Premium Essay

Introduction to Pyschology

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By youbad1
Words 2983
Pages 12
The effects of pictures and words on short-term memory recall. Abstract The aim of this research is to observe if there is a difference between the numbers of pictures and words recalled by the participants. Considering the findings of the results the participants are able to remember more objects accompanied with the pictures rather than if the objects accompanied as words. This research used 20 participants aged 16 years and above and the participants were divided into group A and group B. A list of 30 objects consists of fifteen words and fifteen pictures were given to the participants to review for two minutes and another two minutes were given to write down as many as they could remember. The mean, median and model numbers recalled pointed that the subjects were extremely good at remembering the pictures if objects accompanied with the pictures compare to if objects accompanied as words. The result used in analysing the difference between two sets of data has proved that there is a difference between subjects’ ability to remember more pictures compare to the amount words. For this reason, the hypothesis was accepted which can be concluded that there is a difference between pictures and numbers of words recalled by the participants.


The major study of memory within psychology is known as cognitive psychology. Generally, the cognitive approach believes that information received from the senses (touch, taste, smell, sight) is developed by the brain and this development might have an effect on how people behave. Cognitive processes are examples of hypothetical constructs which means humans are unable to see processes such as thinking but a person thinking it is likely to be assumed based on how they act.

Memory is the mental ability or capacity to obtain, store and retrieve information that one may have learned or experienced over...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Disorders of the Brain

...Shanique N. Williams PS 124 Introduction to Pyschology Jennifer Robertson December 10, 2013 Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks (NIMH). The symptoms of this brain disorder are normally severe. It’s pretty obvious if a person has this illness. The effects of this illness not only affect the body, but it affects relationships, job and normal day to day performance. Fortunately, bipolar disorders can be treated with medication in order to leave a normal lifestyle. Which parts of the brain are believed to be involved in this disorder, and how do these areas of the brain influence the development and behavior of the individual? The main brain areas involved in bipolar disorder include the frontal and temporal lobes of the forebrain, the prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia and parts of the limbic system. The cerebral cortex is involved in thought processes and it is possible that abnormalities in this part of the forebrain are responsible for the negative thoughts that are associated with the depressive episodes of bipolar disorder. Briefly describe at least one method which has been used to study this disorder (EEG, fMRI, etc.), and what this method involves. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) allow researchers to take pictures of the living brain and can......

Words: 409 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Hitler's Germany Doc Analysis

...The Author Guida Diehl was the founder and leader of the Newland Movement, which pre-dated the Nazi Party by at least six years. She came from a nationalist and anti-Semitic family, and only joined the Nazi Party in August 1930. Following the advice of Adolf Stocker, who hated Jews and supported the emancipation of unmarried women, she attended social-work school and later worked as a teacher of social work in Frankfurt. Diehl constantly preached a spiritualist, quasi-Christian, and nationalist message, that went against the postwar values of Americanism, materialism, and mammonism, which threatened to overpower Volk, God, and fatherland. Diehl wholly supported National Socialist goals, the Nazi’s anti-communism and anti-Semitism, and was particularly concerned with stemming the tide of moral ‘filth’ including the campaign to legalize abortion. Diehl was installed as ‘cultural advisor’ in the Nazi Party, but by 1936 had lost any appreciable political influence or organizational role. The Document in its Historical Context The title of the document undergoing analysis is, “A New Type of Woman”, and “Principles of the National Socialist Women’s Organizations” (the document), both from the book ‘Die deutsche Frau und der National Sozialismus (The German Woman and National Socialism), and published in 1932. “A New Type of Woman”, as written by Guida Diehl, outlines what characteristics a German woman should possess, and what type of woman she should aspire to become....

Words: 1815 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Case Study Infancy

...San Jose Community College Malilipot, Albay PYSCHOLOGY I CASE STUDY (INFANCY) Lorielyn Faith Banas I-B student Introduction As newborns, we were not empty-headed organisms. We cried, kicked, coughed, sucked, saw, heard and tasted. We slept a lot and occasionally we smiled, although the meaning of our smiles was not entirely clear. We crawled and then we walked a journey of a thousand miles beginning with a single step…….Sometimes we conformed, sometimes others conformed us. Our development was a continuous creation of complex forms, and our helpless kind demanded the meeting eyes of love. We split the universe into two halves: “me and not me”. And we juggled the need to curb our own will with becoming what we could will freely. The first two years are very important in a child development. In this study you will find the key concepts and theories of cognitive, social and emotional development in infancy. I am going to explain what are the specific behaviors and the signs of behavioral problem during infancy. This study will tell you what are the most common emotions of infants and what can causes it. Also, it will introduce you to psychoanalytical theories of a child development by Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson and the differences between it. What is more, I will explain what attachment is and the importance of it, also, explain Bowlby’s attachment theory and how attachment develops during the first two years. I will explain why social......

Words: 775 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Mar 19, 2011

...LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY TERMPAPER HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGMENT EMPLOYEE RENTENTION NAME: SOURABH SHARMA REGD: 10903798 ROLL NO: RR1908B31 SUBMMITED TO:MR.RAJEEV GUPTA INTRODUCTION Employee retention refers to the efforts by which employers attempt to retain employees in their workforce. In a business setting, the goal of employers is to decrease employee turnover, training costs, and loss of talent. By implementing lessons learned from key organizational behavior concepts employers can improve retention rates and decrease the associated costs of high turnover. How To Increase Employee Retention |   | | Companies have now realized the importance of retaining their quality workforce. Retaining quality performers contributes to productivity of the organization and increases morale among employees.  Four basic factors that play an important role in increasing employee retention include salary and remuneration, providing recognition, benefits and opportunities for individual growth. But are they really positively contributing to the retention rates of a company? Basic salary, these days, hardly reduces turnover. Today, employees look beyond the money factor. | employee retention can be increase by inculcating the following practices: 1. Open Communication: A culture of open communication enforces loyalty among employees. Open communication tends to keep......

Words: 1074 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Adolf Hitler

...Adolf Hitler: The Man or the Monster PSY 300 Adolf Hitler: The Man and his Demons Introduction “One blood demands one Reich!” (Hitler, 1999). Adolf Hitler was not the man that everyone believes him to be. This paper will explain how Sigmund Freud’s theory and Carl Rogers Humanistic theory relate to Adolf Hitler and will shed light on how the two theories may have shaped him into the infamous man in history today. This paper will also hold the element of surprise and enlightenment due to information that is not regularly discussed whenever an individual hears the name Adolf Hitler. Discussion Background Information Adolf Hitler was born on April 20th, 1899 to Alois Hitler and Klara Polzi. He was the second youngest child out of his five siblings. Both Alois and Klara had known poverty but had strived for a better way to live. The Hitler’s led a fairly comfortable middle- class life but family dynamics left much to be desired. As a father Alois was stern, distant, and irritable and as a husband he expected full obedience from his wife. (cite hitler book) He enjoyed spending outside over spending time with his family, leaving them to their own devices. Luckily for the children Klara did her best to combat how their father treated them and showered them with affection. Klara developed a strong bond with Adolf that was returned with fervor. In his autobiography, Mein Kampf, Hitler wrote “I had honored my father but loved my mother.” (Hitler, 1999). Hitler was......

Words: 1325 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Major Development Theories

...INTRODUCTION Theories of development put forward a framework for human growth, development and learning. Why do we study the developmental process? What can we learn from theories of development? If you have ever wondered about what motivates development, thoughts and behaviour, understanding these theories be a useful insight to individuals and society. LEV VYGOTSKY Lev Vygotsky is well known for his sociocultural theory of development. Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist, emphasized the roles of language, social interaction and culture on the child’s developing mind (Vygotsky, 1978, 1986). Vygotsky said that through social interactions, it enables the development of skills which are needed for logical reasoning. Lev Vygotsky’s theory is one in which he speaks about cognitive development. The first step in learning about cognitive development , you have to know what the concept ‘development’ means. Development is the changes that takes place in all humans from birth to adulthood. There are physical changes such as changes in the shape and size and how the body functions for example swimming when you were in Standard 2 as to swimming faster in secondary school. There are also emotional, social and personal development which are changes to our personalities and the ways in which we manage our...

Words: 2860 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay


...PAPER 1 What Makes a Dysfunctional Family Appear Normal Name University 10/26/11 THESIS: DENIAL LEADS TO DETERIORATION OF DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILIES Introduction There is a very thin line between functional families and dysfunctional ones. At the same time, the term ‘functional families’ does not give the true picture of such families. This is because it describes a nonexistent phenomenon. There is no such a thing as a completely functional family. Instead, there is a desirable family, one which exhibits very few of the characters that describe the dysfunctional families. Every family has problems of their own and it is how they tackle them that define them in terms of functionality. Of course all families desire to be close to perfect and try to solve their problem whenever they arise. However, what is most important is identifying a problem, accepting that it actually exists, diagnosing its source and solving it in a way that limits its recurrence. This paper aims to establish how denial is an obstacle to families’ efforts towards regaining their functional status and why dysfunctional families remain so. Study Problem There is an inadequacy of the information available for psychologists and other social work experts on which they should base their strategies for helping families develop effective communication in an attempt to solve the family and social problems. ...

Words: 2572 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay


...Outline the different selection methods that are available to organisations and discuss how the use of assessment centres might support the selection process. During the selection process, a company may utilise a variety of methods in order to be sure of which applicant they wish to hire. These methods will include widely used techniques such as requesting a curricula vitae be submitted, a face-to-face interview and references from employers. Another method to support the process, is the use of assessment centres. Assessment centres were originally introduced during World War Two in order to select officers in the army and navy (Ballantyne & Pover 2004 p.3-4). However since then they have become more commonly used within businesses with, according to research by the Industrial Relations Services, over 50% using them (Martin & Jackson 2002 pg.130). An assessment centre can support the selection process by allowing a business to observe applicants whilst they carry out a number of set tasks such as individual or group work, analytical exercises, oral or written output and input or role play. Assessment centres will also allow businesses to gain an insight into the characteristics of the candidates as they perform tasks which are as similar to job reality as possible (CIPD 2013). In order for any method to be effective, there are numerous criteria which must be true of the method. First the method must be both reliable and valid. Reliability is defined by......

Words: 2683 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

The Use of Classical Conditioning in Advertising

...The Use of Classical Conditioning in Advertising IT Carlow Consumer Insights Y3 12/10/2012 April Brophy Introduction Classical conditioning in advertising has been used by firms who sell products to get consumers to purchase from them instead of their competition. (CALVIN BIERLEY, 1985) This essay will briefly explain what classical conditioning is. It will examine the problems with experiments on classical conditioning in advertising and briefly look at two experiments which try to overcome these problems in testing classical conditioning in advertising. The first experiment will look at the effects of background features in advertising by Gerald J.Gorn. The second experiment will investigate whether consumer attitudes towards a product can be conditioned and it will examine weather classically conditioned attitudes can be stronger with larger numbers of trials. The essay will then look at what advertisers need to remember when using classical conditioning and then give examples of companies that use classical conditioning in their advertising campaigns. Classical Conditioning was discovered by Ivan Pavlov by accident while he was researching the digestive system of dogs where he presented food to the dog. Pavlov noticed that the dog would start to salivate when he just walked into the room even without food in his hand. Pavlov’s main belief was that learning occurred through association. The dog associated Pavlov with the food and would then salivate. It......

Words: 2556 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

A Response Paper on Drama

...29.09.2012 ‘Tragedy is an imitation of an action’ is what Aristotle said about the theater genre, tragedy. I have been curious about the ‘imitation of an action’ part and asked myself question such as what could the’ imitation of an action’ as a phrase in this context of tragedy mean so, under the light of the emphasis our instructor put on the chapter ‘the definiton of tragedy’ in ‘Aristotle’s Poetics’ reading that we were assigned to read and since I wanted my question to be cleared and I also wanted to understand the foundation of tragedy and prepare myself, base knowledge wise, for readings that were to come, I started my reading with that particular chapter. Through the chapter I partially understood, through my own reading without anyone’s help, the combination of artistic beauty of changing the places of the words, harmonious rhythms of songs that provide an emballishment to the ongoing play on the stage and the crucial components such as ‘the soul of tragedy’ and another component as important as the plot that I am not too confident about whether I absorbed its meaning and relation with other parts of a tragedy, that element is thought. I think through the chapter I found an answer to my question of what is imitation of an action, let me expand my question for beter understanding and my own answer through the information I gained through my reading . I think my question of what imitation of an action is pretty straightforward to understand, in literal base I......

Words: 4388 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Customer Relationship Marketing

...|MRKT19049 | |Assignment 1- Individual research report | | Executive Summary This report explores the benefits of customer loyalty programs to both sellers and customers with a view to deciding whether such a program would be beneficial to the client, BGO – an online grocery retailer. A review of the literature suggests that the benefits to sellers include higher customer retention rates, enhanced effectiveness of marketing initiatives, the development of affective commitment from customers, and improved measurement systems. All these factors contribute to higher profitability for the business. The literature suggests that the benefits to customers include both tangible, money-saving benefits and intangible social benefits, such as a sense of belonging. Flexibility is a highly important aspect of loyalty programs because it allows customers to choose their rewards and thereby increases the perceived value of benefits in the eyes of consumers. All scholars agree that the most important benefits of a loyalty program relate to money savings. The results of the field research support most of the suggestions made in the literature. All the sellers interviewed in the survey agreed that loyalty programs were effective at......

Words: 6969 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Transformational Leadership

...|  Transformational Leadership: Characteristics and Criticisms   Iain Hay School of Geography, Population and Environmental ManagementFlinders University         A prime function of a leader is to keep hope alive. (John W. Gardner)Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm. (Ralph Waldo Emerson)Setting an example is not the main means of influencing another, it is the only means. (Albert Einstein) Collectively, these three short quotations capture some of the key characteristics of transformational leadership, a form of leadership argued by some (Simic, 1998) to match the Zeitgeist of the post-World War II era. Academic debate about the nature and effectiveness of transformational leadership has developed since key work on the topic emerged in the 1970s.  This short paper sets out to provide summary answers to three main questions about transformational leadership. What is it? How is it applied? What are some of its key weaknesses? In the course of the discussion, the following pages also provide a brief background to the origins of transformational leadership theory and point quickly to a possible theoretical future for a transformed transformational leadership.  Transformational Leadership TheoryAccording to Cox (2001), there are two basic categories of leadership: transactional and transformational. The distinction between transactional and transformational leadership was first made by Downton (1973, as cited in Barnett, McCormick & Conners, 2001) but the idea...

Words: 24361 - Pages: 98

Free Essay

Effects of Changes in Sovereign Credit Ratings on Investors’ Behavior

...| Effects of changes in sovereign credit ratings on investors’ behavior | | | | | University: University Utrecht, the Netherlands Author: A.D. Hollaar Project-Coordinator: J.H.J.Lukkezen Course-Coordinator: dr. C. Remery Course: Applied Economics Research Course Date: 13th of November, 2011 University: University Utrecht, the Netherlands Author: A.D. Hollaar Project-Coordinator: J.H.J.Lukkezen Course-Coordinator: dr. C. Remery Course: Applied Economics Research Course Date: 13th of November, 2011 Table of Contents Abstract 2 Introduction 3 Section I: Theory 5 1.1 Sovereign bonds and credit rating agencies 5 1.2 Measures for investors behavior 6 1.3 Expected behavior of investors 11 1.4 Related literature 15 1.5 Models 16 Section II: Data & Stylized facts 17 2.1 Data 17 2.2 Stylized facts 20 Section III: Empirical analyses 26 3.1 Effect of rating events on investors’ behavior 27 3.2 Effect of business cycles on investors’ behavior surrounding rating events 33 Conclusion 46 Reference list 48 Appendix 52 Section I: Rating symbols & definitions 52 Section II: Tables 54 Section III: Figures 56 Section IV: Extended theory 57 Section V: Graphs 59 Section VI: Data 67 Section VII: Testing classical assumptions 71 Abstract Firstly, this paper investigates if investors react to changes in sovereign credit ratings. Hereby rating changes for European, Non-European and European Union countries...

Words: 21349 - Pages: 86

Premium Essay

Researching and Writing

.... ReseaRching and WRiting a disseRtation a guidebook foR business students Colin Fisher second edition . Researching and Writing a Dissertation: A Guidebook for Business Students . We work with leading authors to develop the strongest educational materials in management, bringing cutting-edge thinking and best learning practice to a global market. Under a range of well-known imprints, including Financial Times Prentice Hall, we craft high-quality print and electronic publications which help readers to understand and apply their content, whether studying or at work. To find out more about the complete range of our publishing, please visit us on the World Wide Web at: . Researching and Writing a Dissertation: A Guidebook for Business Students Second edition Colin Fisher with John Buglear Diannah Lowry Alistair Mutch Carole Tansley . Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England and Associated Companies throughout the world Visit us on the World Wide Web at: First published 2004 Second edition 2007 © Pearson Education Limited 2004 © Pearson Education Limited 2007 The right of Colin Fisher to be identified as author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,......

Words: 142971 - Pages: 572

Premium Essay

Business Performance Measurement

...This page intentionally left blank Business Performance Measurement Drawing together contributions from leading thinkers around the world, this book reviews recent developments in the theory and practice of performance measurement and management. Significantly updated and modified from the first edition, the book includes ten new chapters that provide a comprehensive review of performance measurement from the perspectives of accounting, marketing, operations, public services and supply chain management. In addition to these functional analyses the book explores performance measurement frameworks and methodologies, practicalities and challenges, and enduring questions and issues. Edited by one of the world’s leading experts on performance measurement and management, Business Performance Measurement will be of interest to graduate students, managers and researchers who wish to understand more about the latest developments in this rapidly changing field. Andy Neely is Deputy Director of the ESRC/EPSRC AIM Research initiative, Professor of Operations Strategy and Performance at Cranfield School of Management, and Visiting Professor of Operations Management at London Business School. Business Performance Measurement Unifying theories and integrating practice Second edition Edited by Andy Neely CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building,......

Words: 191452 - Pages: 766