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Intro

In: Social Issues

Submitted By clarkapol
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Pages 10
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Listening to the hum of a washing machine turning a dirty load of laundry into clean clothes, it's hard to believe a washing board was once considered a modern convenience. Washing machines have come a long way since their invention and some new, high-tech versions are changing the way people do laundry.

As technology invaded the world of mankind, people continued also to find alternatives to lessen the effect of using such kind of technology as a useful process of every life. The researchers find out that this electronic, heavy, place only in one position washing machine will transform into like a portable machine. This washing machine turned into a habit of exercise as if someone is making a round of a trip by using a pedal powered washing machine.

The first washing machines appeared in the 1760s. These were commonly a wooden box that was filled with clothes and rotated by hand. In 1874, another invention appeared a machine that used pegs and gears to push clothes through soapy water. In 2001 Electrolux introduced Washy Talky, the washing machine that speaks to you with such memorable phrases as "drop the detergent, close the lid and relax." And now there is Pedal Power Washing Machine. Pedal power is the transfer of energy from a human source through the use of a foot pedal and crank system. This technology is most commonly used for transportation and has been used to propel bicycles for over a hundred years. Less commonly pedal power is used to power agricultural and hand tools and even to generate electricity.

Statement of the problem

This study aims to determine the advantages and disadvantages of a pedal powered washing machine in terms of the lifestyles of the consumers, the cost, and the effect to the environment.

It sought to answer the following questions:

1. What are advantages and disadvantages of using pedal powered washing machine?

2. What are the factors to considered of the consumers to the lifestyle, cost and to the environment?

3. What make it relevant to use pedal powered washing machine over ordinary washing machine?

Scope and delimitation

This study will focus on the design of the pedal powered washing machine. This will prioritize the relevance of using the pedal washing machine over the ordinary expensive washing machine and how this will be take part in the everyday life of the humankind. The research will delimits the involvement of money, materials, and to the environment.

Conceptual Framework

The conceptual paradigm on figure 1 shows the extent of the project’s features.

[pic]

Hypothesis of the Study

The researcher’s speculations for the outcome of the study are:

1. Transforming used bicycles into pedal powered tools is a sustainable development.

2. Riding a bike can have more benefits than simply exercise or green-transportation that helps our ecosystem as well as the consumers.

3. This pedal powered washing machine is a great cause to mankind in terms of cost, wellness and so on.

Significance of the Study

This study will benefit the environment and lots of people especially those who use the pedal powered washing machine. This pedal powered washing machine has less cost than an ordinary washing machine drive by the electricity while this pedal powered it gives motivation to the consumer for promoting the good health as well as it promotes the friendships with our environment. It helps to recycle rather than to throw them.

Definition of Terms

This part contains the definition of terms used in this study. The terms were defined functionally, operationally, and conceptually in order to give readers a clearer and more understandable view of the topic.

Washing Machine- is a machine to wash laundry, such as clothing and sheets. The term is mostly applied only to machines that use water as opposed to dry cleaning. Washing entails immersing, dipping, rubbing, or scrubbing in water usually accompanied by detergent, or bleach.

Plastic - material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solids that are moldable. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass, but they often contain other substances.

Bracket- A decorative or weight-bearing structural unit, two sides of which form a right angle with one arm flush against a wall and the other flush beneath a projecting surface, such as eaves or a bay window.

Freewheel- a device that allows a bicycle wheel to revolve forward while the crank is stationary.

Machine- an apparatus using or applying mechanical power and having several parts, each with a definite function and together performing a particular task.

Motor- a machine, esp. one powered by electricity or internal combustion, that supplies motive power for a vehicle or for some other device with moving parts.

Pedal- A foot-operated lever or control for a vehicle, musical instrument, or other mechanism, in particular.

Pulley- a wheel with a grooved rim around which a cord passes. It acts to change the direction of a force applied to the cord and is chiefly used (typically in combination) to raise heavy weights.

Schematic- is a representation of the elements of a system using abstract, graphic symbols rather than realistic pictures.

Chapter II
Review of Related Literature and Studies

Related Literature According to India: Land of a Billion Entrepreneurs, A pedal-powered washing machine, a bicycle that runs over water as well as the road, a low cost milking machine that works on the principle of vacuum suction, an electronic walking stick that cannot be stolen, a three wheeled-tractor that uses less energy, a windmill made from bamboo and groundnut pod machines are among them. Creative Thinkering: Putting your imagination to work, said that combining “bicycle” with “washing machine” created a human-powered washing machine: an exercise bike with a lithium-ion battery that collects energy as you pedal is wired to the front-loading machine. When you pedal, you power the machine. Twenty minutes’ effort is said to give you one cold-wash cycle without drawing power from the grid. From the design for Society, stated that a pedal-powered washing machine can still constitute an advance, and the prospect that in the future washing machines with electric motors may be available to washer-women, shows the includable gulf that exist between the affluent, industrialized countries.

From The Human-Powered Home: Choosing Muscles over Motors, mentioned that for some reason people interested in human-powered devices are especially attracted to the idea of making a pedal-powered washing machine. Maybe it’s because both rely on rotary motion, making them seem like an obvious pairing. Or maybe because it’s a washing machine appears to be simple thing to construct or modify, or because doing laundry is an elemental chore that until recently in our evolutions have experimented with ways of combining bikes and washing machines, and several designs have resulted.

From Design for Environmental Sustainability, said that the project was created to react to the local demand and its first objective was improving the working conditions, which cause serious back problems and pains.

Related Studies

Pedal-powered washing machine is designed for all the consumers who don’t have enough to buy expensive Electric washing machine, and to promote health wellness to everyone who uses it.

Bicilavadora Stated that a low cost, pedal-powered washing machine that is designed around readily available parts. Its innovation is its simple design and its use of inexpensive plastic barrels and bicycle components. The Bicilavadora is reliable, easy to operate and uses no electricity. The parts are available locally, so Bicilavadoras can be manufactured and repaired in the community without depending on imported goods.

MIT's pedal-powered washing machine The product of four years of research, is made up of a bicycle frame, a bicycle chain and oil drums--all items that are inexpensive and easy to find. A prototype of the washing machine was built in 2005 by Radu Raduta, a mechanical engineering graduate student at MIT. After winning first prize for her design in the MIT IDEAS competition, Raduta received funding to continue work on the machine. Construction of the pedal-powered washing machine is relatively easy. An oil drum is cut into sections and welded together into a small barrel. A smaller inner drum is rotated during wash and spin cycles, and the whole thing is powered by a wheel-less bicycle frame.
GiraDora
A combination of washer and spin-dryer powered by a foot-pedal. Designed specifically for those with the least income living in the poorest nations, the GiraDora hopes to ease the burden of washing clothes. The portable plastic tub can be filled with soap and water before a lid is placed on top, acting as seat. Then all the user needs to do is rest on the washer, and pump the spring-loaded foot-pedal.

State of the Art The researchers has only one purpose even the past invention of this machine has only one purpose, to help the consumers and also the environment. The design is a Top-Loading kind of washing machine while the others are front loading which is more rare invention than top loading. The pedal powered washing machine is a low cost and aimed at saving electricity and it is design around readily available parts. It is a bike where you can burn calories to clean clothes. The Pedal-Powered Washing Machine is made up of recycled plastic drum and bicycle is the most important part for these are the main objects of the design, a 20 gallons of water is the maximum capacity of the drum and 1 kilo of clothes and sheets can occupy the drum. This design is to lessen the burden to wash the clothes of every consumer and just gain muscles instead. In todays’ time a lot of people are not aware of their health because there are so many invention that will help to lessen their chores but they don’t know is that they are becoming unhealthy and lazy.

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH DESIGN

This chapter presents the overview of the design of the mechanism used in this study.

METHODOLGY

This study used the applied method of research. Scientific study and research seek to solve practical problems. As defined at slideshare.net, “applied research is used to find solutions to everyday problems and develop innovative technologies, rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge’s sake.

The aim of the research is to construct a design for the elements of mechanism of an improvised washing machine by applying human power to rotary motion.

DESIGN OF THE PROJRCT

This manual describes the design and construction of a device which, when attached to a standard bicycle, will permit it to be used as a pedal-power machine. In the figure is a schematic of the design.

[pic]

FIGURE 1 SCHEMATIC OF A POWER-PEDAL WASHING MACHINE

PEDAL POWER ATTTACHMENT

As bicycles come in various sizes and there are a variety of tube sizes used for frames, only photos and schematic of the pedal power attachment are given below.

[pic]

FIGURE 2 PEDAL POWER ATTACHMENT FOR BICYCLE

1. Front end of a bicycle

2. Bicycle Chain

3. Freewheel

4. Extension for Freewheel

5. Bottom bracket of a bicycle

6. Extension for Pulley

7. Attachment Plate

8. Pulley

STAND ASSEMBLY

The stand described here is to support the bicycle to be rigid.

Materials
12 ft. (3.7m--3/4"(20mm) angle, 1/8"(3.2mm) wall thickness
8ft. (2.5m--1/2" (12.5mm) x 3/16" (4.7mm) flat steel.
1 - 1" (25mm) x 6" (15.25cm) cold-rolled steel rod for axle extensions.
16--1/4" (7mm) x 5/8" (16mm) bolts, nuts, lock washers
2 --3/8" (10mm) x 3/4 "(20mm) bolts, washers
2 -extra rear axle nuts which fit the bike to be adapted.

PROCEDURE 1. The stand assembly is divided into two parts: the rectangular base frame and two triangular upright supports. (See Figure 3). Measure and cut the five pieces of 3/4" (20mm) angle specified for the base frame. MITRE the corners at 45 degrees so they fit together tightly and form square corners.
[pic]

FIGURE 3 BASE ASSEMBLY

2. Weld the rectangle together. Do not weld the center frame member to the rectangle yet. 3. Measure and cut as specified the 5 pieces for each upright support. 4. Carefully assemble the upright support pieces for welding, being sure to leave a 1/8" (3.2mm) gap in the base of each support. (See Figure 3). This gap will mate with the center frame member of the base frame, allowing the upright supports to slide to accommodate different rear axle widths. Note that the two upright supports are not identical. They are mirror reflections of one another. Also note the orientation of the various pieces of angle, how they fit together etc. See drawings and photos of stand. (FIGURES 3 & 4) [pic]

FIGURE 4 UPRIGHT SUPPORT ASSEMBLY

5. Weld each upright support assembly together into a secure structure. 6. Place the upright supports onto the base frame, and position the center frame member so that it mates with the gap in the side supports. Mark its position, and weld it in place. OVERALL ASSEMBLY 1. First off you need to obtain a conventional washing machine, a bike, and a toolkit. Try to find either a broken washing machine and bike or ones that are no longer being used, following the “reduce, reuse, recycle” mantra! 2. Modify your washing machine: a. Remove the outer metal shell, usually white in color, from your washing machine by removing and unscrewing every bolt on the machine. b. Take out the electric motor from your washing machine frame. c. Remove the pulley from the motor’s shaft. d. Take off the drain hose that connects the tub to the pump. e. Save the belts from the pulley. 3. Modify the Trainer using your pulley a. Buy three tension pins from a hardware store and a drill bit. b. Drill three even spaced holes on the pulley. c. Have the pulley positioned on the fly wheel so that it is centered and drill through the flywheel. d. Hammer in the tension pins. 4. Piecing it all Together a. Position your bicycle stand and the washer in a position that you think will work for the design. b. Measure/Estimate how long of a belt you will need. c. Take the belt from step 1 to a hardware store and get one that’s the same except closer to the estimated size that you need, which will most likely be longer than the one you have. d. Drill and attach a large piece of plywood under your washer. e. Attach the belt with the training stand resting on the piece of plywood. f. Test your configuration. g. Drill holes to attach the training stand feet. h. Modify your configuration as necessary. 5. Try washing your clothes in your new nifty laundry machine!

----------------------- PEDAL POWERED WASHING MACHINE

pedal

motor will start

battery/capacitor ac dc inverter

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...David Olsen Othello Essay Intro to Lit 4/14/12 Instructor: The Opinionator The handkerchief plays a central role in Shakespeare’s Othello. It was given to Othello by his mother, and then given to Desdemona by Othello. It may seem farfetched that something as simple as a handkerchief could make a person murder someone else, but when I look back at the story that is exactly happens. The handkerchief symbolizes the relationship and trust between Othello and Desdemona. This seemingly normal handkerchief has a very deep meaning to Othello, and when he finds out who has possession of it towards the end of the play he goes into a frenzy. The whole reason that the handkerchief becomes an object of evil and jealousy is because Iago uses it as a tool to persuade Othello that Cassio is seeing Desdemona. The whole circle of betrayal begins when Desdemona drops the handkerchief and Emilia picks it up. Iago had told Emilia to do so for quite some time. Once Emilia turns it over to Iago, he almost immediately goes to work in his evil ways. He plants the handkerchief in Cassio’s apartment. Cassio can’t figure out whose it is and takes it. Cassio ends up giving it to Bianca. Iago sets the second part of his plot into action when he talks to Othello later on when they are alone`. He tells Othello that he suspects Desdemona is being unfaithful to him with Cassio. Othello demands proof of the affair, and Iago informs him that he saw Cassio give the......

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