission high quality, effective behaviour change interventions ....................... 10 Recommendation 5 Plan behaviour change interventions and programmes taking local needs into account.................................................................................................................................................... 11 Recommendation 6 Develop acceptable, practical and sustainable behaviour change interventions and programmes ..................................................................................................................................... 12 Recommendation 7 Use proven behaviour change techniques when designing interventions .............. 13 Recommendation 8 Ensure interventions meet individual needs ........................................................... 14 Recommendation 9 Deliver very brief, brief, extended brief and high intensity behaviour change interventions and programmes ............................................................................................................... 16 Recommendation 10 Ensure......

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Conflict Intervention

...Conflict Intervention and Recommendation Paper Introduction Whenever there are issues within a family that led to separation, as it has with the Patton family, professional intervention should be considered. The manner in which these issues are conflicts are confronted could determine the mental health of the family involved in the conflict. Conflict is a fact of life (Wilmot & Hocker, 2011). When conflict is handled in a timely manner mental health is improved and the likelihood of depression is dissipated. The Patton family is experiencing major issues because of the avoidance of conflict, and avoiding channels that could facilitate in resolving their conflicts. Professional intervention such as mediation, arbitration, and negotiation all have positive outlooks; however, they present challenges as well. This evaluation will consider each of these processes and determine which would be most effective in resolving the Patton families conflicts. Evaluate The Benefits Mediation has many advantages, it is a less expensive alternative than the docket in the courthouse. When considering the Patton family situation mediation encourages collaboration, and cooperation. They need to come together and start a dialogue between each family member. Conflict cannot resolve unless there is effective dialogue between the disputants. Mediation can respond to many concerns, when delving into the lives of the Patton's it is important that every issue is addressed not just the concerns of......

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Pyramid of Intervention

...Grand Canyon University Purpose of Intervention There is a fundamental belief that every child has value and that every child should be accounted for in terms of providing a quality education. Schools have had trouble trying to embrace the notion that no student should be allowed to fail. Leadership with in any school should embrace the philosophy that no student should be allowed to fail and apply it to the school culture and implement a program that coordinates the schools’ s mission statement of maximizing achievement with the school improvement goals. In 2006, pyramid of intervention was a response to the intervention component of the Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act (IDEIA). Response to Intervention or (RTI) is often associated with Pyramid of Intervention using a continuum-based process that focuses on access to high quality, evidence based instruction, data-driven decision making, a tiered model of supports and a systems level approach to improving academic and behavioral outcomes (McIntosh, 2011). Pyramid of Intervention This pyramid came out of the IDEIA law that wanted to address increasingly diverse classrooms and the demands and opportunities of what has come to be coined “21st century learning.” There is a prevailing thought that the high-quality inclusive education is an issue of social justice and important to developing the human capital that is needed in today’s societies. What has emerged is a growing preference towards empowering the...

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Intervention

...I chose to watch the intervention episode for Amy W. Alcoholism, anorexia, depression and self-mutilation were the presenting problems of Amy’s that required intervention. Amy’s parents’ high expectations and unwillingness to show her love growing up started an unforeseeable problem. She was also molested at the tender age of eight by a neighbor but chose to never disclose to anyone but her high school friend Jessica. At the age of thirteen she indulged in self-mutilation to cope when she was upset. Determined to please her parents and gain to love from her parents she developed an eating disorder thinking if she was thin enough they would be pleased with her. As a result, Amy only eats 500 calories a day, drinks a ridiculous amount of liquor a day, and regularly self harm by cutting and burning herself with cigarettes. Additionally, Amy was date raped and has stolen money from her parents to feed her addiction. Amy is also in a codependent relationship with her friend Kathryn, who is also an alcoholic and they indulge each other. Amy and her daughters’ safety is a great concern for her family and friends and they are seeking to help her. A classical/crises intervention took place in order to address Amy’s problems and issues. The social works planned-change steps were used in the intervention to help Amy over come her vices and depression. In order to successfully help Amy her father, mother, two sisters, and two of her best friends were included. The steps were used......

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Intervention Worksheet

...University of Phoenix Material Intervention Worksheet Part I: Complete the following table comparing international interventions and implications as it relates to the following: |Type of Abuse |International Interventions |Implications | | |There are many agencies that promote different programs to stop child labor; legal age to work is 15 |Some implications of child labor are a great need for| |Child labor |years old with strict restrictions. It is illegal to have any minors work without permission. |food and rest, smaller in size and skeleton growth. | | |Social service interventions are formed to protect current slaves, community based interventions focus |There are many implications of slavery such as poor | |Slavery |on outreach and raising awareness. Harm reduction interventions work to improve work, living conditions,|diets, poor hygiene, and low self-esteem. | | |rule of law interventions focus on rescuing slaves, and economic interventions focus on economic growth | | | |and development. ...

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Free Essay

Cognitive Intervention

...Cognitive Intervention: Cognitive Restructuring Theory BSHS/312 Elaine McCullough Marc Warren, Samantha Smith, Brandy Schneider, and Herlinda Rahn University of Phoenix Abstract This paper will examine the use of Cognitive Restructuring in regards to Stroke Victims and Adolescent Interventions. It will also identify questions regarding interventions. It is an in depth look into interventions too help assist the victims suffering from stroke and adolescent issues. The paper includes an introduction, in depth analysis of backgrounds and interventions associated with stroke and adolescent behavior, intervention questions, and the conclusion. Cognitive Restructuring Definition The cognitive restructuring theory holds that your own unrealistic beliefs are directly responsible for generating dysfunctional emotions and their resultant behaviors, like stress, depression, anxiety, and social withdrawal, and that we humans can be rid of such emotions and their effects by dismantling the beliefs that give them life. Thought challenging–also known as cognitive restructuring–is a process in which you challenge the negative thinking patterns that contribute to your anxiety, replacing them with more positive, realistic thoughts. The cognitive restructuring model is a proven model in addressing behavioral issues concerning stroke victims and adolescents. Our focus will be addressing the insights into these interventions. Cognitive Interventions for Stroke Victims ...

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Humanitarian Intervention

...the United Nations intervene in the affairs of another state? Do we have a moral and ethical duty for intervention when a political regime is harming its own citizens? Is it legal under International law for a state to intervene in another state’s territorial and political sovereignty with or without United Nation Security Council’s approval? It is the aim of this essay to examine some of the answers commonly given to these questions. To address the ethical and legal justifiability of intervention this essay will begin by analyzing how we define humanitarian intervention. The second section discusses moral and ethical issue relating to humanitarian intervention. The discussion focuses on the several theories that present a moral case for intervention. It concludes by examining whether international law should affirm a right to humanitarian intervention. The literature on the ethics and legality of humanitarian intervention is filled with disagreement. This essay seeks to identify and critically assess the often unexamined moral and legal assumptions behind these disagreements. Definition of Humanitarian Intervention It is necessary to begin with a clear understanding of the concept to be analyzed. We need then to start by addressing the question, what is humanitarian intervention? And to address this we need to study the definition of humanitarian intervention. “It is the threat or use of force across state borders by a state of group of states, such as the......

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