Premium Essay

Introduction to Penology

In: Other Topics

Submitted By aymanelzeiny
Words 2937
Pages 12
Introduction To Penology

Prof. Dr. Ayman Elzeiny

A :- Definition :
The "penology" word is derived from "punishment or penalty" word .

The energetic movement of human rights contributed to the adoption of the reforms penology as a science.
Now, as the struggle against criminality uses not only penalties but also security measures and pure social methods, the denomination of penology became anachronistic.

penology as a science could be divided into prevention science and treatment science. The prevention science operates before the commission of the crime, while the treatment science takes place after the occurrence of the crime to emend the criminal and avoid his recidivism. And also suggests the ideal methods of prevention and treatment, therefore it traces the ideal criminal policy.

In conclusion we mean by penology nowadays "a substitute which we call "science of struggle against criminality "that means the ideal methods of prevention and treatment as regards criminality ".

so we shall explain at first the prevention and after that the treatment whether its method is legislative, judicial or executive. (1)
(1) Andenaes, Johannes , "The general preventive effects of punishment." University of Pennsylvania Law Review ,U.S.A ,1966, pp: 949-983.
- Gibbs, Jack P. ,"Crime, punishment and deterrence." Southwest Social Science Quarterly , 1968 , pp: 515-530.
- Green, Donald E., "Past behavior as a measure of actual future behavior: An unresolved issue in perceptual deterrence research." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 1989 , pp: 781-804.
B :- Crime Prevention :-

B.1- Concepts of Crime Prevention :
Terms such as "prevention," "control," and "deterrence" are frequently encountered in the literature of crime.

However, their meaning often varies from one text to another. In this respect, penology is like...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Purpose and History Paper

...Purpose and History Paper John Eric Cabaluna CJA/234 06/18/2014 Instructor: Robbyn-Nicole Livingston “Corrections” is a term use to define the legal punishment of the criminals for the crimes they have committed. Before this term came, penology was used instead. Penology came from the word “penal” that was derived from the Latin term, “peonalis,” which means punishment. So, penology is simply the study of punishment. A philosopher named Francis Lieber was the first person who used the term penology. There are five theories of punishment that were recognized: (1) retribution, (2) general deterrence, (3) specific deterrence, (4) incapacitation, and (5) rehabilitation. Retribution is the imposition of sentence given to someone who committed a crime. An example is a criminal committing a murder will be imposed to a death penalty. General deterrence is the concept “that the choice to commit delinquent acts can be controlled by the threat of punishment,” (Juvenile Delinquency: The Core, 2005). Because the society is aware that the punishment is given to an individual who commits a crime; therefore, the people avoid to committing such acts. An example of general deterrence is the mandatory minimum sentences for certain drug-related offenses, which is mostly informing the public via media of crimes, etc. Specific deterrence is the concept that “if young offenders are punished severely, the experience will convince them not to repeat their......

Words: 1022 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...Corrections Corrections Service is responsible for probation, parole, aftercare and adult institutional services throughout the Territories. The purpose of the Corrections Service is the correction and treatment of offenders and the protection of the community by: * providing, when requested by a court, information respecting the background of an offender before sentencing; * offering probation and parole supervision,  counselling and aftercare services to offenders; * providing for the safe custody and detention of inmates in a correctional centre; * providing supervision, treatment and training of inmates with a view to their rehabilitation; and * promoting and assisting programs designed to prevent and diminish crime within a community. The Corrections Service provides services for both adult and young offenders. These services are supervised by the Director of Corrections, and are undertaken by a staff of approximately 240 full time and casual employees in ten communities. Intermediate punishments are intended for selected criminals convicted of nonviolent crimes, low-level drug offenders, and probationers and parolees who have committed technical violations but no new crimes. Many of these offenders are currently serving time in prison. To accommodate differences in crimes and behavior, the middle rung punishments increase in severity and control as one mounts the ladder towards prison. Intermediate punishments typically have two parts: punishment and......

Words: 663 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...For the academic journal, see Criminology (journal). For the Raekwon song, see Criminology (song). Criminology and penology Pentonvilleiso19.jpg Theory[show] Types of crime[show] Penology[show] v t e Sociology Social Network Diagram (segment).svg History Outline Portal Theory Positivism Antipositivism Functionalism Conflict theories Social constructionism Structuralism Interactionism Critical theory Structure and agency Actor-network theory Methods Quantitative Qualitative Historical Mathematical Computational Ethnography Ethnomethodology Network analysis Subfields Conflict Criminology Culture Development Deviance Demography Education Economic Environmental Family Gender Health Industrial Inequality Knowledge Law Literature Medical Military Organizational Political Race & ethnicity Religion Rural Science Social change Social movements Social psychology Stratification STS Technology Urban Browse Bibliography Index Journals Organizations People Timeline v t e Three women in the pillory, China, 1875 Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation"; and Greek -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in both the behavioral and social sciences, drawing especially upon the research of sociologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, social anthropologists, as well as scholars of law. ...

Words: 5278 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Criminal Justice

...The Corrections The Correctional is one of the core components of the American criminal justice system. Once an offender has been convicted, it becomes the responsibility of the judge to impose some form of punishment. The sentence may take a form of supervised probation in the community, a fine, a prison term, or some combination of these. The correction process begins once an offender has been sentenced. One of the main problems in the correctional system is prison or jail overcrowding. Even thou many new prisons have been built throughout the nation during the past 20 years to accommodate the growing number of inmates, prison overcrowding is still very much a reality in many jurisdictions. Overcrowding by itself is not cruel and unusual punishment, according to the U.S. Supreme Court in Rhodes vs. Chapman (1981), which considered the issue of double bunking along with other alleged forms of “deprivation” at the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility... The court, reasoning that overcrowding is not necessarily dangerous if other prison services are adequate, held that prison housing conditions maybe “restrictive and even harsh”, for they are part of the penalty that offenders pay for their crimes. The Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution guarantee free citizens that right against unreasonable searches and seizures. Some states however had to scramble in an attempt to implement selective incarceration principles. In 2009, for example a federal judicial panel......

Words: 588 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

History of Penitentiaries

...time to function the way they do in today’s society. The correction process is among three of the major components of the criminal justice system, but could not be successfully complete without the police and the courts. There are two types of systems that prisons use to design and enforce punishment among offenders – Pennsylvania and Auburn. The systems tweaked and modified the original ideas, in order to form a prison system that would be effective and serve the purpose intended for criminals and impact and distinguish the amount of involvement of prison labor over time. History of punishment The history of the word punishment derives from the Latin word peonalis. Before the word punishment was used penology was the term used, which meant “punishment.” The term penology was later replaced by the term corrections. Our criminal justice system has a broad perspective of corrections for the criminal offenders convicted of criminal acts against another person or community. The use of punishment in earlier days resulted in public shaming, which was thought to prevent the accused from committing future crimes. These punishments were both painful and shameful; stocks and pillories were used for physical punishment and to ridicule the offender in front of their fellow townspeople Whyte & Baker, 2000). One of the most popular forms of punishment for an offender was branding. They labeled each offender as a certain type of criminal by branding their forehead, face, or hands......

Words: 1345 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The Purpose and History of Penitentiaries

...The Purpose and History of Penitentiaries Would you be able to envision what it would be like if we lived in a world where there are no consequences for law and or rules that have been broken? Our current Criminal Justice System is the aftereffect of changes that have occurred over a period of time. Throughout the years, components have been created to uphold rules and regulations and laws as well as punish criminals. Throughout this paper I will discuss the history of punishment and how prisons were developed. The impact and involvement of prison labor overtime and the Pennsylvania and Auburn system. History of Punishment Penology the study of punishment evolved in the 1950s. During this rehabilitation replaced the punishment of offenders and became the main objective. Also during this time the term penology was replaced by the term corrections. Corrections is defined as the supervision and monitoring of offenders, the secure holdings of inmates in prisons, and the treatment of problems such as drug addiction, mental illness and other services (Seiter, 2014, “Chapter 1, The History of Crimes and Corrections, What is Corrections?”). In the eighteen century an Italian theorist founded the classical school of criminology. His first theory of crime causation was linked to appropriate punishments. “Beccaria suggested that the purpose of punishment is utility or the prevention of crime. Included in his principles are that crime is an injury to society, that prevention is......

Words: 1567 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Advocating Proper Implications of the Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act.

...Thesis Title: Creating an advertisement campaign for Humanitarian Legal Assistance Foundation (HLAF) in supporting and protecting the rights of persons in detention especially of children; Advocating proper implications of the juvenile justice and welfare act. Introduction: Children are not criminal; however they become one if they are in an area where they do not meet their basic needs for food, water, shelter, health care, education and sanitation. They are strip of their rights to develop and maintain a life of dignity to mature uneducated and unemployed. Rose from desperation and destitution these children are becoming criminals. Our country where majority of underprivileged remains unaddressed, many become breeding grounds for young offenders. The main alibi is their poverty and some are forced to break the law primarily to survive. These children accused of criminal acts are housed at Center for Restorative Activities Development and Learning Experiences (CRADEL) runs by Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) and The Bureau of Jail Management and Penology. The Humanitarian Legal Assistance Foundation, Inc. (HLAF) is a non-government and a non-profit organization registered with the Philippine Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Founded in 2001, HLAF envisions a world order founded on the universal respect for human rights, especially for the right and freedom against arbitrary and unjust imprisonment, in all its forms. HLAF specifically...

Words: 675 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Birth Control it to the bar association. • Often, in the rest of English courts, 9/10th of the pleading is done by a solicitor. Sometimes, it is a barrister and the instructions are done by a solicitor. That is why it is difficult to translate the word solicitor into French. Sometimes, a solicitor does the work of a French “notaire”. Most of the work of a barrister is done by a French “avocat”. Introduction : • The subject matter of this book is the substantive criminal law that is the law that determines what is or what is not a crime. • It is not concerned with the reasons why certain conducts are defined as criminal. That is a matter of moral philosophy. • Criminology which defines why people commit crimes will not be studied. • Nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege : There is no crime, no sentence with no law. • Likewise (également), the procedure by which criminals are arrested, prosecuted, convicted and sentenced are outside the scope. • Similarly, the study of punishment and efficacy or the various sentencing options is penology. • It is necessary to place substantive law in context. So, Allan considers what is a crime, what purpose does...

Words: 767 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...The PenitentiaryWillie BinghamCJ4/23408/17/11 Larry Doyle Introduction For as far as we can remember there has been some kind of punishment and confinement that man has always tried to improve. There are many ways to punish a person and there was different types of people who devoted themselves to actually coming up with rules that kept certain people safe. The government plays a important role always, but religious leader and special group of people all gather information to help protect society. If you read the Bible, which is one of the oldest book written, Moses brought from the mountain, laws that God had written and people knew if those rules wasn't followed you would be punish. There are laws that the Roman Empire created to keep peace, which also was the European who later on discovered America Confinement of People After determining the laws, key leader had to come up with ways to keep people who broke the rules away from the good citizen. One solution was to move away from biblical argument. By the 1820s, most states had amended their penal codes. In 1793 William Bradford and the attorney general of the United States showed interest in the old penal codes. Bradford (1793,1792) Places where people were held was call prison, big house and other names;during these time of adjusting the condition in some prison was horrible, and the way the prisoner were treated wasn't good either. One of the roles that prisons played in many states was based off of two......

Words: 870 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Reducing Crime

...which has taken place throughout the nineteenth and twentieth century, the resulting theories which have emerged have tended to each focus too heavily on one particular aspect of crime and its control and as such, have proved to be incomplete approaches to our understanding of crime and its reduction; the focus of these being on the victim or on the offender, on the social reaction to crime or on the criminal behaviour itself [Young, 1995, p 102], but never sufficiently all inclusive. As a result, the criminal justice system, in reliance on this partial criminology, has introduced penal measures which have proved completely ineffective in reducing crime. I shall demonstrate my argument with a discussion of post World War II criminology and penology, and provide practical examples of how partial criminology has lead to a failure in crime reduction [by 'partial criminology', I refer to criminological theories which have focussed and relied too heavily on one particular aspect of crime and have as a result, failed to help its reduction]. I shall then conclude this essay by discussing some of the more recent criminological approaches which have emerged in the latter decades of the twentieth century, and discuss how these writings and debate might have paved the way for a brighter future in terms of effective crime control. From the latter part of the 1950's to the early 70's, the study of deviance and crime by criminologists entered an intensive period of development. The......

Words: 2251 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay


...Towards a Definition of Socio-Economic Research for the RESPECT Project A draft working paper by Ursula Huws, RESPECT Project Director Introduction The term ‘socio-economic research’ is in widespread use in the European Commission’s work programmes and elsewhere. In the Fourth Framework Programme, for instance, there was a programme entitled ‘Targeted Socio-Economic Research’ (TSER) and in the Fifth Framework Programme there were numerous calls for proposals to carry out socio-economic research related to Information Society Technologies (in the IST Programme) and to other issues of relevance to EU policy. At national level, there are also economic and social research funding councils in most European Countries. However, nowhere in this documentation, as far as I can tell, is any definition offered of ‘socio-economic research’. For the purposes of the RESPECT project, however, it is necessary to have some sort of functional definition. This short discussion paper is designed as the first step towards the development of such a definition. As the project develops, this definition will be tested in relation to the actual practices of socio-economic researchers, whose activities, qualifications and professional affiliations will be profiled as part of the project’s work. In the meantime, a brief survey of projects described as socioeconomic research projects indicates that they cover a very broad range in relation to the backgrounds and qualifications of...

Words: 2527 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Purpose and History of Penitentiaries

...Purpose and history of penitentiaries Name Date CJA/234 Introduction to Corrections Instructors Name History of Punishment History of punishment exists since of thousands of years. Though, it is very tough to decide when exactly human civilization started punishment system. There are some records to support the start of punishment system. The earliest legal code may have been that of Ur-Nammu, Founder of third dynasty of Ur at about 2050 BC. In this legal code actually a person will have to pay for something he does wrong. Usually the payment will be done in Silver Mina. Later, In Samarian records there was actually death penalty was given at murder trial. In the “Law of Eshunna” the upper class and lower class were given different punishment. This law use to cover every aspect of social life including marriage, divorce, Loans etc. The punishments were in form of monetary. The code of Hammurabi written around 1750 BC. By this code, abiding principle was Talio which has to do with mutilating the part of the body which has committed crime. In the kingdom, the legal rights and judicial process were available for everyone. But slaves and prisoners of war were......

Words: 856 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Rehabilitation as a Punishment- Criminal Justice

...Introduction In this paper I am going to talk about rehabilitation. I will elaborate on its definition and origin, dating back to 1945, where rehabilitation was really starting to evolve. I will then talk about the definition of parole and how it differs from mandatory release. Then I will go into probation, explaining what probation is and how it compares to the other forms of sentencing. Finally, I will talk about the definition of community corrections, and the different options of community corrections that exist. I will give my personal opinion on whether I think there are better solutions to the current parole process, probation system, and the community corrections options. Rehabilitation Rehabilitation is a form of punishment that really started to develop in 1945. This was the era known for using treatment, therapies, and education for criminals. Rehabilitation is act of restoring criminals to a proper state so they can be an active participant in society upon release from prison. According to “Wikipedia” (2013), “The assumption of rehabilitation is that people are not permanently criminal and that it is possible to restore a criminal to a useful life, to a life in which they contribute to themselves and to society” (para. 1). This is very important for criminals that are mentally ill, or have some medical issues. Sometimes criminals need treatment and education to assist them with getting and staying on the right path. A path for success and renovation. ...

Words: 1076 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Business in Virtual Library

...and participating societies. It covers such subjects as Criminal Justice, Juvenile Delinquency, Juvenile Justice, Corrections, Penology, Policing, Forensic Psychology, and Family and Domestic Violence. EbscoHost (all) Ebsco databases provide access to numerous publications. Select this link to search all databases simultaneously. To search each database separately, use the specific links to the named databases. EbscoHost Academic Search Elite Search academic journals for topics in all areas of academic study; many peer-reviewed titles are included. EbscoHost Business Source Premier Search periodicals covering a wide variety of business topics. EbscoHost CINAHL Plus with Full Text Search nursing and allied health journals. EbscoHost MasterFile Premier Search periodicals covering a wide variety of topics including general reference, business, education, health, and science. EbscoHost Regional Business News Search regional business publications from major metropolitan areas. EbscoHost SocIndex with Full Text Search for articles related to sociology, criminal justice, criminology, and ethnic and gender studies. Full Text Electronic Journals Use this portal to locate full-text magazines, journals, and newspapers in the various periodical databases. Gale Computer Database Search this database to find computer-related product introductions, news and reviews in areas such as hardware, software, electronics, engineering, communications and the application of......

Words: 676 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

"Privatizing" Conflicts: Concerns with Restorative Justice

...“Privatizing conflicts”. Concerns with restorative justice Table of content Introduction 2 1 The appeal of restorative justice 3 2 Privatizing conflicts 5 2.1 Legal sphere concerns with privatizing conflicts 5 2.2 Feministic concerns with privatizing conflicts 8 3 Underexplored pitfalls 11 Conclusion 12 References 14 Introduction This paper is written within the framework of the master course ‘Restorative Justice’. It aims to be an academic reflection on some of the concepts educated throughout these classes.[1] The literature on restorative justice is extensive and therefore the case for it will not be made again here. Basic notions will not be repeated in this paper. The majority of criminologists already accept the letdown of the current criminal justice system on certain accounts; problems have been solidly exposed and opponents of restorative justice have been constantly defending the need for their rationale. Perceived advantages are well-known and have been documented soundly. But this work attempts to look beyond the reform minded and optimistic spirit that most of the restorative body of thought (rightfully) carries. Certain less obvious aspects of the theory might be underconceptualized, overlooked or taken for granted. Taking the concern of some more critical authors that restorative justice processes ‘privatize’ conflicts as a starting point, it will be explored whether or not this......

Words: 5573 - Pages: 23