Premium Essay

Interview Of Lazarsfeld

Submitted By
Words 350
Pages 2
The research on this article is based on interviews. The specific technique that the authors used was based on the previous methods from Lazarsfeld (Merton, Fiske, and Kendall 1990), the long interview of McCracken (1988), or the phenomenological interview of Thompson, Locander, and Pollio (1989). The interviews were also classified as nondirective, because it implied several limitations such as keeping the consumer focused and the selection of ads to be discussed. The interviews were in the form of questionnaires and it was directed to 130 college students. The goal of the interview was to discover if fashion ads were themselves consumed, or instead seen as another product. The methodology in this scenario provided excellent results, because

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Improve Communication in Organisation

...COMMUNICATION PROBLEMS FACED BY MALACCA HEALTH DEPARTMENT (MHD) ON ANTI SMOKING CAMPAIGN INTRODUCTION Communication refers to the act, by one or more persons, of sending and receiving messages that are distorted by noise, occur within a context, have some effect, and provide some opportunity for feedback. All communication takes place in a context that has at least four dimensions: physical, cultural, social psychological and temporal. Communication always has some effect on one or more person involved in the communication act. For every communication act, there is some consequence. For example, we may gain knowledge or learn how to analyze, synthesize, or evaluate something. These are intellectual or cognitive effects. Or we may acquire or change our attitudes, beliefs, emotions and feelings. These are effective effects. We may even learn new bodily movements, such as throwing a ball or painting a picture, as well as appropriate verbal and nonverbal behaviours. These are psychomotor effects.Communication behaviours, whether they involve verbal messages, gestures, or some combination thereof, usually occur in “packages” (Pittenger,Hockett,& Danehy 1960). Communication is transactional (Barnlund 1970; Watzlawick 1977, 1978; Watzlawick, Beavin, & Jackson 1967; Wilmot 1987). One implication of viewing communication as transactional is that each person is seen as both speaker and listener, as simultaneously sending and receiving messages. Each person in a communication transaction...

Words: 7570 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay


...THE TWO-STEP FLOW OF COMMUNICATION A report called The People´s Choice* was made after analysing the process of decision-making during the course of an election campaign in 1940. After the analysis the authors suggested that the flow of mass communications may be less direct than was commonly supposed. Authors of The People Choice proposed the following Hypothesis: Influences deriving from the mass media first reach “opinion leaders” who, in turn, pass on what they read and hear to those of their everyday associates from whom they are influential. And that Hypothesis was called: “THE TWO-STEP FLOW OF COMMNICATION” Authors themselves intrigued by its implications for: • Democratic society: • They say it was better that people were more persuaded by the interaction with other people and that the influence of mass media was less automatic and less potent than had been assumed. • Social theory and communications research: • Hypothesis suggested that the image of modern urban society needed revision: image of the audience as a mass of disconnected individuals hooked up to the media but not to each other. IMPACTS OF THE HYPOTHESIS • The hypothesis in The People´s Choice, however, was not very well documented by empirical data: • The design of the study did not anticipate the importance which interpersonal relations would assume in the analysis of the data. • Interpersonal influence really attracted the attention of many researches of different kind, not just mass media researches:...

Words: 2182 - Pages: 9

Free Essay


...Sex and advertising: Retail therapy | The Economist 18/10/2012 22:28 Log in Register Subscribe Digital & mobile Events Topics A-Z Newsletters Jobs Thursday October 18th 2012 Search Multimedia Print edition World politics Business & finance Economics Science & technology Culture Blogs Debate The World in 2013 We use cookies to support features like login and allow trusted media partners to analyse aggregated site usage. Keep cookies enabled to enjoy the full site experience. By browsing our site with cookies enabled, you are agreeing to their use. Review our cookies information for more details. Sex and advertising Comment (28) E-mail Print Reprints & permissions Retail therapy How Ernest Dichter, an acolyte of Sigmund Freud, revolutionised marketing Dec 17th 2011 | from the print edition Like 1.7k Tweet 874 Advertisement THESE are thrilling days for behavioural research. Every week seems to yield a new discovery about how bad people are at making decisions. Humans, it turns out, are impressionable, emotional and irrational. We buy things we don't need, often at arbitrary prices and for silly reasons. Studies show that when a store plays soothing music, shoppers will linger for longer and often spend more. If customers are in a good mood, they are more susceptible to persuasion. We believe price tends to indicate the value of things, not the other way around. And many people will squander valuable time...

Words: 4221 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Media and Terrorism

...News Media and Terrorism: Changing Relationship, Changing Definitions Zohar Kampf Department of Communication Hebrew University In this article I discuss two aspects that are important for understanding the relationship between Western news media and terrorism: the changing representation of terrorists and terrorist attacks in the media, and with it, the changing definition of terrorism. By calling attention to evolving news media practices in times of terrorism, I argue that advanced communication technologies and the emergence of global media ecology since the 1990s has made terrorism more visible in both national and international media landscapes. One consequence is that the more the news media expose terrorism to global audiences via the "front-door", the more controversial the use of the terms terrorism and terrorist become in social, political, and scholarly discourse. The paper addresses the new journalistic practices and their consequences as documented in previous studies on media reporting of terrorism in several national contexts, mostly the UK, the US and Israel. Terrorism, media, and the nation (or, reading about terrorists in the next day's newspaper) Classic definitions of terrorism evolved in a world in which a modernist view reigned supreme. Despite constant debates about how to define the term (Schmid 1983; Schlesinger 1981; Gibbs 1989; Nacos 2007), one conventional definition, at least under U.S. law, characterizing a nationalistic perception...

Words: 5161 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Seminar on Mathematics Technology

...Philosophy of Science (All Science, not just social science)   During the time of the ancient Greeks—that is, Socrates and Plato, but before them and after them as well, the study of “philosophy” (Greek for “love of wisdom”) began.  At that time, philosophy included both the natural and physical sciences as well what we know as philosophy today.  The development of philosophy created a tension between philosophy, science, and religion.  Remember that Socrates was put to death for allegedly questioning the existence of the official state-worshiped gods.   This tension between philosophy, science and religion continued through the 1400’s and 1500’s when the European “Enlightenment” emphasized the concept that both “rational thought” and “science” was separate from religion. Today, they are still generally in tension.  Whether these methods of gaining knowledge are consistent or not is constantly debated among scientists, theologians, and philosophers.  Science=observation of the physical universe which includes (beginning in the late 1800’s) the study of human behavior using our five senses (sight, hearing, taste, touch, smell); Religion=the study of the “divine” (i.e., god, however a person conceives of that notion, and it’s implications) Philosophy=the study of questions unanswerable by science through the use of “reason” (rational thought) alone.   Thus, there are 4 different philosophical views on how humans can obtain knowledge:                 1. mysticism/divine revelation—a...

Words: 8423 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Social Capital

...Available online at Poetics 39 (2011) 469–490 Experiencing unemployment: The roles of social and cultural capital in mediating economic crisis ´ Virgılio Borges Pereira ˆ Departamento de Sociologia, Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto, Via Panoramica, ´ s/numero 4150-564 Porto, Portugal Available online 24 October 2011 Abstract The paper offers an engagement with economic issues, via an exploration of the recent crisis in Northern Portugal, to discuss the roles of social capital and cultural capital in the configuration of diverse experiences of unemployment. It focuses on changes over time and on contemporary everyday relations to identify such experiences. By means of a multiple correspondence analysis, patterns of sociability are discerned. Ethnographic material enables these patterns to be qualified and three main types of unemployment experience are identified, all centred on the idea of unemployment as a space of sociability. The case study elaborates on and qualifies research inspired by Bourdieu on methodological and theoretical grounds. It demonstrates the need to qualify statistical patterns emerging from MCA with refined qualitative material and indicates specific ways in which social and cultural capitals interact with the economic sphere in a particularly severe economic crisis. # 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction This paper puts forward an analysis of the experience of economic...

Words: 10739 - Pages: 43

Free Essay

Sociological Imagination

...THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION C. WRIGHT MILLS NEW YORK Oxford University Press 1959 Appendix On Intellectual Craftsmanship TO THE INDIVIDUAL social scientist who feels himself a part of the classic tradition, social science is the practice of a craft. A man at work on problems of substance, he is among those who are quickly made impatient and weary by elaborate discussions of method-and-theory-in-general; so much of it interrupts his proper studies. It is much better, he believes, to have one account by a working student of how he is going about his work than a dozen 'codifications of procedure' by specialists who as often as not have never done much work of consequence. Only by conversations in which experienced thinkers exchange information about their actual ways of working can a useful sense of method and theory be imparted to the beginning student. I feel it useful, therefore, to report in some detail how I go about my craft. This is necessarily a personal statement, but it is written with the hope that others, especially those beginning independent work, will make it less personal by the facts of their own experience. 1 It is best to begin, I think, by reminding you, the beginning student, that the most admirable thinkers within the scholarly community you have chosen to join do not split their work from their lives. They seem to take both too seriously to allow such dissociation, and they want to use each for the enrichment of the other. Of course, such a...

Words: 12935 - Pages: 52

Premium Essay


...Human Resource Management Review 19 (2009) 117–133 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Human Resource Management Review j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s ev i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / h u m r e s Diversity in organizations: Where are we now and where are we going? Lynn M. Shore ⁎, Beth G. Chung-Herrera, Michelle A. Dean, Karen Holcombe Ehrhart, Don I. Jung, Amy E. Randel, Gangaram Singh Institute for Inclusiveness and Diversity in Organizations, Department of Management, College of Business Administration, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Diversity Inclusiveness a b s t r a c t A great deal of research has focused on workforce diversity. Despite an increasing number of studies, few consistent conclusions have yet to be reached about the antecedents and outcomes of diversity. Likewise, research on different dimensions of diversity (e.g., age, race, gender, sexual orientation, disability, and culture) has mostly evolved independently. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine each of these dimensions of diversity to describe common themes across dimensions and to develop an integrative model of diversity. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. While the term “workforce diversity” is commonly used in scholarly articles as well as in the popular press, the focus and scope of the research is both varied and broad. Until recently, most studies...

Words: 17588 - Pages: 71

Premium Essay

Defining Strategic Communication

...See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: Defining Strategic Communication ARTICLE in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION · MARCH 2007 DOI: 10.1080/15531180701285244 CITATIONS READS 112 457 5 AUTHORS, INCLUDING: Kirk Hallahan Betteke van Ruler Colorado State University University of Amsterdam 37 PUBLICATIONS 894 CITATIONS 36 PUBLICATIONS 513 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE SEE PROFILE Dejan Verčič Krishnamurthy Sriramesh University of Ljubljana Purdue University 102 PUBLICATIONS 742 CITATIONS 44 PUBLICATIONS 712 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE All in-text references underlined in blue are linked to publications on ResearchGate, letting you access and read them immediately. SEE PROFILE Available from: Betteke van Ruler Retrieved on: 10 April 2016 This article was downloaded by: On: 8 September 2010 Access details: Access Details: Free Access Publisher Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 3741 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK International Journal of Strategic Communication Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: Defining Strategic Communication Kirk Hallahana; Derina Holtzhausenb; Betteke van Rulerc; Dejan Verčičd;...

Words: 14817 - Pages: 60

Premium Essay

Social Networking Sites

...Social Computing: Study on the Use and Impact of Online Social Networking IPTS Exploratory Research on the Socio-economic Impact of Social Computing Romina Cachia EUR 23565 EN - 2008 1 The mission of the IPTS is to provide customer-driven support to the EU policy-making process by researching science-based responses to policy challenges that have both a socio-economic and a scientific or technological dimension. European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Prospective Technological Studies Contact information Address: Edificio Expo. c/ Inca Garcilaso, s/n. E-41092 Seville (Spain) E-mail: Tel.: +34 954488318 Fax: +34 954488300 Legal Notice Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of this publication. Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about the European Union Freephone number (*): 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 (*) Certain mobile telephone operators do not allow access to 00 800 numbers or these calls may be billed. A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server JRC 48650 EUR 23565 EN ISSN 1018-5593 Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities © European Communities, 2008 Reproduction is authorised provided the...

Words: 26204 - Pages: 105

Free Essay

Marketing Political

...The Pennsylvania State University The Graduate School The Mary Jane and Frank P. Smeal College of Business ESSAYS IN POLITICAL MARKETING A Dissertation in Business Administration by David LeBaron  2008 David N. LeBaron Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy December 2008 The thesis of David N. LeBaron was reviewed and approved* by the following: William T. Ross, Jr. Professor of Marketing Dissertation Co-Advisor Co-Chair of Committee John C. Liechty Associate Professor of Marketing Dissertation Co-Advisor Co-Chair of Committee Peter Ebbes Assistant Professor of Marketing David J. Huff Clinical Assistant Professor of Supply Chain and Information Systems Johannes Baumgartner Professor of Marketing Head of the Department of Marketing *Signatures are on file in the Graduate School iii ABSTRACT Political marketing sits at the nexus of two disciplines, political science and marketing, but is not entirely accepted by either. The present research looks at the origin, development, and evolution of political marketing and examines how the adoption of a political marketing orientation is impacting the practice of political campaigns. The role of political marketing in actually changing voters’ preferences is also examined, showing that grassroots marketing efforts seem to have the greatest effect, especially with undecided voters. Finally, voter segments are derived...

Words: 34057 - Pages: 137

Premium Essay


...Lobschat, L., Zinnbauer, M. A., Pallas, F., & Joachimsthaler, E. (2013). Why Social Currency Becomes a Key Driver of a Firm's Brand Equity – Insights from the Automotive Industry. Long Range Planning, 46(PLS applications in strategic management: Partial Least Squares modeling in strategy research), 125-148. doi:10.1016/j.lrp.2012.11.004 Introduction In the past decade, managers have endeavored to build brands by creating a strong identity and conveying this identity through consistently managing relevant touch points with customers (e.g., Aaker and Joachimsthaler, 2000; Keller and Lehmann, 2003). To this end, managers are striving to better understand consumer behavior and positively influence consumers' brand perceptions through marketing initiatives (e.g., Keller, 1993). However, the direction of influence on a brand's perception and image has become increasingly bilateral. Today, consumers are no longer simply “receivers” of company- and brand-related information. Instead, they operate as “senders” of this information, e.g., by giving brand recommendations, by expressing criticism, or by sharing information with others (Hennig-Thurau et al., 2010). For this reason, managers no longer have exclusive control over information circulating about a company or brand. Consumers therefore play an important role in forming a company's or brand's perception and value in the marketplace (Keller, 2007). Exchange of information about companies and brands between consumers is not...

Words: 36809 - Pages: 148

Premium Essay

Mass Media

...Media History Contents 1 Introduction 1.1 Mass media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5 1.1.6 1.1.7 1.1.8 1.1.9 Issues with definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forms of mass media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purposes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professions involving mass media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Influence and sociology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ethical issues and criticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 2 6 6 7 8 10 10 10 10 11 11 12 12 12 12 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 19 20 21 21 21 1.1.10 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.12 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.13 External links . . . . . . . . ....

Words: 146891 - Pages: 588

Premium Essay

The Social

...animal Books by Elliot Aronson Theories of Cognitive Consistency (with R. Abelson et al.), 1968 Voices of Modern Psychology, 1969 The Social Animal, 1972, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1995, 1999, 2004; (with J. Aronson), 2008 Readings About the Social Animal, 1973, 1977, 1981, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1995, 1999, 2004; (with J. Aronson), 2008 Social Psychology (with R. Helmreich), 1973 Research Methods in Social Psychology (with J. M. Carlsmith & P. Ellsworth), 1976 The Jigsaw Classroom (with C. Stephan et al.), 1978 Burnout: From Tedium to Personal Growth (with A. Pines & D. Kafry), 1981 Energy Use: The Human Dimension (with P. C. Stern), 1984 The Handbook of Social Psychology (with G. Lindzey), 3rd ed., 1985 Career Burnout (with A. Pines), 1988 Methods of Research in Social Psychology (with P. Ellsworth, J. M. Carlsmith, & M. H. Gonzales), 1990 Age of Propaganda (with A. R. Pratkanis), 1992, 2000 Social Psychology, Vols. 1–3 (with A. R. Pratkanis), 1992 Social Psychology: The Heart and the Mind (with T. D. Wilson & R. M. Akert), 1994 Cooperation in the Classroom: The Jigsaw Method (with S. Patnoe), 1997 Nobody Left to Hate: Teaching Compassion After Columbine, 2000 Social Psychology: An Introduction (with T. D. Wilson & R. M. Akert), 2002, 2005, 2007 The Adventures of Ruthie and a Little Boy Named Grandpa (with R. Aronson), 2006 Mistakes Were Made (But Not By Me) (with C. Tavris), 2007 Books by Joshua Aronson Improving Academic Achievement, 2002 The Social Animal To...

Words: 208005 - Pages: 833

Premium Essay

Will Do Next Time

...Instructor’s Manual and Test Bank to accompany A First Look at Communication Theory Sixth Edition Em Griffin Wheaton College prepared by Glen McClish San Diego State University and Emily J. Langan Wheaton College Published by McGraw­Hill, an imprint of The McGraw­Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright Ó 2006,  2003, 2000, 1997, 1994, 1991 by The McGraw­Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The contents, or parts thereof, may be reproduced in print form  solely for classroom use with A First Look At Communication Theory provided such reproductions bear copyright notice, but may not be reproduced in  any other form or for any other purpose without the prior written consent of The McGraw­Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any  network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. PREFACE Rationale We agreed to produce the instructor’s manual for the sixth edition of A First Look at Communication Theory because it’s a first-rate book and because we enjoy talking and writing about pedagogy. Yet when we recall the discussions we’ve had with colleagues about instructor’s manuals over the years, two unnerving comments stick with us: “I don’t find them much help”; and (even worse) “I never look at them.” And, if the truth be told, we were often the people making such points! With these statements in mind, we have done some serious soul-searching about the texts that so many teachers—ourselves...

Words: 159106 - Pages: 637