Free Essay

Intro to Networking

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By alexisr305
Words 270
Pages 2
Building TCP/IP
Networks
This chapter will allow you to explore the common models of networking from the physical media connection to the application that displays the information, including how these layers interact and how they map to real networking devices. The labs in this chapter are designed to reinforce concepts from Chapter 3 of your Introduction to Networking textbook and allow you to explore some of the more important ideas with greater depth. You will explore the different types of network reference models available and analyze how each one applies to real network technology. You will also use packet capturing to look at real network traffic and explore the data link layer of networking. At the end of this chapter, you should be able to
■ Explain the purpose of network reference models ■ Describe the layers of the OSI reference model and explain what each layer provides ■ Describe the layers of the TCP/IP model and relate it to the OSI model and real networking equipment
■ Capture live packet information on a network and explain the data link layer portion of the packets captured
■ Enable network resources such as shared printers and file sharing on your own PC
Lab 3.1: Network Reference Models approximate Lab Time: 10–15 min.
Materials Needed: paper/pencil, Textbook, and Internet research
This lab reviews the importance of modeling communication on a network. This will include a review of the state of networking before standardized reference models existed and the impact that they have on interoperability. Compile a lab report of the solutions to the assigned exercises and include a review of the w

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Intro to Networking

...NT-1210 Intro to Networking 05/30/2012 CH 10-11 Research Paper Essay In the evolution of smart phones the first use of text messaging did not take place until 1992 in England, and this was from a computer to a cell phone. The first cell phone to cell phone text happened in 1993 in Finland, which during this period was leading the cell phone technology race, and in 2000 was the first to offer mobile news services. In this time period of the early 2g (second generation) and 2.5g networks mobile providers started to pop up everywhere making communications more reliable. In 2001 the 3g network was introduced and with this technology came the ability to send pictures and stream video. Mobile providers started to offer media content such as ringtones, news, weather, jokes, music and videos, which in 2007 reached 31 billion in sales and outpaced computer internet sales. In the business aspect of this technology, all of this is the icing on the cake. The ability to keep in touch with your employees at any time or location is priceless. Gone are the days of the travelling salesperson with only the information that was current when they began their journey. Changes to information or current events can be sent immediately, lost files can be sent, up to date sales figures can be accessed and video conferencing is possible. A new application being researched for business use is Unified Messaging, a system that offers access to E-mail, voice and fax messages though a unified......

Words: 430 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Intro to Networking

...Intro to Networking Lab 3 Jeff Garwood EX. 3.1 Review 1. The MAC Address is sufficient to route traffic locally because it provides the needed information with regards to the equipment location. This is mostly true on level 2 networks. 2. The Open Systems Interconnection was started in two documents in 1978. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee, or CCITT. In 1983 these two documents were combined as the basic reference model for the OSI. It was created so Protocols could allow the entity in one host to interact with a corresponding entity at the same layer in another host. 3. The TCP dates back into the 1960s on the DOD sponsored ARPANET. In 1973 the TCP/IP came to be and consisted of dozens of different protocols. Of these key protocols, two are usually considered the most important. The Internet Protocol (IP) is the primary OSI network layer (layer three) protocol that provides addressing, datagram routing and other functions in an internetwork. EX. 3.2 Review 1. The composition of the physical wiring, and connectors no matter the type are strictly regulated to ensure the electrons within the communications signal can move fast enough to maintain a connection. The addition of network devices such as switches and routers complete the campus style network. 2. The OSI model is not implemented in a network but is used as a model to guide troubleshooting a local network in......

Words: 719 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Intro to Networking

...subfolders from the root directory C: to get to your Classes folder. This path will differ slightly depending on the operating system. Record the navigation path to get to your new Classes folder. Hint: Most directory structures that include the desktop of a computer involve finding a folder for users and selecting the correct user A) The file now has a reference in the OS Exercise 1.5.2 Open the Classes folder you created and move the myname.txt file to the Networking folder. What has happened to the OS reference to the location of the file myname.txt? What has happened to the physical storage location of myname.txt in memory? A) It preconized it when I opened the file Exercise1.5.3 Inside the Networking folder, create a new set of folders for your labs and assignments. You should add at least five subfolders. Diagram the hierarchy that now exists the root Classes folder. C Drive Classes Computing English math networking Lab assign lab assign lab assign lab assign Exercise 1.5.4 Disk fragmentation occurs when files are deleted from memory but that space is not used to store another file. Use the web to identify issues that disk fragmentation can cause for computer performance. Will changing your file structure affect the fragmentation of the disk? Justify......

Words: 1580 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Intro Networking

...society for the reason of easily organizing the tasks at hand. With this method it not only pertains to networking but to real life as well. Layered architecture is not a new process it has been around for quite some time. A protocol is a set of rules that allows the communications between computers on the network. These rules help regulate the guidelines of speed data transfer and access method. A society based protocol would be like a motorcycle club. For example the network would be the president and the computers would be the other members. The protocol would be the Sgt of Arms as for he would be the one that controls the communication between he members and the president. The four types of different networks are LAN (local area network), WLAN (wireless local area network), WAN (wide area network), and VPN (virtual private network). LAN is your most basic form or network; this is where all the computers belong to the same network and plugged into the same hub. WLAN is your second most basic home network, this is where you are wirelessly connected to the internet in your home and can be connected through multiple devices. WAN is a network that connects multiple LAN networks across a large area. VPN is a network that relies on protocol that encrypts the data from one end to another. This network is more used in government applications or a secure networking site. The OSI and TCP/IP models are similar in ways that the both handle the network. They both have......

Words: 449 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Intro to Networking

...Chapter 2 Mind Map Chapter 2 Lab Two Extra Sources Some of the things that I have learned from searching information on chapter two are that there are way more networking systems then I have ever dreamed about. I just thought WAN stood for wide area network and was just another name for the internet. I learned that WAN is everywhere we are and imbedded in our lives. One of the biggest claims of this would be the ATM. I have used it many times but never knew that it was running off of a WAN. I also found out that WAN can be localized as well as worldwide and that it can incorporate the city you live in, the state you live in, and even the United States. Mind Mapping is a brain emulating method for generating and organizing ideas. This was inspired by a great man and his way of doing things, which was Leonardo da Vinci's and his approach to note-taking. Now that is something really cool and another reason we should have been doing something like this a long time ago. Mind mapping is more than just a simple brain storming tool, it is a tool that we can use to organize our lives, organize our jobs and our responsibilities, and it can even be used to organize our day to make us more proficient in our jobs. I am glad that I have been introduced to this tool so early in my career. Bibliography WAN, MAN, LAN, PAN, And SAN: Evolution, Not Revolution | Digital ICs content from Electronic Design. (n.d.). Retrieved June 29, 2013, from http://electronicdesign.com/digital-ic...

Words: 308 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Nt1210 Intro to Networking 4.3

...NT1210 Lab 4.3 Cabling exploration Exercise 4.3.1 Use your textbook and Internet research to complete the comparison in Table 4-3. Cite the sources from which you retrieved the information to complete the comparison. UTP-Defines a cable that can carry data up to 100 Mbps. The signaling frequency of this cable is up to 100 MHz. Cheapest form of cable available for networking purposes. Easy to handle and install. Highly prone to external interference like EMI and RFI. Highly prone to crosstalk. Unable to provide secured transmission of data. Coaxial (Thinnet) 185m 100 Mbps Low Uses thin cabling, low hardware costs Difficult to troubleshoot, difficult to maintain. Coaxial (Thicknet) 500m 100 Mbps directly connects computers and it costs more. Multimode cables are less expensive to operate, install and maintain than single-mode cables. However, they are much more limited in both speed and distance. For instance, the maximum speed of a multimode cable is 10GB, but only up to a distance of 300 meters. Up to 2 kilometers, it is only capable of transmitting at 100Mbit. Beyond that, its transfer speed becomes negligible. This limitation is negated by the fact that its maximum speed is sufficient for the environment that it is most often used in. Singlemode cable provides less signal attenuation, higher transmissions speeds, and up to 50 times greater transmission distance than multimode cable. Singlemode cable can transmit data at terabits per second over 100km without......

Words: 866 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Nt1210 Intro to Networking 5.2

...NT1210 MAC and IP Addresses Exercise 5.2.1 Why must a MAC address be unique for every NIC produced? What effect will it have on the network if two devices from two different manufacturers share the last 24 bits of their MAC addresses? Explain your answer. Use your textbook and the Internet to research your answer. Think of it as your address or phone at your home it has to be unique. Has to be unique so the entire world can see it. So the network traffic couldn’t find its way to the right PC. Exercise 5.2.2 What information about the network connection is given on the Support tab of the status window? Gives you the IP address, Subnet Mask and default gateway. Exercise 5.2.3 What is the physical address (the MAC address) of the NIC (or network adapter) for this connection? Physical Address: ‎00-1E-65-DC-C4-DA. Exercise 5.2.4 You can determine the manufacturer of your NIC using the first six characters of your MAC address. To do this, you must search the IEEE records database for the unique OUI. You can access the IEEE database at this address: http://standards.ieee.org/develop/regauth/oui/public.html. On this page, you should locate the search box and enter the first three bytes of your MAC address separated by hyphens (such as “00-0C-44”), and then click the Search button. Who is the manufacturer for your NIC? What information is given about the manufacturer? You can see an example record returned from this site in Figure 5-5. MAC Address/OUI Vendor {Company}...

Words: 725 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Intro to Networking Lab 9.1

...Lab 9.1 – 9.4 ITT – Technical Institute Introduction to Networking Martin Gilmore January 6, 2016 Lab 9.1: Broadband Internet Exercise 9.1.1 * This was inefficient because it prohibited the use of the phone line for its original intention. * The limitation of the data rate for this type of connection was 56kbps. Exercise 9.1.2 * Broadband uses multiple channels of frequencies to transmit data more efficiently where broadband uses a single channel. Exercise 9.1.3 DSL Connection Types DSL Type | Maximum Download Speed | Maximum Upload Speed | Maximum Distance (m) | ADSL | 24 Mbps | 1.4 Mbps | 6000+ | HDSL | 1.54 Mbps | 1.54 Mbps | 3650 | IDSL | 144 Kbps | 144 Kbps | 10,700 | MSDSL | 2 Mbps | 2 Mbps | 8800 | RADSL | 7 Mbps | 1 Mbps | 5500 | SDSL | 2,048 Mbps | 2,048 Mbps | 3000 | VDSL | 52 Mbps | 16 Mbps | 1000+ | Lab 9.2: Networks and Subnets Exercise 9.2.1 * If you had 4 bits for the host ID, how many unique combinations can be made from 4 bits? * 16 * What is another way to express this value as a power of 2? * 42 Exercise 9.2.2 * On a /24 network, how many unique host ID values exist? * 256 hosts * On a /16 network, how many unique host ID values exist? * 65,534 hosts, or 164 Exercise 9.2.3 * What is the reserved network address? * 176.33.4.0 * What is the reserved broadcast address? * 176.33.4.255 * What is the first available host ID for a unique host on this......

Words: 542 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Nt1210 Intro to Networking

...NT1210 Unit 1 HomeWork Assignment 1: 1. Which of the following is true about 1 bit? a. Can represent decimal values 0 through 9 2. How many bits are in a byte? ____8_____ 3. Fill out the following Chart Term | Size(Bytes) | Size(2n Bytes) | Rounded Size (Bytes) | Kilobyte | 1024 | 2 10 | 1000 | Megabyte | 1,048,576 | 2 20 | 1,000,000 | Gigabyte | 1,073,741,824 | 2 30 | 1,000,000,000 | Terabyte | 1,099,511,627,776 | 2 40 | 1,000,000,000,000 | 4. Which of the following answers are true about random-access memory (RAM) as it is normally used inside a personal computer? (Choose two answers.) b. Used for long-term memory d. Connects to the CPU over a bus using a cable 5. This chapter describes the concepts behind how a CPU reads the contents from RAM. Which of the following is true about the process of read data, as described in the chapter? a. The CPU tells the RAM which address holds the data that the CPU wants to read. 6. Define Character set: A list of all the characters on a computer with matching binary values ex: a = 110001 in ASCII which uses a 7bit code. 7. Character encoding scheme is another name for character set? a. True 8 & 9. Complete the following Decimal to binary chart. Decimal | Binary | | Decimal | Binary | 193 | 11000001 | | 255 | 1111111 | 52 | 00110100 | | 19 | 10011 | 50 | 110010 | | 172 | 10101100 | 170 | 10101010 | | 14 | 1110 | 6 | 110 (binary) | | 0 | 0000 | 10. Which of......

Words: 1421 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Intro to Networking U5L1

...A user boots his or her computer and hears a sequence of six beeps The computer uses AMI BIOS. What error is indicated by the six beeps? Using AMI BIOS six beeps means that there has been failure with the 8042 Gate a20 test. The cause is normally a failed expansion card or motherboard that no longer runs properly. A different user with a computer using Phoenix BIOS hears a sequence of beeps with pauses in between. the sequence is beep - pause - beep beep beep - pause - beep beep beep beep - beep beep beep. What error is indicated by this beep sequence? This kind of beep pattern indicates an issue with memory, The most common answer for this problem is merely replacing the RAM cartridges in your pc Firewalls may be hardware devices or software programs. Hardware firewalls protect an entire network. Software firewalls protect a single computer. Research the Internet for an example of each of these types of firewalls and compare their features. Hardware Firewalls - Hardware Firewalls can be found as a standalone product but can also be found in broadband routers. Hardware Firewalls use packet filtering to examine the header of a packet and determine its source and destination. This information can be compared to a pre-defined list of rules to determine whether or not the packet will be dropped. Software Firewalls - Software firewalls are fairly popular and common with household users, because they can be downloaded and installed freely and are easily...

Words: 313 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Nt1210 Intro to Networking 5.1

...NT1210 Lab 5.1 LAN Standards Exercise 5.1.1 The IEEE standards cover more than just Ethernet. The 802.3 standard actually builds upon the 802.1 network architecture standard from IEEE. Briefly define the 802.1 standard and what it provides. Use your textbook and the Internet to research your answer. IEEE 802.1 Working Group (IEEE 802.1) is an IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA) group established to ensure network management and monitoring capabilities in networks developed according to IEEE 802 standards. Exercise 5.1.2 The 802.3 family of standards has the format 802.3x where x is a sequence of letters specifying the new standards added to the 802.3 base standard. One of the enhancements to Ethernet is Power over Ethernet (PoE), in which Ethernet cable can provide power to remote, low-power devices that are not near an electrical outlet. What 802.3 standard originally defined PoE functionality? When was the standard enhanced, and what was the new standard name given for the enhancement? Use your textbook and the Internet to research your answer. 802.3 standard originally came about in June 2003 then designated IEEE 802.3at was released in 2009 and this provided for several enhancements to the original IEEE 802.3af specification. Some devices include powering IP telephones, wireless LAN access points, webcams, Ethernet hubs and switches. Exercise 5.1.3 Complete Table 5-1 by researching the various Ethernet standards and their associated properties. You can use your...

Words: 460 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Intro to Networking Project

...email server, plus support for content filtering and antivirus scanning with two great * WinGate plug-ins. Enhanced support for Terminal Services and Active Directory, Bandwidth control, dynamic service binding, a re-written mail server with many new features, remote gateway monitoring and selection, DMZ support. * What's new in this version: Version 8.0 includes HTTPS inspection support, web access control, option to disconnect in reject policy response, and support for adding X-Forwarded-For for reverse proxy requests. WinGate VPN * WinGate VPN gateway license for 12 computer LAN * Now there is a VPN solution that anyone can use. * Easy to set up * Built in Firewall * Extra Support for MS Networking Price -$244.95 Kaspersky AntiVirus for WinGate * Kaspersky AntiVirus for WinGate unlimited user 2 year subscription * This provides much improved scanning performance particularly with relation to the number of concurrent scan jobs that can be undertaken * HTTP Traffic Scanning * Easy Updater * FTP Scanning * Quarantine capabilities Price - $2,240.00 PureSight for WinGate * PureSight for WinGate unlimited user 2 year subscription * Automatic Content recognition * Custom block-pages * Manual classifications * User database integration Price- $1,120.00 NetPatrol Enterprise * Includes free 1 year version protection * IP logging * Easy......

Words: 2164 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Intro to Networking Lab 9.1

...NT1210 Lab 9 The Internet Chandra Ramsey February 29, 2016 Lab 9 The Internet 9.1.1 Broadband Internet The original dialup connections offered by telephone companies required complete use of the telephone cable to connect to the Internet (meaning that no calls could be placed or received during the Internet connection). Why is this inefficient for establishing a connection to the Internet? What was the limitation of the data rates available on this type of Internet connection? First you had to make sure that your call waiting feature was turned off so that there wouldn’t be any interruptions in the service. Because it was like using the telephone, your data rates were charged as long distance telephone calls by the minute. 9.1.2 The term broadband Internet generally refers to higher-speed and constantly available connections to the Internet. The term represents an evolution of Internet connectivity, but it originally referred to the type of media usage. Broadband and baseband are the two types of media usage available. Briefly define these terms and explain the difference between them. Broadband – The term broadband commonly refers to high-speed Internet access that is always on and faster than the traditional dial-up access. It also includes several high-speed transmission technologies such as Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Cable Modem. Baseband – refers to the original frequency range of a transmission signal before it is converted, or modulated, to a different......

Words: 1408 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Nt1210 Intro to Networking 3.2

...NT1210 Lab 3.2. The OSI reference Model Exercise 3.2.1 Using Figure 3-1, define each layer of the OSI model in your own words and state what each layer provides. Use your textbook or Internet research to support your answer. The Physical layer is something simple like wiring, fiber and network cards. Devices that allow communication between the OSI networks. Data link layer is the Ethernet, among other protocols; we're keeping this simple remember. The most important take-away from layer 2 is that you should understand what a bridge is. Switches, as they're called nowadays, are bridges. Network layer is an IP address because you're dealing with layer 3 and "packets" instead of layer 2's "frames." IP is part of layer 3, along with some routing protocols, and ARP (Address Resolution Protocol). Transport layer handles messaging units which is also called packets. When you're talking about specific protocols, like TCP, they're "segments" or "datagrams" in UDP. This layer is responsible for getting the entire message to keep track of fragmentation. Session layer is Network Basic Input/output System model allowing applications on separate computers to communicate over a local area network. The Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a method for implementing virtual private networks. PPTP uses a control channel over TCP and a GRE tunnel operating to encapsulate PPP packets. Presentation uses Secure Sockets Layer which provides a secure connection between internet browsers......

Words: 597 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Nt1210 Intro to Networking Lab 2.2

...Exdahellilvn NT1210 Lab 2.2 Networking drives Exercise 2.2.1 If an organization has 30 users, each with his or her own PC, what is the comparative cost of buying a $120 printer for each user versus the cost of buying a single, higher-capacity $500 printer that can be used by the entire office? What is the drawback to having only a single printer? What is the cost of having two additional backup printers for the office compared to having individual printers? How many shared printers can be purchased and still be less expensive than individual printers? It would cost $3,900 if each user had their own printer V.S. buying a high capacity single printer for $500. On top of that if ink cartridges cost around $32.00 dollars apiece for each printer cartridge. It would cost a total of $960 for ink cartridges for all 30 printers. If a single printer was connected to a single workstation then it would be only tied to that workstation. No other users would be able to use printer connected to the workstation. The cost of having two backup printers would depend on what type of printers. There are two known types of printers one LaserJet or standard color ink printers. LaserJet printers can run around $500 each V.S. $120-$150 for a standard color printer. Still the cost of having two additional backup printers is less than having each workstation have their own. You can buy up to four printers costing $500 apiece and still come out money ahead. Even if you spent $100 dollars on......

Words: 838 - Pages: 4