Free Essay

Introduction to Intelligence

In: Other Topics

Submitted By mug123
Words 2641
Pages 11
PROGRESS ASSIGNMENT #3

Maurice E. Simmons

INTL 303: Introduction to Intelligence

28 December 2014

American Military University

Many of the intelligence community’s (IC) greatest triumphs can be traced back to the use of multiple intelligence methods. As Clark so eloquently stated, “The game of intelligence collection is a multidisciplinary endeavor.” Employment of multiple platforms, sensors, and techniques provides advantages for the analyst to produce valuable strategic intelligence. Collaborative intelligence not only creates accurate and timely information, collaborative intelligence can also reduce wasteful endeavors. For example, a Congressional directed staff committee recently found the IC must increase collaboration among its intelligence systems. On the other hand, information based on a single source is deficient, and does not produce qualitative assessments. According to Anissa Frini, “Stovepiping keeps the output of different collection systems separated from one another and thus, it prevents one discipline from cross-checking another.” The lack of collaborated intelligence can lead to erroneous reporting and deception by the adversary. In order for policymakers to formulate strategic plans, information or rather intelligence gathered must have a holistic and integrated perspective.
This paper will begin by highlighting the value of strategic intelligence to policymakers and leadership, the advantages of employing multiple intelligence methods, and will focus on analysis based from an all-source perspective which is necessary for strategic intelligence. The objective of this paper is to define and represent the all-source intelligence capabilities based on an integrated approach.
The goal of strategic level intelligence is to provide accurate, timely, and relevant intelligence therefore enabling decision makers to take appropriate actions as a contingency develops. According to the Army, “strategic intelligence is vital in order to provide strategic warning to senior leaders.” Strategic level intelligence is the link for decision superiority assisting in establishing strategy, policy, and military plans at the national level. The information collected from national agencies, such as CIA and NSA, allow analysts to consider civil-military relations, political, economic, and military capabilities. Employing various collections, and methods focusing on producing strategic intelligence, can include analyzed geographic regions and climate considerations. At this level, intelligence collected can be used in the research and development of new capabilities that can help mitigate the strength of the enemy.
Interestingly enough, strategic intelligence pushed the creation of courses-of-action or otherwise known as COA. The formulation of national strategy calls on COAs to consider the entire range of resources available to other nations, terrorist, or insurgent groups. Effective strategic planning is created from information collected, and builds a detailed understanding of adversarial intent and future strategy. Information derived from strategic intelligence will also help develop strategic centers of gravity (COG). The development of COGs defines the source of power that gives the adversary the will to fight. Strategic COGs can evaluate alliances, political, military leaders, and government ideologies. Once identified, the decision maker can make a determination whether to employ capabilities that can range from economic sanctions to kinetic actions. According to Dinu “the strategist decision-makers must have a rigorous picture of the international strategic environment and of the risks, threats and opportunities, as well as the costs involved by selecting a certain course of action.” In other words, the lack of strategic intelligence would cripple the ability for policy makers to form long term plans for the accomplishment of national objectives.
There is a great deal of value in strategic intelligence; however, it is also necessary to understand the value of the five basic intelligence components. By incorporating information from all intelligence disciplines such as Human Intelligence (HUMINT), Imagery Intelligence (IMINT), Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT), Signal Intelligence (SIGINT), and Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) the analyst can produce consolidated intelligence products of great importance to policymakers. To better understand the importance of integrating each type of intelligence, let us start with a description. HUMINT is the oldest of the intelligence disciplines and is gathered from human sources through direct contact. HUMINT information can be valuable if the source is credible and validated. For example, military attaches are considered one of the best HUMINT sources based on their access to foreign military counterparts. Military attaches can provide insight into the development of new military capabilities, or new military doctrine, which can be essential for understanding future strategy. Imagery Intelligence comes from images made from overhead national assets (balloons, airplanes, or satellites) or images on the ground. This category is connected to GEOINT, which is intelligence derived from the exploitation of imagery and geospatial information to describe, access, and visually depict physical features and geographically referenced activities on Earth. IMINT is the second oldest collection method, and is a subset of GEOINT. IMINT focuses on utilizing electro-optical imagery, and is treasured because as the old saying goes: A picture is worth a thousand words. OSINT information is produced from public available information. As Clark points out, “Open-Source Intelligence deals with information that is publicly available, such as newspapers, radio and television broadcasts, journals, the Internet, or commercial databases.” OSINT is valuable because it is used frequently by the IC. According to Eth Zurich, “OSINT’s importance is widely acknowledged. It is estimated that OSINT provides between 80 and 95 per cent of the information used by the intelligence community.” Lastly, SIGINT refers to the collection and processing of communications transmitted by electromagnetic or non-electromagnetic means. Initially, analysis will start with one of the single intelligence sources providing an indication or warning. An intelligence assessment from a single source or method will lead to incomplete analysis.
Combatting single-source process requires a multi-disciplined approach, and employing different collection methods can reduce the reliance on a single intelligence discipline. A multi-disciplined approach is the principle applied to intelligence disciplines when describing the effect garnered when employing multiple collection platforms at the same time rather than as individual assets. As previously stated, the goal for each of these collection methods is to provide accurate, relevant, and tailored information to the customer. The multi-disciplined approach synchronizes intelligence disciplines and produces synergy. Synergy means different parts are combined so that the effect produced by working together is greater than their individual parts. The Senate Intelligence Committee stated “Synergistic or fused collection would make more efficient use of collection assets through timely tipoff, cooperative geolocation, avoidance of duplication, assignment of the most efficient collector for a given task, and through coordinated orbits or collection plans.”
The effect of consolidating multiple sensors offers the analyst a detailed understanding of the environment. Additionally, the analyst can now conduct resource integration to increase the efficiency of the overall collection effort. An intelligence analyst oftentimes will not have the ability to task all intelligence disciplines at the same time due to a lack of resources. However, the analyst, with a combination of at least two intelligence disciplines, will provide added value to the policymaker decision making process. For example, “Global integrated ISR is vital for indications and warnings (I&W) functions. Global integrated ISR provides timely and continuous near-real time information to assess potential threats to the United States and its allies.” The only way for the analyst to create a accurate assessment is by connecting the dots from many different sources. The value of a multi-discipline principle comprised of multiple intelligence disciplines that can shed a different light on a problem set. Furthermore, the unified effort of multiple collection sources speeds up the intelligence cycle process, ensuring information is analyzed efficiently.
When employing different collecting methods, synergy becomes increasingly important as the analyst attempts to understand a developing situation. The information processed from multiple platforms assists intelligence analysts in creating fused assessments. What is fusion? Fused intelligence occurs when derived information collected from multiple sources are combined, evaluated, and analyzed to provide accurate intelligence. Fused intelligence is critical to understanding the environment because it will help reduce uncertainty. The reason intelligence methods warrant a further integrated study is because fused intelligence is far more valuable than single sourced information.
Historically, the intelligence community has seen the value of fused intelligence analysis. Analysts employing single source methods of gathering intelligence have led to intelligence failures. During the Cuban Missile Crisis analysts employed IMINT, SIGINT, and HUMINT disciplines for I&W against the Russian military. The United States intelligence services discounted SIGINT, and instead put all focus on HUMINT. The disseminated reports were later found to be a part of Cuban and Russia elaborate plan in fooling U.S. intelligence services in believing nothing was happening. Moore stated, “Analysts first discounted the idea of a Soviet militarization of Cuba as the multitudes of disinformation masked true information from HUMINT sources” Unlike the employment of single source analysis, fusion of intelligence sources develop, validate, and reinforce previously collected information. The employment of collaborated sources is critical for analysts in understanding the strategic value of the intelligence gathered. For example, the discovery of the Russians transporting nuclear missiles and setting up launchers was the result of collaborative intelligence efforts. The intelligence community employed IMINT, SIGINT, and HUMINT capabilities in the hope of discovering the Russia and Cuba connection. The collaboration and synergistic effect produced from the multi-disciplined approach allowed for analysts to make the discovery of Russia naval military convoys delivering nuclear equipment to the Cubans. This in-turn helped President Kennedy explore options on how to prevent those shipments from taking place. The fusion of intelligence information was accurate enough for the Kennedy administration to have an effect on the environment and have decision superiority to take the initiative. Another factor in why integration is the key to providing accurate and timely intelligence is due to detecting deception efforts. Each of the collection systems used for this event have inherent weaknesses. By fusing intelligence, the weaknesses from each intelligence platform can be mitigated. HUMINT’s information is susceptible to misinformation and misinterpretation by analysts. SIGINT’s weakness is that the adversary may decide to cut communications and turn off all radars. IMINT’s is weak against cover and concealment techniques. However, using fused information snippets of collected information could be used to form a picture. Implementation of the multi-discipline approach can assist analyst in producing fused intelligence product.
The fusion of information warrants a change of in how intelligence analysts process, exploit and disseminate data. Based on a multi-discipline principle the entire traditional intelligence model can be adjusted to support a more collaborative approach. Frini stated, “The proposed model…intelligence tasking; direction; single source collection & processing; all-source discovery & fusion; dissemination; and evaluation. The model presumes a collaborative approach that enables the analysis of a greater quantity of single source data” In the past, intelligence analysts have employed a single source from SIGINT, IMINT, or HUMINT as a basis for an assessment. In the future, intelligence analysts can expect to combine intelligence disciplines beyond the five main components. Information will now include Measurement and signature Intelligence (MASINT), Foreign Instrumentation Signals intelligence (FISINT), and Biometric intelligence (BIOINT). Based on the integration of these different intelligence capabilities a new model to planning, tasking, processing, analysis, and dissemination must be examined and thoroughly considered. The information collected from multiple platforms can validate or verify a potential course of action. By planning and tasking multiple sensors and methods, analysts can generate a more complete and accurate assessment of the environment. The point here is the integration of multiple collection methods is not an anomaly, but it is successful and is the key to effective strategic analysis. One particular INT is not stronger than the other. Reliance on a single source and technology could potentially create bias and inaccurate assessments. Intelligence professionals need to ensure they do not develop a reliance on only one intelligence collection method.
Finally, the creation of strategic intelligence cannot be created from thin air. Analysts are useless unless they have the information that assists in the developing methodologies and reports. This paper examined the value of strategic intelligence, the various methods used to collect strategic intelligence, and how integrated INTs can create information of strategic value. Decision makers provided integrated, collaborated, corroborated, and finally evaluated can make an informed decision that could mitigate critical failures. The integration of all methods of intelligence is not a new concept. The military leaders of our armed forces have used fused information to for the creation of military plans and strategy. Taken a step further strategic intelligence can also assist in the creation of a collection strategy that can potentially disprove or prove a COA is even taking place. In the end, the multi-discipline approach is the best method for intelligence analysts to produce quality strategic intelligence. Strategic intelligence derived from fused information rather sources reduce misinformation, bias, and inaccurate reports. The information derived from the strategic intelligence helps provide critical situational awareness and decision superiority. In order for intelligence to have any strategic value to policymakers it must contain fused intelligence information.

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. J. Ransom Clark. Intelligence and National Security. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers,http://www.praeger.com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/. 2. "IC21: The Intelligence Community in the 21st Century." IV. Collection Synergy. December 19, 1995. Accessed December 28, 2014. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-IC21/html/GPO-IC21-4.html. 3. Frini, Anissa, Boury Brisset, and Anne Claire. "An Intelligence Process Model Based on a Collaborative Approach." Online Information For The Defense Community. June 1, 2011. Accessed December 28, 2014. http://oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA547105. 4. Griffith, Samuel B. The Art of War. London: Oxford University Press, 1971. 129. 5. Dunmire, Major Brian. "Army Strategic Intelligence: Prepared for the Future." Federation of American Scientists. December 1, 2008. Accessed December 28, 2014. http://www.fas.org/irp/agency/army/mipb/2008_04.pdf. 6. War College, U.S. Army. "Department of Military Strategy,Planning, and Operations CAMPAIGN PLANNING HANDBOOK." Air University. January 1, 2008. Accessed December 28, 2014. http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army-usawc/campaign_planning_primer.pdf. 7. Dinu, Mihai-Stefan. "STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE AND NATIONAL SECURITY.""Carol I" National Defence University, 2014, http://search.proquest.com/docview/1528149435?accountid=8289. 8. Zurich, Eth. "Open Source Intelligence: A Strategic Enabler of National Security." CSS Analyses in Security Policy 3, no. 32 (2008): 1-3. Accessed December 28, 2014. http://www.css.ethz.ch/publications/pdfs/CSS-Analyses-32.pdf. 9. "GLOBAL INTEGRATED ISR AND HOMELAND OPERATIONS." ANNEX 2-0 GLOBAL INTEGRATED INTELLIGENCE, SURVEILLANCE & RECONNAISSANCE OPERATIONS. January 6, 2012. Accessed December 28, 2014. https://doctrine.af.mil/download.jsp?filename=2-0-D12-ISR-Homeland-OPS.pdf. 10. Moore, David T.. Critical thinking and intelligence analysis. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic Intelligence Research, Joint Military Intelligence College, 2006.

--------------------------------------------
[ 1 ]. J. Ransom Clark. Intelligence and National Security. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1.
[ 2 ]. "IC21: The Intelligence Community in the 21st Century." IV. Collection Synergy. December 19, 1995., 1
[ 3 ]. “Frini, Anissa, Boury Brisset, and Anne Claire."An Intelligence Process Model Based on a Collaborative Approach.”,8
[ 4 ]. Dunmire, Major Brian. "Army Strategic Intelligence: Prepared for the Future." Federation of American Scientists. December 1, 2008.,50
[ 5 ]. War College, U.S. Army. "Department of Military Strategy,Planning, and Operations CAMPAIGN PLANNING HANDBOOK." Air University. January 1, 2008.,89
[ 6 ]. Dinu, Mihai-Stefan. "STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE AND NATIONAL SECURITY.""Carol I" National Defence University, 2014,63
[ 7 ]. Clark. Intelligence and National Security, pg 2
[ 8 ]. Clark, pg 3
[ 9 ]. Zurich, Eth. "Open Source Intelligence: A Strategic Enabler of National Security.",1
[ 10 ]. Clark, pg 3
[ 11 ]. "IC21: The Intelligence Community in the 21st Century." IV. Collection Synergy, 3
[ 12 ]. "GLOBAL INTEGRATED ISR AND HOMELAND OPERATIONS." ANNEX 2-0 GLOBAL INTEGRATED INTELLIGENCE, SURVEILLANCE & RECONNAISSANCE OPERATIONS., 1
[ 13 ]. Moore, David T.. Critical thinking and intelligence analysis. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic Intelligence Research, Joint Military Intelligence College, 2006., 26
[ 14 ]. Frini, Anissa, Boury Brisset, and Anne Claire, pg 2

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Garner's Theory of Multiple Intelligence

...Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligence Introduction to Psychology Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligence Intelligence cannot be seen, it has no mass, and it occupies no space. Nevertheless, we feel certain that it exists (Introduction to Psychology, 2007). Psychologist Alfred Binet, who was busy creating tests to rate child intelligence, was passionate about testing and measuring human capabilities. His understanding of intelligence evolved through intense trial-and-error testing with local students. Working with groups of average students as well as mentally handicapped students, Binet discovered certain tasks that average students could handle but that handicapped students could not. He calculated the normal abilities for students at each age, and could pinpoint how many years a student's mental age was above or below the norm. Binet equated intelligence with common sense. He called intelligence "judgment…good sense…the faculty of adapting one's self to circumstances." He also believed that intelligence is a combination of many skills - skills that are shaped heavily by the environment (Intelligence and Achievement Testing: Is the Half Full Glass Getting Fuller). In 1983, Howard Gardner argued that "reason, intelligence, logic and knowledge are not synonymous...", setting forth a theory of multiple intelligences. The concept of multiple intelligences helped broaden the idea of "intelligence" from a mathematical and verbal understanding, which had become...

Words: 1018 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Linguistic

...linguistic intelligence Research question: is there any significant relation between logical and linguistic intelligence among English literature students of Khayyam University? Hypothesis: students with high logical intelligence are more successful in learning second language and have powerful linguistic intelligence. Introduction: Because my major at high school was mathematic and at university I chose English literature, so I like to know if there is any relationship between this two course or not. And after consult with my instructor I choose this subject. I want to know the effects of these two intelligences on each other. Annotated bibliography: 1. Gardner, Howard. Multiple intelligence, new horizons Google book. This book expresses the meaning of all kinds of intelligences that can help us to understand the exact concept of logical and linguistic intelligences. 2. Razmjooo, Seyyed Ayatollah. On the relationship between multiple intelligences and language proficiency. The reading matrix vol. 8, No. 2, September 2008 This article is about relationship between multiple intelligences that consist of logical and linguistic intelligences. This article shows the relationship between proficiency and intelligence. 3. www.homeeddirectory.com 12.06.2012 This site introduces logical learners and speaks about the ways that a teacher can teach logical/mathematical learners (LML). 4. Kincheloe, Joe l. Multiple intelligences......

Words: 598 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Artificial Intelligence

...ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Paper Presentation On “Artificial Intelligence(AI)” INDEX :1. ABSTRACT. 1 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 2. INTRODUCTION. 3. HISTORY OF AI. 4. CATEGORIES OF AI. A. CONVENTIONAL AI. B. COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE (CI). 5. FIELDS OF AI. 6. AAAI. 7. APPLICATIONS. ABSTRACT This paper is the introduction to Artificial intelligence (AI). Artificial intelligence is exhibited by artificial entity, a system is generally assumed to be a computer. AI systems are now in routine use in economics, medicine, engineering and the military, as well as being built into many common home computer software applications, traditional strategy games like computer chess and other video games. We tried to explain the brief ideas of AI and its application to various fields. It cleared the concept of computational and conventional categories. It includes various advanced systems such as Neural Network, Fuzzy Systems and Evolutionary computation. AI is used in typical problems such as Pattern 2 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE recognition, Natural language processing and more. This system is working throughout the world as an artificial brain. Intelligence involves mechanisms, and AI research has discovered how to make computers carry out some of them and not others. If doing a task requires only mechanisms that are well understood today, computer programs can give very impressive performances on these tasks. Such programs should...

Words: 1713 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Data Warehousing

...Business Objects Enterprise Training Curriculum Data Warehousing: • Introduction to Business Objects Enterprise Reporting • Fundamentals of Data warehouse Concepts • Introduction to Dimensional Modeling • Developing a Star Schema Reporting: • Building and editing queries with Web Intelligence • Performing on report analysis with Web Intelligence • Filtering Queries using conditions, prompts etc., • Using Combined Queries and merging dimensions • Displaying data in various formats (Ex: Tables, Charts etc.,) Advanced Reporting: • Calculations, Formulas and variables • Ranking Data, using Alerters to highlight data, Formatting numbers and Dates • Understanding Calculation Contexts • Web Intelligence Functions, Operators and Keywords • Calculating values with Smart Measures Universe Designer: • Designer and Universe Fundamentals • Creating a schema with Tables and Joins • Resolving Join problems in a schema • Defining Classes, Objects, hierarchies, using cascading list of values for hierarchies • Testing the universe • Working with OLAP universes Xcelsius 2008: • Application Overview • Creating and Updating Xcelsius visualizations • Using Xcelsius components ( Chart, Containers, Selectors etc.,) • Exporting Xcelsius visualizations to various applications (Power point, PDF, Flash • Creating templates, Alerts and Dynamic visibility • Using Data Manager ( Creating and configuring connections) • Live Office Connections, Query As A Web Service......

Words: 462 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Psycology 140

...Module 5 Homework Assignment PSY140: Introduction to Psychology November 21st 2011 1. Define cognition and name the basic units of thinking. Cognition is defined as mental processes of perceiving, believing, thinking, remembering, knowing, and deciding. Concepts are the basic units of thinking. Concepts are general categories of things, events and qualities that are linked by a common feature or features, in spite of their differences. Which help us make sense of information in the world. Concepts also enhance our memory and guide our behavior. Lahley, Benjamin B. / Psychology an Introduction/ 9th Ed. 2. How is language learned and how does it relate to thinking? Language is learned so early that it is difficult to explain how it is managed. Some psycholinguists have proposed that language is learned by special genetically programmed procedures that are unique to language learning. Others contend that the general analytic capacity of the human brain is such that even complex language rules can be worked out without any innate knowledge or special language acquisition procedures. Regardless of which view is correct, experience with one’s native language must be critically important. Narrative skill differences are connected to the way that mothers converse with their children. If they use an elaborative style, engaging in lengthy discussions about children’s past experiences, providing lots of details, asking questions and encouraging......

Words: 2175 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Business Intelligence

...SPECIAL ISSUE: BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE AND ANALYTICS: FROM BIG DATA TO BIG IMPACT Hsinchun Chen Eller College of Management, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 U.S.A. {hchen@eller.arizona.edu} Roger H. L. Chiang Carl H. Lindner College of Business, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0211 U.S.A. {chianghl@ucmail.uc.edu} Veda C. Storey J. Mack Robinson College of Business, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302-4015 U.S.A. {vstorey@gsu.edu} Business intelligence and analytics (BI&A) has emerged as an important area of study for both practitioners and researchers, reflecting the magnitude and impact of data-related problems to be solved in contemporary business organizations. This introduction to the MIS Quarterly Special Issue on Business Intelligence Research first provides a framework that identifies the evolution, applications, and emerging research areas of BI&A. BI&A 1.0, BI&A 2.0, and BI&A 3.0 are defined and described in terms of their key characteristics and capabilities. Current research in BI&A is analyzed and challenges and opportunities associated with BI&A research and education are identified. We also report a bibliometric study of critical BI&A publications, researchers, and research topics based on more than a decade of related academic and industry publications. Finally, the six articles that comprise this special issue are introduced and characterized in terms of the proposed BI&A research......

Words: 16335 - Pages: 66

Premium Essay

Bpcl

...SPECIAL ISSUE: BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE AND ANALYTICS: FROM BIG DATA TO BIG IMPACT Hsinchun Chen Eller College of Management, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 U.S.A. {hchen@eller.arizona.edu} Roger H. L. Chiang Carl H. Lindner College of Business, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0211 U.S.A. {chianghl@ucmail.uc.edu} Veda C. Storey J. Mack Robinson College of Business, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302-4015 U.S.A. {vstorey@gsu.edu} Business intelligence and analytics (BI&A) has emerged as an important area of study for both practitioners and researchers, reflecting the magnitude and impact of data-related problems to be solved in contemporary business organizations. This introduction to the MIS Quarterly Special Issue on Business Intelligence Research first provides a framework that identifies the evolution, applications, and emerging research areas of BI&A. BI&A 1.0, BI&A 2.0, and BI&A 3.0 are defined and described in terms of their key characteristics and capabilities. Current research in BI&A is analyzed and challenges and opportunities associated with BI&A research and education are identified. We also report a bibliometric study of critical BI&A publications, researchers, and research topics based on more than a decade of related academic and industry publications. Finally, the six articles that comprise this special issue are introduced and characterized in terms of the proposed BI&A......

Words: 16335 - Pages: 66

Premium Essay

Decision Analysis

...Business Intelligence and Decision Making of Successful Women Entrepreneurs in Northern States of Malaysia Heng Man Chia, Tan Wen Pei, Lim Wang Ru and Yew Bee Jue (2012,UUM) ABSTRACT Women entrepreneurs increasingly become the important role and make a contribution to the economics of the country. The main purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of business intelligence and decision making to the successful women entrepreneurs. This research is mainly focused on the women entrepreneurs in the Northern States of Malaysia as there is no previous research are done in this study. Currently, the government had provided the incentives to support the women entrepreneurs in their business activities. There are plenty of women set up their business in the Northern States of Malaysia. The quantitative methodology used by the researchers in this study based on 95 women entrepreneurs, engaging in their business in the Northern States of Malaysia. The business they engaged mostly in the food industry. The findings of this research indicated that the business intelligence and decision making has not influenced the women entrepreneurs that lead them to success. There are other factors that lead to women entrepreneur success. They might depend on their intuition or advice from others. Most of them are running the micro enterprise. The women entrepreneurs concerned the significance of the education. A discussion on the demographic profile of women entrepreneurs is also......

Words: 2796 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Psychology Notes

...Introduction to Psychology: January 12, 2015 3 Main Problems of Psychology 1) Determinism vs. Freewill * The idea that everything that happens has a cause (determinism) versus the belief that behavior is cause by a person’s independent decisions (freewill) 2) The Mind-Brain Problem * The philosophical question of how experience relates to the brain. 3) The Nature-Nurture Issue * “How do differences in behavior relate to differences in heredity and environment?” Intro to Psych: Wednesday, January 14 2015 Three major philosophical issues with psychology: Free Will vs. Determinism - Determinism: Everything that happens has a cause. - Free Will: the belief that behavior is cause by a person’s independent decisions The Mind-Brain Problem - The philosophical question of how experience relates to the brain. - How is brain activity linked with our experienced? - There is a close relationship with brain activity and psychological events - “Do we feel first, or do we think first?” Nature-Nurture Issue - “How do differences in behavior relate to differences in heredity and environment?” Milgram and the shock experiment test Psychiatry - different from psychology in the way that a psychiatrist can prescribe medication and psychologists can not. - branch of the medical field that focuses on the brain and mental disorders **Get to know both of the “What Psychologists Do” handouts from class Quick History of......

Words: 7984 - Pages: 32

Free Essay

Openerp

...Open Object Business Intelligence Release 1.0 Tiny SPRL 2009-04-09 CONTENTS i ii Open Object Business Intelligence, Release 1.0 I 1 2 Part 1 : Introduction Goal of the project What is for User? 2.1 2.2 2.3 For the end-user: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . For the administrator user: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . For the developer: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 7 9 9 9 9 11 12 15 3 OLAP 3.1 Who uses OLAP and Why? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Terminologies II 5 6 Part 2 : Architecture Schema Components 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 The Cube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The CLI interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Cube Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Web Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The OpenOffice plugin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Open ERP interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 19 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 25 26 7 Extra libraries 8 Introduction to the OpenObject Module 8.1...

Words: 9931 - Pages: 40

Premium Essay

Edmhodr

...01 Unique No: 893049 TABLE OF CONTENTS ContentsPage No Introduction 2 Part 1: briefly discuss each intelligence 2 Linguistic 2 Logical-Mathematical 2 Spatial 3 Music/Rhythmic 3 Physical/kinaesthetic 3 Interpersonal 3 Intra-personal 4 Naturalistic 4 Part 2: Explain how you will apply any four of intelligence in 4 classroom Lesson plan 4 Learning outcome 4 Assessment Standard 5 Assessments: Informal 5 Formal 5 - Assessment tools 5 rubric grid checklist Homework 6 Conclusion 6 Biography 7 -2- QUESTION 3: Introduction: This is a biopsychological potential for processing information. It varies in degrees of strength, skill and limitation. When you hear the word Intelligence the concept of IQ testing may immediately come to mind. Intelligence is often defined as our intellectual potential, something that we are born with, something that can be measured and a capacity that is difficult to change Multiple Intelligence is embedded in us all, but there is a specific intelligence that is more powerful in us than the other intelligences. There are 8 Multiple Intelligence that will be discussed about and enlightened more on how it will be applied in the classroom. PART 1: Briefly Discuss each of the Intelligence Linguistic/verbal Intelligence: Linguistic intelligence is the ability to think in words and to use language to......

Words: 1367 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Article Review

...Article Review on: Toward Culture Intelligence: Turning Cultural Differences into a Workplace Advantage. The article under review is entitled as "Toward Culture Intelligence: Turning Cultural Differences into a Workplace Advantage." by Earley, P. Christopher, and Elaine Mosakowski. This article has been acquired from the journal, Academy of Management Perspective, Volume 18, Issue No. 3 and was published on August 1, 2004. The article attempts to explain the traditional approaches that were used in understanding and explaining the differences among people who belonged to diverse backgrounds and have a different culture. It then focuses on the recent development of a newer approach that is cultural intelligence, its framework and different managerial profiles that can be helpful for competing with other organizations in this era of diversity and globalization. The authors have described two traditional approaches in this article that were used to study cultural diversity. The first approach is, the aggregate approach, in which the researchers identify and ascertain the values and beliefs of people in a particular region or a country and then they associate those beliefs and values to those set of people. This approach is more generalized and therefore it does not account for the differences among individuals from the same cultural background. The second approach is, the individual approach, in which the researchers do not focus on the culture to which the individual......

Words: 1395 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Studying the Role of Age in the Relationship of Emotional Intelligence and Conflict Resolution Styles in the It Profession

...“STUDYING THE ROLE OF AGE IN THE RELATIONSHIP OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION STYLES IN THE IT PROFESSION” A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED BY SHRUTI SIAG FOR THE PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT OF THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF M.A. IN PSYCHOLOGY AT FERGUSSON COLLEGE PUNE - 411004 (2010-11) Declaration I, Ms Shruti Siag a student of M.A. from the Department of Psychology, Fergusson College, Pune University, declare that the following report of a project titled “STUDYING THE ROLE OF AGE IN THE RELATIONSHIP OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION STYLES IN THE IT PROFESSION” is an independent work done by me and submitted as the partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of M.A. in Psychology under the University of Pune. Signature: Name: Shruti Siag D.E. Society’s Fergusson College, Pune Certificate This is to certify that Shruti Siag has successfully completed the project named “Studying the role of Age in the relationship of Emotional Intelligence and Conflict Resolution Styles in the IT profession” Towards the partial completion of M. A. (Psychology) Course of the University of Pune, in the academic year 2009-2010. Dr. Shobhana AbhayankarHead of the DepartmentDept. of PsychologyFergusson CollegePune-411004 | Prof. Anand. S. GodseProject In-chargeDept. of PsychologyFergusson......

Words: 13801 - Pages: 56

Premium Essay

Emotional Intelligence

...1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Emotional Intelligence comprises specific skills behaviors, and attitudes that can be learned, applied and modeled by individuals to improve personal satisfaction and career effectiveness (Nelson & Low, 2003). In other words, emotionally intelligent skills are developed to help lecturers cope with daily multiple tasks and provide substantial growth and psychological health. According to Goleman (1998) asserts that emotional intelligence, not IQ, forecast a workplace success and who inspires by the powerful of EQ as a leader. This study describes a research undertaken with a sample of lecturers from Faculty of Business Management in Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam and Puncak Alam Campus, including male and female lecturers. Besides, a meta-analysis of 59 studies by Van Rooy and Viswesvaran (2004) found that emotional intelligence correlated moderately with job performance. According to Hargrevas (2001), both teaching and learning are not only concerned with knowledge, cognition and skills, but they are also emotional practices. Dewey highlighted that an educator ought to “have the sympathetic understanding of individuals as individuals which gives him an idea of what is actually going on in the minds of those who are learning” (Dewey [1938]” 1997, p. 39). Harkin (1998) found that, “effective behaviors are the most important determinants of student satisfaction with educator,” through “recognizing individuals, listening to students,......

Words: 7105 - Pages: 29

Premium Essay

Mobile Business Intelligence

...General comments   |   Research Proposal Research Topic: Business Intelligence goes Mobile: Business Analytics Anytime, Anywhere. Abstract: Mobile business intelligence refers to the circulation and dispersion of business data with the help of mobile devices such as smart phones, tablet computers etc. Business intelligence is a technique by digging out and excavate data and analysing it with the help of computer based technique. Corporates today are increasingly using various handheld devices and latest gadgets in delivering rich web content which help managers to have extensive access to corporate data. This is not just confined to managers but other official also who can be in constant touch with clients and assess the data using mobile analytics (A Savvas 2010) Introduction : Mobile business intelligence is the data driven applications on mobile devices like handheld devices , smart phones and tablet computers which help users to access business information anytime anywhere. This mobile BI has made a drastic change in the corporate world; using mobile BI corporates can analyse and circulate the data to their clients and colleagues on theirs handheld devices. There are many benefits of mobile BI but apart from it still it has some challenges . Security of the data that is sent on mobile devices poses risk of hacking . Data that is sent has to be checked i.e what information is going outside the firewall and how they will protect it...

Words: 1509 - Pages: 7