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A Laboratory Manual for

Human Anatomy And Physiology
First year Diploma in Pharmacy (PH)

Maharashtra State Board of Technical Education, Mumbai

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CELL,MSBTE,MUMBAI.
LABORATORY MANUAL DEVELOPMENT FOR DIPLOMA IN PHARMACY Particulars Education Technology Consultant Project Institution Shri. D.M.Makone, Team for design

Mahatma Gandhi Vidyamandir's, Institute of Industrial And Pharmaceutical Technology, Panchavati,Nashik-422 003 November-2005 - May 2006 Principal,Shri.Vilas M.Aurangabadkar I.I.P.T. Panchavati,Nashik - 422 003 Shri. Bhaurao K.BacchavI.I.P.T., Panchavati, Nashik - 422 003 1. Shri. Bhaurao K.Bacchav I.I.P.T.,Panchavati,Nashik 2. Shri. Avinash R. Bhutada Shri.D.F.Lodha, Pharmacy College, Chandwad 3. Shri. Nadeem A. Logade, AIT's Institute of Pharmacy, Malegaon.

Project Period Chief Project Coordinator

Project Coordinator

Subject Experts

©

2006, Maharashtra State Board of Technical Education, 49, Kherwadi, Aliyawar Jung Road, Bandra (East), Mumbai-400 051 Maharashtra State, India. No part of this Laboratory Manual be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from MSBTE Mumbai.

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
Certificate
This is to certify that, Mr./Ms./Mrs. Roll No. of First Year Diploma in pharmacy (Institute) has Completed the term work satisfactorily in Human Anatomy and Physiology PR. ( 0809) for the academic year 200 to 200 as prescribed in the curriculum.

Place : Date :

Enrolment No.: Exam. Seat No.:

( ) Subject Teacher

( Principal

)

Seal of Institution

Human Anatomy and Physiology

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

Human Anatomy and Physiology

LEARNING OVERVIEW
Scope of Anatomy & Physiology
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Anatomy : Anatomy is the Science of body structures and relationships among the structures. Physiology : Physiology is the Science of body functions, that is, how the body parts work. To inquire into fascinating complexity of human body. As gateway to careers in health related fields. Mass therapy and Athletics training. As a foundation to advanced scientific studies. To know the structure and function of human body. For understanding pathology of disease and pathological changes. For determining techniques of surgeries. To know parameters of normal health. Factors affecting various physiological processes and its effects. Overall effective maintenance of individual and community health The Principles of Anatomy and Physiology to meet the existing requirements of introductory anatomy and Physiology courses. It also gives values, simplicity, direction and sort of power to the learners. Human Anatomy and Physiology is formidable body of knowledge to present in an introductory course and mastering subject. It also highlights the practical application of anatomical and physiological concepts to students. The dynamic physiological constancy known as Homeostasis is the cardinal theme in principles of Anatomy and Physiology. By studying concepts of Physiology, we know, how the various feedback mechanisms work to maintain physiological processes within a narrow range that is compatible with life. It is needed to understand how individual structures are related to the composition of entire body. Therefore anatomical nomenclature such as regional names, directional terms and planes to sections that enable the learners to precisely describe the relationship of one body structure to another.

13. 14.

15. 16.

17.

18.

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

♦ i

Human Anatomy and Physiology

LINK / BLOCK DIAGRAM SHOWING INTER RELATIONSHIP OF SUBJECT AREAS, CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES AND JOB PROFILE

CORE TECHNOLOGY 1. Pharmaceutics-I 2. Pharmaceutical Chemistry-I 3. Pharmacognosy 4. Biochemistry and Clinical Pathology 5. Human Anatomy and Physiology 6. Health Education and Community Pharmacy

TECHNOLOGY SUBJECT 1. Pharmaceutics-II 2. Pharmaceutical Chemistry-II 3. Pharmacology and Toxicology 4. Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence 5. Drug Stores and Business Management 6. Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy 7. Practical Training

JOB PROFILE 1. Entrepreneur (wholesaler, Distributor, Chemist and Druggist) 2. Industry Skilled personnel (Bulk drug formulations, cosmetics) Medical representative 3. Hospital Pharmacist (dispensing, Manufacturing) Supervisor 4. Community Pharmacist 5. Academic Institution (Laboratory technician) 6. Repackaging of Drugs other than those specified in Schedule C and C1 of Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945.

CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES 1. Develop attitude for personal development. 2. Develop social skills for social development. 3. Develop continued learning skills for life long learning 4. Gain basic knowledge of human body and various illnesses, disorders 5. Counsel for use of various drugs, their formulations and their appropriate use. 6. Develop communication skills. 7. Develop technical skills for industry and hospital activities.

ii ♦

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

Human Anatomy and Physiology

GRAPHICAL STRUCTURE OF SUBJECT AREA
Human Anatomy and Physiology for First Year Diploma in Pharmacy

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

♦ iii

Human Anatomy and Physiology

GRAPHICAL STRUCTURE OF SUBJECT AREA
Human Anatomy and Physiology for First year Diploma in Pharmacy

iv ♦

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

Human Anatomy and Physiology

DEVELOPMENT OF SKILLS
Following is the broad perspective of acquisition of intellectual and motor skills. Due care is to be taken, that a student systematically studying the subject will acquire the skills enlisted below.

A)

Intellectual skills
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. To understand the concepts (I1) To understand the procedure for performance of experiments. (I2) To interpret results of experiments (I3) To investigate and discriminate the various situations. (I4) To acquire ability to plan and design the experiment. (I5) To co-ordinate the role of each organ in functioning of a system. Sketching and labeling proportionate diagrams and wherever necessary. (M1) Handling and using correctly the instruments, microscopes, models and equipments (M2) Measuring and recording accurately with the help of instruments/equipments (M3) To follow systematic, hygienic and safe procedure of working. (M4) To prepare and stain the sample slide and observe. (M5) To collect sample of blood.(M6)

B)

Motor skills :
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

GRID TABLE
Following table gives grid of the experiments and related intellectual and motor skills. • Teacher shall ensure for development of genetic skills during the practicals. • Students are expected to focus on acquiring specific skills mentioned therein. No. Experiment No. & Title Intellectual skills I1
1 Introduction to H.A.P. Laboratory and Work. Haematology Section 2 To study collection of blood sample by pricking and capillary method. 3 To determine bleeding time of own blood by Duke's method. 4 To determine clotting time by capillary glass method. 5 To determine blood group of own blood by ABO system. 6 To determine the haemoglobin content and oxygen carrying capacity of the blood by Sahli's hellige method. 7 To find out total white blood cell count (Total leukocyte count TLC) in human blood

Motor skills

I2

I3

I4

I5 M 1 M 2 M 3 M 4 M 5 M 6



√ √ √ √ √ √

√ √

√ √

√ √ √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √ √

8 To find out total Red Blood Cell count in the human blood. √ 9 To estimation of differential Leukocyte count (DLC) of own blood . 10 To determine the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) by Wintrobe's method or Westergrain' s method. 11 To study the microscopic structure of human tissues 1. Epithelial tissue 2. Muscular tissue

√ √ √ √

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

♦ v

Human Anatomy and Physiology

No.

Experiment No. & Title

Intellectual skills I1 I2 I3 I4
√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Motor skills
√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

I 5 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6

3. Nervous tissue 4. Connective tissue 12 To prepare the blood smear and examine the Malarial Parasite Physiological parameters 13 To record the radial pulse rate 14 To record the heart rate using stethoscope. 15 To record oral and arial the body temperature (and comparison of oral, axial temp.) by using clinical thermometer .



√ √

√ √

√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

16 To record the blood pressure using sphygmomanometer (dial type, mercury type and digital) √ Study of Systems 17 To study Axial skeletal system of human. 18 To study appendicular skeletal system of human. 19 To study the human central nervous system.(CNS) 20 To study the human respiratory system. 21 To study of human urinary system. 22 To study of human cardiovascular system.(Heart)

√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

23 To study structure and function of human digestive system √ 24 To study of human male reproductive system . 25 To study of human female reproductive System. Study of sense organs 26 Skin 27 Eye 28 Ear 29 To study human organs and their T.S. 1 2. 3. 4. 5. T.S. of Stomach T.S. of Liver T. S. of Small intestine T. S. of Pancreas V. S. of Kidney

6. T.S. Testis 7. T.S. Ovary

NOTE : √- Identified Skills

STRATEGY FOR IMPLEMENTATION
It is suggested that 40 to 50 % experiments shall be completed in first term and remaining experiments in the second term.

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MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

Human Anatomy and Physiology

GUIDELINES FOR TEACHERS
Teachers shall discuss the following points with students before start of practicals of the subject 1. 2. 3. Learning Overview : To Develop better understanding of importance of the subject. To know related skills to be developed such as intellectual skills and Motor Skills. Link / Block Diagram : Context of the subject in the form of link diagram showing interrelationship of various subject areas, curriculum objectives and job profile. Graphical structure : In this topics and sub topics are organized in systematic way so that ultimate purpose of learning the subject is achieved. This is arranged in the form of fact, concept, principle, procedure, application / problem. Know your Laboratory work :To understand the layout of laboratory specifications of Equipments/ Instruments / Chemicals, procedures , working in groups, planning time etc. Also to know total amount of work to be done in the laboratory. Teacher shall ensure that required equipments are in working condition before start of experiment, Also keep operating instruction manual and safety manual available. Explain prior concepts to the students before starting of each experiment. Involve students activity at the time of conduct of each experiment. While taking reading / observation each student (from batch of 20 students) shall be given a chance to perform/observe the experiment. List of questions is given at the end of each experiment. Teacher shall instruct the students to attempt all questions given at the end each experiment / exercise. Teacher shall ensure that each student writes the answers to the allotted questions in the laboratory manual after performance is over. If the experimental setup has variations in the specifications of the equipments, the teachers are advised to make the necessary changes, wherever needed. Teacher shall assess the performance of students continuously as per norms prescribed by MSBTE. Teacher should ensure that the respective skills and competencies are developed in the students after the completion of the practical exercise. Teacher is expected to share the skills and competencies are developed in the students. Teacher may provide additional knowledge and skills to the students even though not covered in the manual but are expected from the students by the industries. Teachers shall ensure that industrial visits recommended in the manual are covered. Teacher may suggest the students to refer additional related literature of the technical papers/ reference books/ Seminar Proceedings , etc. During assessment teacher is expected to ask questions to the students to tap their achievements regarding related knowledge and skills so that students can prepare while submitting record of the practicals. Focus should be given on development of enlisted skills rather than theoretical /codified knowledge. Teacher should enlist the skills to be developed in the students that are expected by the industry. Teacher should organized group discussions / brain storming sessions /Seminars to facilitate the exchange of knowledge amongst the students. Teacher should ensure that revised CIAAN -2004 norms are followed simultaneously and progressively. Teacher should give more focus on hands on skills and should actually share the same. Teacher shall also refer to the Circular No. MSBTE/D-50/Pharm Lab Mannual/2006/3183 dated 4 th May 2006 for additional guidelines.

4.

5. 6. 7.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

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Human Anatomy and Physiology

INSTRUCTIONS FOR STUDENTS
Students shall read the points given below for understanding the theoretical concepts & practical applications. 1. Listen carefully to the lecture given by teacher about importance of subject, curriculum philosophy, graphical structure, skills to be developed, information about equipment, instruments, procedure, method of continuous assessment, tentative plan of work in laboratory and total amount of work to be done in a year. 2. Students shall undergo study visit of the laboratory for types of equipment, instruments, material to be used, before performing experiments. 3. Read the write up of each experiment to be performed, a day in advance. 4. Organize the work in the group and make a record of all observations. 5. Understand the purpose of experiment and its practical implications. 6. Write the answers of the questions allotted by the teacher during practical hours if possible or afterwards, but immediately. 7. Student should not hesitate to ask any difficulty faced during conduct of practical / exercise. 8. The student shall study all the questions given in the laboratory manual and practice to write the answers to these questions. 9. Student shall develop maintenance skills as expected by the industries. 10. Student should develop the habit of pocket discussion / group discussion related to the experiments/ exercises so that exchanges of knowledge /skills could take place. 11. Student shall attempt to develop related hands-on-skills and gain confidence. 12. Student shall focus on development of skills rather than theoretical or codified knowledge. 13. Student shall visit the nearby workshops, workstation, industries, laboratories, technical exhibitions, trade fair etc. even not included in the Lab Manual. In short , students should have exposure to the area of work right in the student hood. 14. Student shall insist for the completion of recommended Laboratory Work, industrial visits, answers to the given questions, etc. 15. Student shall develop the habit of evolving more ideas, innovations, skills etc. than included in the scope of the manual. 16. Student shall refer technical magazines, proceedings of the Seminars, refer websites related to the scope of the subjects and update their knowledge and skills. 17. Student should develop the habit of not to depend totally on teachers but to develop self learning techniques. 18. Student should develop the habit to react with the teacher without hesitation with respect to the academics involved. 19. Student should develop habit to submit the practicals exercise continuously and progressively on the scheduled dates and should get the assessment done. 20. Student should be well prepared while submitting the write up of the exercise. This will develop the continuity of the studies and he will not be over loaded at the end of the term. 21. Read the appropriate part of the text and experiment carefully assure work before you come to the Laboratory. 22. Bring the necessary instruments rough notebook/manual with you. 23. Come in time, preferably a few minute before the schedule. 24. Take down the relevant notes while the lecturer gives the instructions. 25. Never begin to work until you are perfectly clear about what you intend to do. 26. Do not abuse the apparatus instructed to you. It is valuable and you will have to pay heavy fine in case of breakage/damage. 27. While working keep your table neat and clean. Do not take any excessive material. 28. When your work is over detached the apparatus, clean it and keep it is in safe place or locker. 29. Do not be afraid of asking any difficulty for which you can not find logical answer. 30. Learn to rely upon your own observation. 31. Before you leave the laboratory find out what work has been assigned for the next experiment. 32. Enter all your observations directly in a tabular form . 33. Observation, diagrams should preferably be entered in journal.

viii ♦

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

Human Anatomy and Physiology

List of Experiments and Record of Progressive Assessment
Sr. No. Name of the Experiments Page No. Date of Performance Date of submi ssion Assessment Max. Marks 10 Sign. of Teacher and Remarks

1 2

Introduction to H.A.P. Laboratory and Work. Haematology Section To study collection of blood sample by pricking and capillary method. To determine bleeding time of own blood by Duke's method. To determine clotting time by capillary glass method. To determine blood group of own blood by ABO system. To determine the haemoglobin content and oxygen carrying capacity of the blood by Sahli's hellige method. To find out total white blood cell count (Total leukocyte count TLC) in human blood To find out total Red Blood Cell count in the human blood. To count obtain differential Leukocyte count of own blood (DLC). To determine the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) by Wintrobe's method or Westergrain' s method. To study the microscopic structure of human tissues 1. Epithelial tissue 2. Muscular tissue 3. Nervous tissue 4. Connective tissue

1 4

3 4 5 6

7 10 14 19

7 8 9 10

24 31 38 47

11

52

12 13 14 15

To examine of Malarial Parasite Physiological parameters To record the radial pulse rate To record the heart rate using stethoscope. To record oral and Arial the body temperature (and comparison of oral, axial temp.) by using clinical thermometer To record the blood pressure using sphygmomanometer (dial type, mercury type and digital) Study of Systems To study Axial skeletal system of human. To study appendicular skeletal system of human.

60 64 68 72

16

76

17 18

81 95

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

♦ ix

Human Anatomy and Physiology

Sr. No.

Name of the Experiments

Page No.

Date of Performance

Date of submi ssion

Assessment Max. Marks 10

Sign. of Teacher and Remarks

19 20 21 22 23 24 25

To study the human central nervous system.(CNS) To study the human respiratory system. To study of human urinary system. To study of human cardiovascular system.(Heart) To study structure and function of human digestive system To study of human male reproductive system . To study of human female reproductive System. Study of sense organs Skin Eye Ear To study human organs and their T.S. 1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. T.S. of Stomach T.S. of Liver T. S. of Small intestine T. S. of Pancreas V. S. of Kidney T.S. of Testis T.S. of Ovary

109 115 122 130 136 144 149

26 27 28 29

154 159 163 168

Total Marks obtained for the number of experiments considered for First Sessional Third Sessional (………to ……..) = (………to ……..) = Second Sessional (………to ……..) =

Average marks obtained for the experiments out of 10 First Sessional Second Sessional Third Sessional = = = * * *

* To be transferred to proforma of CIAAN-2004 (Proforma I-1) Note : The guidelines for the conduct of Annual Practical Examination are enclosed in the end at page No. 210

x ♦

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

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