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Intramuros

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HUMANITIES 1
(RESEARCH PAPER)

HISTORY OF PAINTINGS
AND ARTISTS IN THE WORLD

ADRIAN M SITCHON PROF. PEREZ
4TH YEAR/BS.HRM/NS (SUBMITTED BY)

TABLE OF CONTENT

INTRODUCTION
HISTORY
BODY * EASTERN PAINTING * WESTERN PAINTING * 20th-CENTURY MODERN * AND CONTEMPORARY DEFINITION OF TERMS * FAMOUS PAINTERS * AND BIOGRAPHY * Paintings of famous painters

CONCLUSION
RECOMMENDATION
REFERENCE

INTRODUCTION:

Painting can be done in a variety of media. For example, Oils, Watercolour, Acrylics, Gouache and Tempera.
Paints are made from a pigment, and a binder. Binder is relatively cheap, while pigment is much more expensive. Pigments are a colored powder, made from organic or inorganic materials. (This is different than a colorant, which dyes or stains a color.)
All paints use the same basic pigments, but the binder changes. The binder for acrylics dries quickly and the paint is more like a plastic than oils which have an oil based binder and dry slowly. Oil Paints are often built up in layers or glazes. The other paints---Watercolour, Acrylics, Gouache, and Tempera---are water-based, meaning the paint can be diluted with water and clean-up can be done with soap and water. Oil paints, on the other hand, require paint thinner to clean brushes. The number and variety of painting techniques is endless.
Besides quality of paint, factors affecting color quality include: paint opacity, glossiness of painting surface, lighting, transparency, and texture

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HISTORY OF PAINTING:

The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. It represents a continuous, though periodically disrupted, tradition from Antiquity. Across cultures, and spanning continents and millennia, the history of painting is an ongoing river of creativity, that continues into the 21st century. Until the early 20th century it relied primarily on representational, religious and classical motifs, after which time more purely abstract and conceptual approaches gained favor.
Developments in Eastern painting historically parallel those in Western painting, in general, a few centuries earlier. African art, Jewish art, Islamic art, Indian art, Chinese art, and Japanese art[4] each had significant influence on Western art, and vice versa.
Initially serving utilitarian purpose, followed by imperial, private, civic, and religious patronage, Eastern and Western painting later found audiences in the aristocracy and the middle class. From the Modern era, the Middle Ages through the Renaissance painters worked for the church and a wealthy aristocracy Beginning with the Baroque era artists received private commissions from a more educated and prosperous middle class.[7] Finally in the West the idea of "art for art's sake" began to find expression in the work of the Romantic painters like Francisco de Goya, John Constable, and J.M.W. Turner. The 19th century saw the rise of the commercial art gallery, which provided patronage in the 20th century.
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Eastern painting

The history of Eastern painting includes a vast range of influences from various cultures and religions. Developments in Eastern painting historically parallel those in Western painting, in general a few centuries earlier. African art, Jewish art, Islamic art, Indian art, Chinese art, Korean Art, and Japanese art each had significant influence on Western art, and, vice versa.
Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world. The earliest paintings were not representational but ornamental; they consisted of patterns or designs rather than pictures. Early pottery was painted with spirals, zigzags, dots, or animals. It was only during the Warring States period (403–221 B.C.) that artists began to represent the world around them. Japanese painting is one of the oldest and most highly refined of the Japanese arts, encompassing a wide variety of genre and styles. The history of Japanese painting is a long history of synthesis and competition between native Japanese aesthetics and adaptation of imported ideas. Korean painting, as an independent form, began around 108 B.C., around the fall of Gojoseon, making it one of the oldest in the world. The artwork of that time period evolved into the various styles that characterized the Three Kingdoms of Korea period, most notably the paintings and frescoes that adorn the tombs of Goguryeo's royalty. During the Three Kingdoms period and through the Goryeo dynasty, Korean painting was characterized primarily by a combination of Korean-style landscapes, facial features, Buddhist-centered themes,
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Chinese painting:

Further information: History of Chinese art, Tang dynasty art and Ming Dynasty painting
Spring Morning in the Han Palace, by Ming-era artist Qiu Ying (1494–1552 AD)
The earliest surviving examples of Chinese painted artwork date to the Warring States Period (481 – 221 BC), with paintings on silk or tomb murals on rock, brick, or stone. They were often in simplistic stylized format and in more-or-less rudimentary geometric patterns. They often depicted mythological creatures, domestic scenes, labor scenes, or palatial scenes filled with officials at court. Artwork during this period and the subsequent Qin Dynasty (221 – 207 BC) and Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) was made not as a means in and of itself or for higher personal expression; rather artwork was created to symbolize and honor funerary rites, representations of mythological deities or spirits of ancestors, etc. Paintings on silk of court officials and domestic scenes could be found during the Han Dynasty, along with scenes of men hunting on horseback or partaking in military parade. There was also painting on three dimensional works of art like figurines and statues, such as the original-painted colors covering the soldier and horse statues of the Terracotta Army. During the social and cultural climate of the ancient Eastern Jin Dynasty (316 – 420 AD) based at Nanjing in the south, painting became one of the official pastimes of Confucian-taught bureaucratic officials and aristocrats (along with music played by the guqin zither, writing fancifulcalligraphy, and writing and reciting of poetry) The Sakyamuni Buddha, by Zhang Shengwen, 1173–1176 AD, Song dynasty period.
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The establishment of classical Chinese landscape painting is accredited largely to the Eastern Jin Dynasty artist Gu Kaizhi (344 – 406 AD), one of the most famous artists of Chinese history. Like the elongated scroll scenes of Kaizhi, Tang dynasty (618 – 907 AD) Chinese artists like Wu Daozi painted vivid and highly detailed artwork on long horizontal handscrolls (which were very popular during the Tang), such as his Eighty Seven Celestial People. Painted artwork during the Tang period pertained the effects of an idealized landscape environment, with sparse amount of objects, persons, or activity, as well as monochromatic in nature (example: the murals of Price Yide's tomb in the Qianling Mausoleum). There were also figures such as early Tang-era painter Zhan Ziqian, who painted superb landscape paintings that were well ahead of his day in portrayal of realism. However, landscape art did not reach greater level of maturity and realism in general until the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907 – 960 AD). During this time, there were exceptional landscape painters like Dong Yuan (refer to this article for an example of his artwork), and those who painted more vivid and realistic depictions of domestic scenes, like Gu Hongzhong and his Night Revels of Han Xizai.
Loquats and Mountain Bird, anonymous artist of the Southern Song dynasty; paintings in leaf album style such as this were popular in the Southern Song (1127–1279).
During the Chinese Song dynasty (960 – 1279 AD), not only landscape art was improved upon,),

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Japanese painting:

Japanese painting (絵画) is one of the oldest and most highly refined of the Japanese arts, encompassing a wide variety of genres and styles. As with Japanese arts in general, Japanese painting developed through a long history of synthesis and competition between native Japanese aesthetics and adaptation of imported ideas. Ukiyo-e, or "pictures of the floating world," is a genre of Japanese woodblock prints (or "woodcuts") and paintings produced between the 17th and 20th centuries, featuring motifs of landscapes, theater, and courtesan districts. It is the main artistic genre ofJapanese woodblock printing. Japanese printmaking, especially from the Edo period, exerted enormous influence on French painting over the 19th century.

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Korean painting

Korean painting, as an independent form, began around 108 B.C., around the fall of Gojoseon, making it one of the oldest in the world. The artwork of that time period evolved into the various styles that characterized the Three Kingdoms of Korea period, most notably the paintings and frescoes that adorn the tombs of Goguryeo's royalty. During the Three Kingdoms period and through the Goryeo dynasty, Korean painting was characterized primarily by a combination of Korean-style landscapes, facial features, Buddhist-centered themes, and an emphasis on celestial observation that was facilitated by the rapid development of Korean astronomy. It wasn't until the Joseon dynasty that Confucian themes began to take root in Korean paintings, used in harmony with indigenous aspects.
The history of Korean painting has been characterized by the use monochromatic works of black brushwork, often on mulberry paper or silk. This style is evident in "Min-Hwa", or colorful folk art, tomb paintings, and ritual and festival arts, both of which incorporated an extensive use of colour.

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Indian painting

Indian paintings historically revolved around the religious deities and kings. Indian art is a collective term for several different schools of art that existed in the Indian subcontinent. The paintings varied from large frescoes of Ajanta to the intricate Mughal miniature paintings to the metal embellished works from the Tanjore school. The paintings from the Gandhar–Taxila are influenced by the Persian works in the west. The eastern style of painting was mostly developed around the Nalanda school of art. The works are mostly inspired by various scenes from Indian mythology.
History

The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings of prehistoric times, the petroglyphs as found in places like the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, and some of them are older than 5500 BC. Such works continued and after several millennia, in the 7th century, carved pillars of Ajanta, Maharashtra state present a fine example of Indian paintings, and the colors, mostly various shades of red and orange, were derived from minerals.
Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra, India are rock-cut cave monuments dating back to the 2nd century BCE and containing paintings and sculpture considered to be masterpieces of both Buddhist religious art[23] and universal pictorial art.
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Modern Indian painting:
Amrita Sher-Gil was an Indian painter, sometimes known as India's Frida Kahlo,[25] and today considered an important woman painter of 20th-century India, whose legacy stands at par with that of the Masters of Bengal Renaissance; she is also the 'most expensive' woman painter of India
Today, she is amongst Nine Masters, whose work was declared as art treasures by The Archaeological Survey of India, in 1976 and 1979, and over 100 of her paintings are now displayed at National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi.
During the colonial era, Western influences started to make an impact on Indian art. Some artists developed a style that used Western ideas of composition, perspective and realism to illustrate Indian themes. Others, like Jamini Roy, consciously drew inspiration from folk art.
By the time of Independence in 1947, several schools of art in India provided access to modern techniques and ideas. Galleries were established to showcase these artists. Modern Indian art typically shows the influence of Western styles, but is often inspired by Indian themes and images. Major artists are beginning to gain international recognition, initially among the Indian diaspora, but also among non-Indian audiences.
The Progressive Artists' Group, established shortly after India became independent in 1947, was intended to establish new ways of expressing India in the post-colonial era. The founders were six eminent artists – K. H. Ara, S. K. Bakre, H. A. Gade, M.F. Husain, S.H. Raza and F. N. Souza, though the group was dissolved in 1956,
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Filipino Painting:

Filipino painting as a whole can be seen as an amalgamation of many cultural influences, though it tends to be more Western in its current form with Eastern roots.
Early Filipino painting can be found in red slip (clay mixed with water) designs embellished on the ritual pottery of the Philippines such as the acclaimed Manunggul Jar. Evidence of Philippine pottery-making dated as early as 6000 BC has been found in Sanga-sanga Cave, Sulu and Laurente Cave, Cagayan. It has been proven that by 5000 BC, the making of pottery was practiced throughout the country. Early Filipinos started making pottery before their Cambodian neighbors and at about the same time as the Thais as part of what appears to be a widespread Ice Age development of pottery technology. Further evidences of painting are manifested in the tattoo tradition of early Filipinos, whom the Portuguese explorer referred to as Pintados or the 'Painted People' of the Visayas.[31] Various designs referencing flora and fauna with heavenly bodies decorate their bodies in various colored pigmentation. Perhaps, some of the most elaborate painting done by early Filipinos that survive to the present day can be manifested among the arts and architecture of the Maranao who are well known for the Nāga Dragons and the Sarimanok carved and painted in the beautiful Panolong of their Torogan or King's House.
Filipinos began creating paintings in the European tradition during the 17th-century Spanish period.[32] The earliest of these paintings were Church frescoes, religious imagery from Biblical sources, as well as engravings, sculptures and lithographs
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Western painting

Egypt, Greece and Rome
Ancient Egypt, a civilization with very strong traditions of architecture and sculpture (both originally painted in bright colours) also had many mural paintings in temples and buildings, and painted illustrations on papyrus manuscripts. Egyptian wall painting and decorative painting is often graphic, sometimes more symbolic than realistic. Egyptian painting depicts figures in bold outline and flat silhouette, in which symmetry is a constant characteristic. Egyptian painting has close connection with its written language – called Egyptian hieroglyphs. Painted symbols are found amongst the first forms of written language. The Egyptians also painted on linen, remnants of which survive today. Ancient Egyptian paintings survived due to the extremely dry climate. The ancient Egyptians created paintings to make the afterlife of the deceased a pleasant place. The themes included journey through the afterworld or their protective deities introducing the deceased to the gods of the underworld. Some examples of such paintings are paintings of the gods and goddesses Ra, Horus, Anubis, Nut, Osiris and Isis. Some tomb paintings show activities that the deceased were involved in when they were alive and wished to carry on doing for eternity. In the New Kingdom and later, the Book of the Dead was buried with the entombed person. It was considered important for an introduction to the afterlife.

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MIDDLE AGES:

The rise of Christianity imparted a different spirit and aim to painting styles. Byzantine art, once its style was established by the 6th century, placed great emphasis on retaining traditional iconography and style, and has changed relatively little through the thousand years of the Byzantine Empire and the continuing traditions of Greek and RussianOrthodox icon-painting. Byzantine painting has a particularly hieratic feeling and icons were and still are seen as a reflection of the divine. There were also many wall-paintings infresco, but fewer of these have survived than Byzantine mosaics. In general Byzantium art borders on abstraction, in its flatness and highly stylised depictions of figures and landscape. However, there are periods, especially in the so-called Macedonian art of around the 10th century, when Byzantine art became more flexible in approach.
Walls of Romanesque and Gothic churches were decorated with frescoes as well as sculpture and many of the few remaining murals have great intensity, and combine the decorative energy of Insular art with a new monumentality in the treatment of figures. Far more miniatures inIlluminated manuscripts survive from the period, showing the same characteristics, which continue into the Gothic period.

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Renaissance and Mannerism:

The Renaissance is said by many to be the golden age of painting. Roughly spanning the 14th through the mid-17th century. In Italy artists like Paolo Uccello, Fra Angelico, Masaccio, Piero della Francesca, Andrea Mantegna, Filippo Lippi, Giorgione, Tintoretto, Sandro Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Raphael, Giovanni Bellini, and Titian took painting to a higher level through the use of perspective, the study of human anatomy and proportion, and through their development of an unprecedented refinement in drawing and painting techniques.
Renaissance painting reflects the revolution of ideas and science (astronomy, geography) that occur in this period, the Reformation, and the invention of the printing press. Dürer, considered one of the greatest of printmakers, states that painters are not mere artisans butthinkers as well. With the development of easel painting in the Renaissance, painting gained independence from architecture. Following centuries dominated by religious imagery, secular subject matter slowly returned to Western painting. Artists included visions of the world around them, or the products of their own imaginations in their paintings. Those who could afford the expense could become patrons and commission portraits of themselves or their family.
The unperturbed faces and gestures of Piero della Francesca and the calm Virgins of Raphael are replaced by the troubled expressions of Pontormo and the emotional intensity of El Greco. Some decades later Northern Mannerism dominated Netherlandish and German art until the arrival of the Baroque.
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20th-century Modern and Contemporary:

The heritage of painters like Van Gogh, Cézanne, Gauguin, and Seurat was essential for the development of modern art. At the beginning of the 20th century Henri Matisse and several other young artists revolutionized the Paris art world with "wild", multi-colored, expressive, landscapes and figure paintings that the critics called Fauvism. Pablo Picassomade his first cubist paintings based on Cézanne's idea that all depiction of nature can be reduced to three solids: cube, sphere and cone.
Pioneers of the 20th century:

The heritage of painters like Van Gogh, Cézanne, Gauguin, and Seurat was essential for the development of modern art. At the beginning of the 20th century Henri Matisse and several other young artists including the pre-cubist Georges Braque, André Derain,Raoul Dufy and Maurice de Vlaminck revolutionized the Paris art world with "wild", multi-colored, expressive, landscapes and figure paintings that the critics called Fauvism – (as seen in the gallery above). Henri Matisse's second version of The Dance signifies a key point in his career and in the development of modern painting It reflects Matisse's incipient fascination with primitive art: the intense warm colors against the cool blue-green background and the rhythmical succession of dancing nudes convey the feelings of emotional liberation and hedonism. Pablo Picasso made his first cubist paintings based on Cézanne's idea that all depiction of nature can be reduced to three solids: cube, sphere and cone. With the painting Les Demoiselles
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d'Avignon 1907, (see gallery) Picasso dramatically created a new and radical picture depicting a raw and primitive brothel scene with five prostitutes, violently painted women, reminiscent ofAfrican tribal masks and his own new Cubist inventions. analytic Cubism (see gallery) was jointly developed by Pablo Picasso andGeorges Braque, exemplified by Violin and Candlestick, Paris, (seen above) from about 1908 through 1912. Analytic cubism, the first clear manifestation of cubism, was followed by synthetic cubism, practised by Braque, Picasso, Fernand Léger, Juan Gris, Albert Gleizes, Marcel Duchamp and countless other artists into the 1920s. Synthetic cubism is characterized by the introduction of different textures, surfaces, collage elements, papier collé and a large variety of merged subject matter. During the years between 1910 and the end of World War I and after the heyday of cubism, several movements emerged in Paris. Giorgio De Chirico moved to Paris in July 1911, where he joined his brother Andrea (the poet and painter known as Alberto Savinio). Through his brother he met Pierre Laprade a member of the jury at the Salon d'Automne, where he exhibited three of his dreamlike works: Enigma of the Oracle, Enigma of an Afternoon and Self-Portrait. During 1913 he exhibited his work at the Salon des Indépendants and Salon d'Automne, his work was noticed by Pablo Picasso and Guillaume Apollinaire and several others. His compelling and mysterious paintings are considered instrumental to the early beginnings of Surrealism. (see gallery) During the first half of the 20th century in Europe masters like Georges Braque, André Derain, andGiorgio De Chirico continued painting independent of any movement.
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FAMOUS PAINTERS: 1. Leonardo da Vinci- (1452 – 1519) is one of the world’s greatest thinkers, artists and philosophers. In several different fields, from science to astronomy, he proved to be both innovative and several centuries ahead of his contemporaries. He is considered to be a key person in the birth of the European Renaissance period, which saw a flowering of new ideas, scientific discoveries and creation

2. Vincent Van Gogh 1853-1890- Vincent Van Gogh was an artist of exceptional talent. Influenced by impressionist painters of the period, he developed this with his own instinctive, spontaneous style. Van Gogh became one of the most celebrated artists of the twentieth century and played a key role in the development of modern art. 3. Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (1606 – 1669) – A Dutch Master and one of the great artists of all time. Rembrandt is so deeply mysterious that he says things for which there are no words in any language. Rembrandt is truly called a magician… that’s not an easy calling. 4. Michelangelo Buonarroti - Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, poet and architect. One of the most influential Western artists of all time. was born on 6 March 1475, in a Florentine village called Caprese. His father was a serving magistrate of the Florentine Republic and came from an important family
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5. Claude Monet (1840-1926) - was the primary inspiration for the new art movement of impressionism. Along with his contemporaries, he captured the light of nature on canvass in a unique, spontaneous and vivacious style. He painted a wide range of subjects ranging from urban scenes to his own beloved formal garden. Monet strove to capture the essence of what he saw in nature, without being constrained by formal ideas of style and substance. 6. Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973) - Spanish painter, sculptor, ceramicist and poet. One of the founders of cubism and one of the most influential artists of the Twentieth Century. “Art washes away from the soul the dust of everyday life.” 7. Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino) (1483 – April 6, 1520), - was a great Italian painter. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael makes up the great trinity of the High Renaissance period. He was noted for his clarity of form and ability to convey grandeur, beauty and perfection. 8. Auguste Renoir (1841–1919) - was one of the founders of impressionism – a revolutionary new development amongst painters. He later moved on from impressionism after being deeply moved by the Italian renaissance Masters. 9. Jan or Johan Vermeer (1632-1675) - was a Dutch baroque painter from the ‘Golden Age of Dutch Painting’. He was obscure during his life, but in the Nineteenth Century his work was brought to light and now is regarded as one of the greatest proponents of Baroque painting
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Paintings of famous painters: 1. Mona Lisa - Leonardo da Vinci 2. Starry Night – Vincent van Gogh

3. The Night Watch – Rembrandt van Rijn

18 4. The Creation Of Adam – Michelangelo

5. Soleil Levant - Claude Monet

6. Guernica – Pablo Picasso 19

7. Crocefissione – Raphael 8. Moulin de La Gallete - Auguste Renoir

9. City of delft - Jan Vermeer

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Conclusion:

My research in Biblical narrative in history of painting as it is presented in both text and imagery has led to a deeper understanding of the representation of gender roles in religious figurative portrayal through history. Though my choice of relying heavily on symbolism provides a direct link to the past, my choice to focus on the Biblical characters as individuals allows.me to depict those gender roles in a new way.

without criticizing Christianity, I have successfully observed and modernized a way of viewing religious content in a contemporary, fine art setting. I propose that though collective painting may produce any type of knowledge art in general can, the main focus in collective painting as far as knowledge and research are concerned are the following ones.

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Recommendation:
Collective painting can be a good way of sharing and testing artistic knowledge between students and between students and the teacher/conductor, because at its best the method intertwines rational, verbalized discourse very tightly with the kind of art making where artistic dialogue truly is at the center and where the participants can easily move from there comfort zones and habits to more challenging areas.
Where are the rewards of collective painting? In the process or in the artistic end result?
Collective painting can be rewarding in various ways for the various parties involved. For me the main and shareable reward is in the making artworks that I could not make on my own – in other words it's the end result, the artwork, that counts. The second reward is the artistic knowledge about painting and artistic strategies that is created and shared within the group most organically and is especially useful to in other words, for them the main reward might be in the participatory process. As for the audience, the participatory aspect is not available, but they can share the end results. an artist as a way of refining his practice. The third reward is the knowledge created in the working group and for the working group by the painting process itself and by accompanying discussions – knowledge about the world and us, not just knowledge about art and painting. For the participants, for the 'band members' the rewards may be the same, but the order of importance sometimes different, especially if they are art students.
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REFERENCE: 1. Bruce Cole; Adelheid M. Gealt (15 December 1991). Art of the Western World: From Ancient Greece to Post Modernism. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-74728-2. Retrieved 8 September 2011. 2. ^ Jump up to:a b The Meeting of Eastern and Western Art, Revised and Expanded edition (Hardcover) by Michael Sullivan. 3. Jump up^ "Art View; Eastern Art Through Western Eyes". New York Times. 10 July 1994. Retrieved 30 November 2010. 4. ^ Jump up to:a b Wichmann, Siegfried (1999). Japonisme: The Japanese Influence on Western Art Since 1858. ISBN 978-0-500-28163-5. 5. ^ Jump up to:a b Sullivan, Michael (1989). The Meeting of Eastern and Western Art. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-05902-3. 6. Jump up^ Discussion of the role of patrons in the Renaissance. Retrieved 11 November 2008. 7. Jump up^ History 1450–1789: Artistic Patronage. Retrieved 11 November 2008. 8. Jump up^ Britannica.com. Retrieved 11 November 2008. 9. Jump up^ Victorianweb.org, Aesthetes, Decadents, and the Idea of Art for Art's Sake George P. Landow, Professor of English and the History of Art, Brown University. Retrieved 11 November 2008. 10. Jump up^ Cézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde, Chicago Art Institute. Retrieved 11 November 2008.
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11. Jump up^ Fergal MacErlean (10 February 2012). "First Neanderthal cave paintings discovered in Spain". New Scientist. Retrieved 10 February 2012. 12. Jump up^ Jonathan Amos, Red dot becomes oldest cave art, BBC 13. Jump up^ Gizmodo, These Are the Earliest Human Paintings Ever 14. Jump up^ M. Hoover, "Art of the Paleolithic and Neolithic Eras", from Art History Survey 1, San Antonio College (July 2001; accessed 11 June 2005). 15. Jump up^ [1] NY Times, Holland Cotter. Retrieved 27 October 2007 Archived August 9, 2014 at the Wayback Machine 16. Jump up^ http://www.asia.si.edu/collections/singleObject.cfm?ObjectId=1691 17. Jump up^ Seno, Alexandra A. (2 November 2010). "'River of Wisdom' is Hong Kong's hottest ticket". The Wall Street Journal. 18. Jump up^ http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_artqa/2003-09/24/content_39769.htm 19. Jump up^ http://www.tcc.leidenuniv.nl/index.php3?m=245&c=55 20. Jump up^ Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Part 3. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. Page 115. 21. Jump up^ http://www.asia.si.edu/collections/zoomObject.cfm?ObjectId=4693 22. Jump up^ http://www.nezu-muse.or.jp/syuuzou/kaiga/10169.html 23. Jump up^ UNESCO World Heritage Site. Ajanta Caves, India: Brief Description. Retrieved 27 October 2006. 24. Jump up^ UNESCO International Council on Monuments and Sites.
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25. Jump up^ "Amrita Sher-Gill". mapsofindia.com. 26. Jump up^ "First Lady of the Modern Canvas". Indian Express. 17 October 1999. 27. Jump up^ "Women painters". 21stcenturyindianart.com. 28. Jump up^ "Most expensive Indian artists". us.rediff.com. 29. Jump up^ "Nine Masters". Government Museum and Art Gallery, Chandigarh Official website. 30. Jump up^ "Showcase: Amrita Sher-Gil". National Gallery of Modern Art. 31. Jump up^ "Islas de los Pintados: The Visayan Islands". 32. Jump up^ "Filipino Cultured: The Best of Filipino Art". 33. Jump up^ "Roman Painting". art-and-archaeology.com. 34. Jump up^ "Roman Wall Painting". accd.edu. 35. Jump up^ Putnam A.M., Geo. Haven. Books and Their Makers During The Middle Ages. Vol. 1. New York: Hillary House, 1962. Print. 36. Jump up^ "Counter Reformation". Encyclopædia Britannica Online latest edition, full-article. 37. Jump up^ "Counter Reformation". The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001–05. Check date values in: |date= (help) 38. Jump up^ Helen Gardner, Fred S. Kleiner, and Christin J. Mamiya (2005). Gardner's Art Through the Ages. Belmont, California: Thomson/Wadsworth. 39. Jump up^ Edmond De Goncourt; Jules De Goncourt (1948). French Eighteenth
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