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Introduction to Zoology

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Chapter 1:
Introduction to Zoology

Concept of Science
• Frings and Frings - defined science as an organized body of knowledge that is gained and verified by exact observation and experimentation and organized by logical thinking.
• Schafersman - defined science as a method of discovering reliable knowledge about nature.
• Science is factual.
• Science is not merely compiled.
• Science is a way of asking questions about the natural world.
• Guided by natural laws (physical & chemical).
• Questions must be testable.
Always open to new evidence.
• Falsifiable.
• It applies scientific and CRITICAL THINKING.

When is scientific thinking applied?
1. When one uses the scientific method
2. When one investigate nature or the universe
3. Practice by all scientists
4. Not reserved solely for scientist, anyone can think like a scientist

Fields of Science
1. Social Science – deals with human relationships
2. Abstract science – deals with abstract ideas
3. Natural sciences • Physical Science – deals with non-living entity • Biological Science – deals with the living entity

The Scientific Method
- The most important tool in search for truth
- An organized method of gathering information based on observation and controlled testing of hypothesis
1. Observation and/or Review of Literature
2. Problem
3. Hypothesis Formulation
4. Testing of hypothesis
5. Conclusions or generalizations
 Theory
 Scientific fact/principle/law

Theory – is established when so much evidence were gathered and there is a high confidence on its validity, but still the final proof is lacking
Scientific fact/principle/law – possesses the following characteristics
 Observable
 Repeatable
 Verifiable
 Must be open to question

Limitations of Scientific Method
1. It cannot question God.
2. It cannot make value judgments, like saying thing is beautiful.
3. It cannot make moral judgments, like saying war is immoral.

Philosophical views on the origin of life
1. Vitalistic view – explains that there is a mysterious force, which is responsible for the existence of life
2. Mechanistic view – explains that life originated from the many physical and chemical reactions that occurred in the early times

Theories on the Origin or Life
1. Divine creation – life was a creation of God
2. Interplanetary theory – life came from other planet
3. Cosmozoa theory – life came from the outer space
4. Theory of spontaneous generation – life came from non-living organic matter
5. Biotic or biogenesis theory – life came from pre-existing life
6. Abiotic or abiogenesis – life came from non-living matters

Rounds of Genesis
Round 1 – Gradual cooling of the earth
Round 2 – formation of first simple organic compounds
Round 3 – formation of first complex organic molecules
Round 4 – nucleoprotein evolution
Round 5 – nucleoprotein + organic shell
Round 6 – development of photosynthesis, aerobic and anaerobic respiration
Round 7 – Oxygen revolution

Life – the activities of all living organisms which emanate from the protoplasm, which is contained in tiny structural and functional units called cells.

Characteristics of life
1. Growth and Development – increase in volume • Intussusception – resulting from growth of protoplasm • Accretion – growth of external materials accumulated outside resulting to increase in volume
2. Reproduction – producing one’s own kind
3. Irritability – ability to respond to a certain stimuli (tropism)
4. Metabolism – biochemical reactions taking place within the body of an organism.
5. Movement – ability to move
6. Complexity or Organization – from atoms to organism
7. Adaptation – ability to adapt to environmental conditions

METABOLISM – Functional Characteristics
Importance of Metabolism • Reproduction of new protoplasm • Repair of damaged parts • Normal maintenance
Types of metabolism • Anabolism – building up or synthesis • Catabolism – breaking down

Zoology - is the study of animals

Branches of Zoology
1. Zoography - describes animals and their habitats
2. Comparative anatomy - studies the structure of animals.
3. Animal physiology
4. Animal Systematics
5. Behavioral ecology
6. Ethology - studies animal behavior.
7. Invertebrate Zoology.
8. Vertebrate Zoology.

Karl von Linne aka Carolus Linnaeus
- Primarily remembered for collecting and classifying plants.
- Designed the system that we use today to classify animals.

Binomial System of Nomenclature • Uses a two-part name to describe an organism.

Hierarchy of Life • Domain • Kingdom • Phylum • Class • Order • Family • Genus • Species

Chapter 2:
The Chemical Basis of Life

• Life is based on the properties of atoms and is governed by the same principles of chemistry and physics as all other types of matter.

Matter - is anything that occupies space and has mass.

Three physical states:
1. Solid
2. Liquid
3. Gas

Elements - are substances that cannot be broken down into other substances. • There are 92 naturally occurring elements on Earth. • All of the elements are listed in the periodic table. • Twenty-five elements are essential to life. • Four elements make up about 96% of the weight of the human body:
1. Oxygen
2. Carbon
3. Hydrogen
4. Nitrogen

Trace elements - Occur in smaller amounts - Are essential for life
Iodine Deficiency - causes goiter.

Compounds - are substances that contain two or more elements in a fixed ratio.
Common compounds include:
1. NaCl (table salt)
2. H2O (water)

Atom - is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element.

The Structure of Atoms
1. Proton - is positively charged.
2. Electron - is negatively charged.
3. Neutron - is electrically neutral.

Isotopes - are alternate mass forms of an element. - have the same number of protons and electrons, but they have a different number of neutrons. The nucleus of a radioactive isotope decays, giving off particles and energy.

Ions - Charged atoms
Ionic bonds - are formed between oppositely charged ions.
Hydrogen bonds - The polarity of water results in weak electrical attractions between neighboring water molecules.

Chemical reactions - Such changes in the chemical composition of matter.
• Reactants - the starting materials • Products - the end materials

Cohesion - water molecules stick together as a result of hydrogen bonding. - vital for water transport in plants.
Surface tension - is the measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid.
Heat - is the amount of energy associated with the movement of the atoms and molecules in a body of matter.
Temperature - measures the intensity of heat

Solution - is a liquid consisting of a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. • Solvent - The dissolving agent. • Solute - The dissolved substance.
Aqueous solution - the result when water is the solvent.

Acid - a chemical compound that releases H+ to solution.
Base - a compound that accepts H+ and removes it from solution. pH scale - To describe the acidity of a solution.
Buffers - are substances that resist pH change. - Accept H+ ions when they are in excess. - Donate H+ ions when they are deplete.

Hydrocarbons - simplest group of organic molecules, which contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms.

Functional groups - are particular groupings of atoms that often behave as a unit and give organic molecules their physical properties, chemical reactivity, and solubility in aqueous solution. • Ester bonds - which form between carboxylic acids and alcohols. • Amide bonds - which form between carboxylic acids and amines.

Classification of Biological Molecules by Function
1. Macromolecules - huge, highly organized molecules. - form the structure and carry out the activities of cells - contain anywhere from dozens to millions of carbon atoms. - perform complex tasks with great precision and efficiency. .

Four major categories:
1. proteins
2. nucleic acids
3. polysaccharides
4. lipids

Monomers - the first three types are polymers composed of a large number of low-molecular-weight building blocks.
Polymerization - process by which monomers are constructed to form macromolecules.

2. The building blocks of macromolecules - low-molecular-weight precursors include: • sugars - which are the precursors of polysaccharides. • amino acids - which are the precursors of proteins. • nucleotides - which are the precursors of nucleic acids. • fatty acids - which are incorporated into lipids.

3. Metabolic intermediates (metabolites) - the molecules in a cell have complex chemical structures and must be synthesized in a step-by-step sequence beginning with specific starting materials.

• Metabolic pathway - each series of chemical reactions in the cell. • Metabolic intermediates - the compounds formed along the pathways leading to the end products might have no function per se.

4. Molecules of miscellaneous function. - Broad category of molecules but not as large.
Include such substances as: • Vitamins - which function primarily as adjuncts to proteins; • certain steroid or amino acid hormones; • molecules involved in energy storage, such as ATP; regulatory molecules such as cyclic AMP; and Chapter 3:
Cells and Tissues

Cells - are the building blocks of all living things.
Tissues - are groups of cells that are similar in structure and function.

Anatomy of the Cell

Three main regions:
1. Nucleus
2. Cytoplasm
3. Plasma membrane

Nucleus - Control center of the cell - Contains genetic material (DNA)
Three regions:
1. Nuclear envelope (membrane) - Barrier of the nucleus - Consists of a double membrane - Contains nuclear pores that allow for exchange of material with the rest of the cell.
2. Nucleolus - Sites of ribosome assembly.
3. Chromatin - Composed of DNA and protein - Present when the cell is not dividing. - Condenses to form chromosomes when the cell divides.

Plasma Membrane - Barrier for cell contents
Double phospholipid layer: • Hydrophilic heads • Hydrophobic tails Plasma Membrane Specializations
1. Microvilli - Finger-like projections that increase surface for absorption
2. Membrane junction a. Tight junctions - Impermeable junctions - bind cells together into leak proof sheets. b. Desmosomes - anchoring junctions that prevent cells from being pulled apart c. Gap junctions - allow communication between cells

Cytoplasm - is the material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane.
Three major elements:
1. Cytosol - Fluid that suspends other elements
2. Organelles - Metabolic machinery of the cell. - “Little organs” that perform functions for the cell.
3. Inclusions - chemical substances such as stored nutrients or cell products.

Cytoplasmic Organelles

1. Mitochondria - “Powerhouses” of the cell - Carry out reactions where oxygen is used to break down food. - Provides ATP for cellular energy.

2. Ribosomes - Made of protein and RNA - Sites of protein synthesis

3. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) - Fluid-filled tubules for carrying substances.
Two types of ER: • Rough ER - Studded with ribosomes. - Synthesizes proteins • Smooth ER- Functions in lipid metabolism and detoxification of drugs and pesticides.

4. Golgi apparatus - Modifies and packages proteins - Produces different types of packages.
5. Lysosomes - Contain enzymes that digest worn-out or non-usable materials within the cell.

6. Peroxisomes - Membranous sacs of oxidase enzymes - Detoxify harmful substances such as alcohol and formaldehyde. - Break down free radicals (highly reactive chemicals)

7. Cytoskeleton - Network of protein structures that extend throughout the cytoplasm. - Provides the cell with an internal framework.
Three different types of elements
1. Microfilaments (largest)
2. Intermediate filaments
3. Microtubules (smallest)

8. Centrioles - Rod-shaped bodies made of microtubules - Direct the formation of mitotic spindle during cell division.

Cellular Projections - not found in all cells - used for movement • Cilia - move materials across the cell surface - Located in the respiratory system to move mucus. • Flagella - propel the cell - The only flagellated cell in the human body is sperm.

Cell Physiology: Membrane Transport

Membrane transport - movement of substances into and out of the cell
Two basic methods of transport
1. Passive transport - No energy is required
2. Active transport - Cell must provide metabolic energy (ATP)

Solution - homogeneous mixture of two or more components. • Solvent - dissolving medium; typically water in the body • Solutes - components in smaller quantities within a solution
Intracellular fluid - nucleoplasm and cytosol Interstitial fluid - fluid on the exterior of the cell

Selective Permeability - The plasma membrane allows some materials to pass while excluding others

Passive Transport Processes
1. Diffusion - Particles tend to distribute themselves evenly within a solution - Movement is from high concentration to low concentration, or down a concentration gradient.
Types of diffusion:
a. Simple diffusion - An unassisted process
b. Osmosis - simple diffusion of water - Highly polar water molecules easily cross the plasma membrane through aquaporins.

2. Facilitated diffusion - Substances require a protein carrier for passive transport - Transports lipid-insoluble and large substances.

3. Filtration - Water and solutes are forced through a membrane by fluid, or hydrostatic pressure. - A pressure gradient must exist. - Solute-containing fluid is pushed from a high-pressure area to a lower pressure area.

Active Transport Processes
- ATP is used for transport - Substances are transported that are unable to pass by diffusion. • Substances may be too large • Substances may not be able to dissolve in the fat core of the membrane. • Substances may have to move against a concentration gradient.
Two common forms of active transport
1. Solute Pumping - Amino acids, some sugars, and ions are transported by protein carriers called solute pumps. - ATP energizes protein carriers

2. Vesicular transport
a. Exocytosis - Moves materials out of the cell
b.Endocytosis - Extracellular substances are engulfed by being enclosed in a membranous vescicle
Types of endocytosis • Phagocytosis - “cell eating” • Pinocytosis - “cell drinking”

Cell Life Cycle

Cells have two major periods
1. Interphase - Cell grows - Cell carries on metabolic processes.

2. Cell division - Cell replicates itself - Function is to produce more cells for growth and repair processes

DNA Replication - Genetic material is duplicated and readies a cell for division into two cells. - Occurs toward the end of interphase. - DNA uncoils and each side serves as a template.

Events of Cell Division
1. Mitosis - division of the nucleus - Results in the formation of two daughter nuclei.
2. Cytokinesis - division of the cytoplasm - Results in the formation of two daughter cells.

Stages of Mitosis
1. Prophase First part of cell division Centrioles migrate to the poles to direct assembly of mitotic spindle fibers. DNA appears as double-stranded chromosomes. Nuclear envelope breaks down and disappears.
2. Metaphase Chromosomes are aligned in the center of the cell on the metaphase plate.
3. Anaphase Chromosomes are pulled apart and toward the opposite ends of the cell. Cell begins to elongate.

4. Telophase Chromosomes uncoil to become chromatin. Nuclear envelope reforms around chromatin. Spindles break down and disappear.

Protein Synthesis

Gene - DNA segment that carries a blueprint for building one protein
Functions of Proteins • Building materials for cells • Act as enzymes (biological catalysts)
RNA - is essential for protein synthesis

Role of RNA
1. Transfer RNA (tRNA) - Transfers appropriate amino acids to the ribosome for building the protein
2. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) - Helps form the ribosomes where proteins are built
3. Messenger RNA (mRNA) - Carries the instructions for building a protein from the nucleus to the ribosome

Transcription - Transfer of information from DNA’s base sequence to the complimentary base sequence of mRNA
Translation - Base sequence of nucleic acid is translated to an amino acid sequence
Codons - three-base sequences on mRNA
Amino acids - are the building blocks of proteins.

Body Tissues

Tissues - groups of cells with similar structure and function.
Four primary types:
1. Epithelial tissue (epithelium)
2. Connective tissue
3. Muscle tissue
4. Nervous tissue

Epithelial Tissues
• Body coverings • Body linings • Glandular tissue
• Protection • Absorption • Filtration • Secretion

Epithelium Characteristics • Cells fit closely together and often form sheets • The apical surface is the free surface of the tissue • The lower surface of the epithelium rests on a basement membrane • Avascular (no blood supply) • Regenerate easily if well nourished

Classification of Epithelia
Number of cell layers
1. Simple - one layer
2. Stratified - more than one layer
Shape of cells
1. Squamous - flattened
2. Cuboidal - cube-shaped
3. Columnar - column-like

Simple Epithelia
1. Simple squamous • Single layer of flat cells • Usually forms membranes - Lines body cavities - Lines lungs and capillaries
2. Simple cuboidal • Single layer of cube-like cells • Common in glands and their ducts • Forms walls of kidney tubules • Covers the ovaries
3. Simple columnar • Single layer of tall cells • Often includes mucus-producing goblet cells. • Lines digestive tract
4. Pseudostratified columnar • Single layer, but some cells are shorter than others. • Often looks like a double layer of cells. • Sometimes ciliated, such as in the respiratory tract. • May function in absorption or secretion.

Stratified Epithelia
1. Stratified squamous • Cells at the apical surface are flattened. • Found as a protective covering where friction is common.
Locations: Skin, Mouth, Esophagus
2. Stratified squamous • Cells at the apical surface are flattened • Found as a protective covering where friction is common.
Locations: Skin, Mouth, Esophagus
3. Stratified cuboidal - two layers of cuboidal cells
4. Stratified columnar - surface cells are columnar, cells underneath vary in size and shape

5. Stratified cuboidal and columnar • Rare in human body • Found mainly in ducts of large glands
Transitional epithelium • Shape of cells depends upon the amount of stretching • Lines organs of the urinary system

Glandular Epithelium
Gland - one or more cells responsible for secreting a particular product.
Two major gland types:
1. Endocrine gland - Ductless since secretions diffuse into blood vessels. - All secretions are hormones.
2. Exocrine gland - Secretions empty through ducts to the epithelial surface - include sweat and oil glands.

Connective Tissue • Found everywhere in the body • Includes the most abundant and widely distributed tissues
• Binds body tissues together • Supports the body • Provides protection

Connective Tissue Characteristics • Variations in blood supply - Some tissue types are well vascularized. - Some have a poor blood supply or are avascular. • Extracellular matrix - Non-living material that surrounds living cells

Extracellular Matrix
Two main elements
1. Ground substance - mostly water along with adhesion proteins and polysaccharide molecules.
2. Fibers - Produced by the cells
Three Types of Fibers
1. Collagen (white) fibers
2. Elastic (yellow) fibers
3. Reticular fibers

Connective Tissue Types
1. Bone (osseous tissue) • Used to protect and support the body.
Composed of • Bone cells in lacunae (cavities) • Hard matrix of calcium salts • Large numbers of collagen fibers

2. Hyaline cartilage - most common type of cartilage
Composed of • Abundant collagen fibers • Rubbery matrix
• Larynx • Entire fetal skeleton prior to birth

3. Elastic cartilage - Provides elasticity
• Supports the external ear

4. Fibrocartilage - Highly compressible
• Forms cushion-like discs between vertebrae

5. Dense connective tissue (dense fibrous tissue) • Main matrix element is collagen fiber • Fibroblasts - are cells that make fibers.
• Tendons - attach skeletal muscle to bone. • Ligaments - attach bone to bone at joints • Dermis - lower layers of the skin

6. Loose connective tissue
a. Areolar tissue • Most widely distributed connective tissue • Soft, pliable tissue like “cobwebs” • Functions as a packing tissue • Contains all fiber types • Can soak up excess fluid (causes edema)
b. Adipose tissue • Matrix is an areolar tissue in which fat globules predominate • Many cells contain large lipid deposits
• Insulates the body • Protects some organs • Serves as a site of fuel storage.
c. Reticular connective tissue
Delicate network of interwoven fibers
Forms stroma (internal supporting network) of lymphoid organs (Lymph nodes, Spleen, Bone marrow)

7. Blood (vascular tissue) • Blood cells surrounded by fluid matrix called blood plasma. • Fibers are visible during clotting. • Functions as the transport vehicle for materials.

Muscle Tissue • Function is to produce movement
Three types
1. Skeletal muscle
2. Cardiac muscle
3. Smooth muscle

Muscle Tissue Types
1. Skeletal muscle • Under voluntary control. • Contracts to pull on bones or skin. • Produces gross body movements or facial expressions.
Characteristics of skeletal muscle cells • Striated • Multinucleate (more than one nucleus) • Long, cylindrical

2. Cardiac muscle • Under involuntary control • Found only in the heart • Function is to pump blood
Characteristics of cardiac muscle cells • Cells are attached to other cardiac muscle cells at intercalated disks • Striated • One nucleus per cell

3. Smooth muscle • Under involuntary muscle. • Found in walls of hollow organs such as stomach, uterus, and blood vessels.
Characteristics of smooth muscle cells • No visible striations • One nucleus per cell • Spindle-shaped cells

Nervous Tissue • Composed of neurons and nerve support cells. • Function is to send impulses to other areas of the body. - Irritability - Conductivity

Tissue Repair (Wound Healing)
Regeneration - Replacement of destroyed tissue by the same kind of cells
Fibrosis - Repair by dense (fibrous) connective tissue (scar tissue)
Determination of method • Type of tissue damaged • Severity of the injury

Events in Tissue Repair
1. Capillaries become very permeable • Introduce clotting proteins • A clot walls off the injured area
2. Formation of granulation tissue • Growth of new capillaries • Rebuild collagen fibers
3. Regeneration of surface epithelium • Scab detaches

Regeneration of Tissues
• Tissues that regenerate easily • Epithelial tissue (skin and mucous membranes) • Fibrous connective tissues and bone
• Tissues that regenerate poorly • Skeletal muscle
• Tissues that are replaced largely with scar tissue • Cardiac muscle • Nervous tissue within the brain and spinal cord
Developmental Aspects of Tissue • Epithelial tissue arises from all three primary germ layers • Muscle and connective tissue arise from the mesoderm • Nervous tissue arises from the ectoderm • With old age, there is a decrease in mass and viability in most tissues.

Chapter 4:
The Human Body

Anatomy - study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts.
Physiology - study of how the body and its parts work or function

Anatomy - Levels of Study
Gross anatomy • Large structures • Easily observable
Microscopic Anatomy • Very small structures. • Can only be viewed with a microscope.
Organ System Overview
1. Integumentary • Forms the external body covering • Protects deeper tissue from injury • Helps regulate body temperature • Location of cutaneous nerve receptors
2. Skeletal • Protects and supports body organs • Provides muscle attachment for movement • Site of blood cell formation • Stores minerals
3. Muscular • Produces movement • Maintains posture • Produces heat
4. Nervous • Fast-acting control system • Responds to internal and external change • Activates muscles and glands
5. Endocrine • Secretes regulatory hormones - Growth - Reproduction - Metabolism
6. Cardiovascular • Transports materials in body via blood pumped by heart - Oxygen - Carbon dioxide - Nutrients - Wastes
7. Lymphatic • Returns fluids to blood vessels • Cleanses the blood • Involved in immunity
8. Respiratory • Keeps blood supplied with oxygen • Removes carbon dioxide
9. Digestive • Breaks down food • Allows for nutrient absorption into blood • Eliminates indigestible material
10. Urinary • Eliminates nitrogenous wastes • Maintains acid-base balance • Regulates water and electrolytes
11. Reproductive • Produces offspring Necessary Life Functions
1. Movement - Locomotion - Movement of substances
2. Responsiveness - Ability to sense changes and reacts.
3. Digestion - Break-down and absorption of nutrients
4. Reproduction - Produces future generation
5. Growth - Increases cell size and number of cells

Survival Needs
1. Nutrients - Chemicals for energy and cell building. - Includes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
2. Oxygen - Required for chemical reactions
3. Water - 60–80% of body weight - Provides for metabolic reaction
4. Stable body temperature
5. Atmospheric pressure - Must be appropriate

- maintenance of a stable internal environment
- A dynamic state of equilibrium
- Is necessary for normal body functioning and to sustain life

Homeostatic imbalance - a disturbance in homeostasis resulting in disease

Maintaining Homeostasis The body communicates through neural and hormonal control systems. • Receptor - Responds to changes in the environment (stimuli) - Sends information to control center • Control center - Determines set point - Analyzes information - Determines appropriate response • Effector - Provides a means for response to the stimulus.

Feedback Mechanisms
1. Negative feedback • Includes most homeostatic control mechanisms. • Shuts off the original stimulus, or reduces its intensity. • Works like a household thermostat.
2. Positive feedback • Increases the original stimulus to push the variable farther. • In the body this only occurs in blood clotting and during the birth of a baby.

The Language of Anatomy Special terminology is used to prevent misunderstanding.

Exact terms are used for
1. Position
2. Direction
3. Regions
4. Structures

Regional Terms
1. Anterior body landmarks
2. Posterior body landmarks

Directional Terms
1. Dorsal - towards or at the backside of the body; behind.
2. Medial - towards or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of.
3. Lateral - away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of.
4. Proximal - close to the origin of the body part or a point of attachment of a limb too the body trunk.
5. Distal – farther from the origin of the body part or a point of attachment of a limb too the body trunk.
6. Superficial (external) – toward or at the body surface.
7. Deep (internal) – away from the body surface; more internal.

Body Planes and Sections
1. Sagittal Section - divides the body (or organ) into left and right parts
2. Median or Midsagittal Section - divides the body (or organ) into equal left and right parts
3. Frontal Section - divides the body (or organ) into anterior and posterior parts
4. Transverse or Cross Section - divides the body (or organ) into superior and inferior parts

Body Cavities
1. Dorsal body cavity • Cranial cavity houses the brain • Spinal cavity houses the spinal cord
2. Ventral body cavity • Thoracic cavity houses heart, lungs and others • Abdominopelvic cavity houses digestive system and most urinary system organs

Chapter 5:
Skin and Body Membranes

Body Membranes
• Cover body surfaces • Line body cavities • Form protective sheets around organs

Classification of Body Membranes
1. Epithelial membranes • Cutaneous membranes • Mucous membranes • Serous membranes
2. Connective tissue membranes • Synovial membranes

Epithelial membranes
1. Cutaneous membrane (skin) • Dry membrane • Outermost protective boundary • Superficial epidermis is composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium • Underlying dermis is mostly dense connective tissue

2. Mucous Membranes • Surface epithelium type depends on site - Stratified squamous epithelium (mouth, esophagus) - Simple columnar epithelium (rest of digestive tract) • Underlying loose connective tissue (lamina propria) • Lines all body cavities that open to the exterior body surface • Often adapted for absorption or secretion

3. Serous Membranes • Surface is a layer of simple squamous epithelium • Underlying layer is a thin layer of areolar connective tissue • Lines open body cavities that are closed to the exterior of the body • Serous membranes occur in pairs separated by serous fluid - Visceral layer covers the outside of the organ - Parietal layer lines a portion of the wall of ventral body cavity
Specific serous membranes
1. Peritoneum - Abdominal cavity
2. Pleura - Around the lungs
3. Pericardium - Around the heart

Connective Tissue Membrane
1. Synovial membrane • Connective tissue only • Lines fibrous capsules surrounding joints • Secretes a lubricating fluid

Integumentary System

• Skin (cutaneous membrane)
• Skin derivatives
1. Sweat glands
2. Oil glands
3. Hair
4. Nails

Skin Functions
1. Aids in body heat loss or heat retention (controlled by the nervous system)
2. Aids in secretion of urea and uric acid.
3. Synthesizes vitamin D
Protects deeper tissues from 1. Mechanical Damage (bumps) 2. Chemical Damage (acids and bases) 3. Bacterial Damage 4. Ultraviolet Radiation (damaging effects of sunlight) 5. Thermal (heat or cold) Damage 6. Desiccation (drying out)

Skin Structure
1. Epidermis • Outer layer • Stratified squamous epithelium • Often keratinized (hardened by keratin)
2. Dermis •- Dense connective tissue
3. Subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) is deep to dermis • Not part of the skin • Anchors skin to underlying organs • Composed mostly of adipose tissue

Layers of the Epidermis
(deepest to most superficial)
1. Stratum basale (stratum germinativum) • Deepest layer of epidermis • Lies next to dermis • Cells undergoing mitosis • Daughter cells are pushed upward to become the more superficial layers.
2. Stratum spinosum
3. Stratum granulosum
4. Stratum lucidum • Formed from dead cells of the deeper strata • Occurs only in thick, hairless skin of the palms of hands and soles of feet
5. Stratum corneum • Outermost layer of epidermis • Shingle-like dead cells are filled with keratin (protective protein prevents water loss from skin)
• Pigment (melanin) produced by melanocytes • Melanocytes are mostly in the stratum basale • Color is yellow to brown to black • Amount of melanin produced depends upon genetics and exposure to sunlight

Two layers
1. Papillary layer (upper dermal region) • Projections called dermal papillae - Some contain capillary loops - Other house pain receptors and touch receptors

2. Reticular layer (deepest skin layer) • Blood vessels • Sweat and oil glands • Deep pressure receptors

Overall dermis structure
1. Collagen and elastic fibers - located throughout the dermis • Collagen fibers give skin its toughness • Elastic fibers give skin elasticity
2. Blood vessels play a role in body temperature regulation.

Normal Skin Color Determinants
1. Melanin - Yellow, brown, or black pigments
2. Carotene - Orange-yellow pigment from some vegetables
3. Hemoglobin - Red coloring from blood cells in dermal capillaries. - Oxygen content determines the extent of red coloring.

Skin Appendages
1. Cutaneous glands are all exocrine glands - Sebaceous glands - Sweat glands
2. Hair
3. Hair follicles
4. Nails

Cutaneous Glands
1. Sebaceous glands • Produce oil - Lubricant for skin - Prevents brittle hair - Kills bacteria • Most have ducts that empty into hair follicles; others open directly onto skin surface • Glands are activated at puberty

2. Sweat glands • Produce sweat • Widely distributed in skin
Two types
a. Eccrine - Open via duct to pore on skin surface
b. Apocrine - Ducts empty into hair follicles

Sweat and Its Function
• Mostly water • Salts and vitamin C • Some metabolic waste • Fatty acids and proteins (apocrine only)
• Helps dissipate excess heat • Excretes waste products • Acidic nature inhibits bacteria growth
 Odor is from associated bacteria

Hair • Produced by hair follicle • Consists of hard keratinized epithelial cells • Melanocytes provide pigment for hair color

Hair anatomy
1. Central medulla
2. Cortex surrounds medulla
3. Cuticle on outside of cortex - Most heavily keratinized

Associated hair structures
1. Hair follicle - Dermal and epidermal sheath surround hair root.
2. Arrector pili muscle - Smooth muscle - Pulls hairs upright when cold or frightened.
3. Sebaceous gland
4. Sweat gland

Nails • Scale-like modifications of the epidermis • Heavily keratinized • Stratum basale extends beneath the nail bed - Responsible for growth • Lack of pigment makes them colorless
Nail structures
1. Free edge
2. Body is the visible attached portion
3. Root of nail embedded in skin
4. Cuticle is the proximal nail fold that projects onto the nail body

Skin Homeostatic Imbalances
1. Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) - Caused by fungal infection
2. Boils and carbuncles - Caused by bacterial infection
3. Cold sores - Caused by virus

Infections and allergies
1. Contact dermatitis - Exposures cause allergic reaction
2. Impetigo - Caused by bacterial infection
3. Psoriasis - Cause is unknown - Triggered by trauma, infection, stress.

Burns • Tissue damage and cell death caused by heat, electricity, UV radiation, or chemicals
Associated dangers - Dehydration - Electrolyte imbalance - Circulatory shock

Rule of Nines • Way to determine the extent of burns • Body is divided into 11 areas for quick estimation • Each area represents about 9% of total body surface area

Severity of Burns
1. First-degree burns • Only epidermis is damaged • Skin is red and swollen
2. Second-degree burns • Epidermis and upper dermis are damaged • Skin is red with blisters
3. Third-degree burns • Destroys entire skin layer • Burn is gray-white or black

Critical Burns
Burns are considered critical if - Over 25% of body has second-degree burns - Over 10% of the body has third-degree burns - There are third-degree burns of the face, hands, or feet

Skin Cancer It is the most common type of cancer.

Cancer - abnormal cell mass
Classified two ways
1. Benign - Does not spread (encapsulated)
2. Malignant - Metastasized (moves) to other parts of the body

Skin Cancer Types
1. Basal cell carcinoma • Least malignant • Most common type • Arises from stratum basale
2. Basal cell carcinoma • Least malignant • Most common type • Arises from stratum basale

3. Malignant melanoma • Most deadly of skin cancers • Cancer of melanocytes • Metastasizes rapidly to lymph and blood vessels • Detection uses ABCD rule

Chapter 6:
Skeletal System, Bones and Joints

The Skeletal System
Components of the skeletal system
1. Bones (skeleton)
2. Joints
3. Cartilages
4. Ligaments

Two Major Skeletal System Parts
1. Axial Skeleton - includes the skull, spine, ribs and sternum. 2. Appendicular Skeleton - includes the appendages of the body, which are the shoulders, arms, hips, and legs.

Functions of Bones • Support of the body • Protection of soft organs • Movement due to attached skeletal muscles: “passive” • Storage of minerals and fats • Blood cell formation

Bones of the Human Body The skeleton has 206 bones
Two basic types of bone tissue
1. Compact bone - Dense
2. Spongy bone - Small needle-like pieces of bone. - Many open spaces

Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape
1. Long bones - Typically longer than wide - Have a shaft with heads at both ends. - Contain mostly compact bone. Examples: Femur, humerus
2. Short bones - Generally cube-shape - Contain mostly spongy bone Examples: Carpals, tarsals
3. Flat bones - Thin and flattened - Usually curved - Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone. Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum
4. Irregular bones - Irregular shape - Do not fit into other bone classification categories. Example: Vertebrae and hip

Bone Structure
Typical Four Layers:
1. Periosteum - Covers Bones
2. Compact Bone - Lies beneath the periosteum
3. Spongy Bone - Lies beneath the compact bone.
4. Bone Marrow - Fills the gaps between the spongy bone.

Microscopic Anatomy of Bone
1. Osteon (Haversian System) - A subunit of compact bone
2. Central (Haversian) canal - Opening in the center of an osteon - Carries blood vessels and nerves
3. Lacuna(e) - Cavities containing osteocytes - Arranged in concentric rings
4. Lamella(e) - Rings of compact bone - Lacunae lie between rings
5. Canaliculi (-us) - Tiny canals - Radiate from the central canal to lacunae - Form a transport system

Types of Bone Cells
1. Osteocytes - Mature bone cells (bone maintenance)
2. Osteoblasts - Bone-forming cells
3. Osteoclasts - Bone-destroying cells - Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium.

Gross Anatomy of a Long Bone
Diaphysis - Shaft - Made of compact bone
Epiphysis - Expanded ends of long bones - Covered with dense bone - Internal structure is spongy bone

Structures of a Long Bone
1. Periosteum - Outside covering of the diaphysis. - Fibrous connective tissue membrane.
2. Arteries - Supply bone cells with nutrients
3 Articular cartilage - Covers surface of epiphyses - Hyaline cartilage - Decreases friction at joint surfaces.
4. Medullary cavity - Cavity in shaft - Contains yellow marrow in adults - Contains red marrow in infants

Bone Growth: Endochondral
1. A cartilage model is produced by chondrocytes • It is surrounded by perichondrium, a membrane.
2. A bone “collar” is produced by osteocytes • The perichondrium of the diaphysis is now termed periosteum
3. Chondrocytes hypertrophy (enlarge) and cartilage is calcified
4. A primary ossification center forms • Blood vessels and osteoblasts invade the calcified cartilage • Osteoblasts lay down bone matrix • Trabeculae are formed
5. Around the time of birth, secondary ossification centers form in the epiphyses • Bone formation is incomplete at birth • The skeleton is not complete until the late teens (females) or early twenties (males)

 Epiphyseal plates allow for growth of long bone during childhood • New cartilage is continuously formed • Older cartilage becomes ossified - Cartilage is broken down - Bone replaces cartilage
 Bones are remodeled and lengthened until growth stops
• Bones change shape (how?DNA!)
• Bones grow in width (osteoblasts)
• Bones are remodeled by osteoclasts

Changes in the Human Skeleton • In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage • During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone • Cartilage remains in: - Anterior portion of the nose - Parts of ribs - Joints

Bone Growth: Intramembranous • “Between membranes”

Bone Formation: Intramembranous • Membranous bones are incomplete at birth. - Fontanelles: regions of the skull that remain as membranes - “Little fountains” - Bone formation complete by age ~2

Major Bones of the Body
1. Cranium Bones a. Frontal Bone b. Parietal c. Occipital d. Temporal
2. Mandible and Maxilla
3. Clavicle (Collar Bone) - holds the shoulder joint away from the rest of the upper body and is only as thick as your little finger.
4. Scapula - is located on the back side of the ribcage and helps provide part of the shoulder joint and movement for the arms.
5. Vertebral Column or Spinal Cord a. The cervical region (neck bones) b. The thorasic region (what the ribs attach to) c. The lumbar region (the lower part of the back)
6. Humerus (Upper Arm Bone)
7. Radius and Ulna
8. Carpals (Wrist Bones)
9. Metacarpals (Top of Hands)
10. Phalanges (Little Fingers)
11. Rib Cage
12. Sternum (Breastbone)
13. Pelvis (Dancing Bone)
14. Femur (Largest Bone in the Body)
15. The Tibia and Fibula
16. Tarsals
17. Metatarsals
18. Phalanges
19. Calcaneous (Heel Bone)

Joints of the Body
1. Ball and Socket Joint - Round end of bone fitting snuggly within another bone. Example: Shoulder and Hip
2. Hinge Joint - Movement at joint in one direction like a door. Example: Knee and Elbow
3. Pivot Joint - Bone resting atop another bone permitting free movement. Example: Neck, Wrist and Ankles
4. Fixed Immovable - Joint does not move Example: Skull
5. Gliding Joint - Bones slipping over other bones with a free flowing movement. Example: Knuckles

The Connectors of the Body
1. Ligaments - Connect bone to bone
2. Tendon - Attaches muscles to bones
3. Cartilage - It acts as a cushion between bones at a joint and protects the bones.

Bone Fractures - A break in a bone
Types of bone fractures
1. Closed (simple) fracture - does not penetrate the skin.
2. Open (compound) fracture - broken bone penetrates through the skin. • Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization

Repair of Bone Fractures
1. Hematoma (blood clot) formation
2. Callus formation
3. Bone replacement
4. Bone remodeling

Osteoporosis • Most common in post-menopausal women - Also occurs in males • Due to decrease in estrogen levels - Estrogen receptors on osseous tissue affect calcium deposition - Bone becomes porous, brittle • Weight-bearing exercise, calcium supplements, estrogen will help prevent osteoporosis

Problems of the Skeletal System
1. Fracture: Break
2. Dislocation: Out of joint
3. Sprain: Swelling in the joint
4. Arthritis: Inflamed and stiff joints
5. Scoliosis: Curvature of the spine
6. Osteoporosis: Brittle bones

Chapter 7:
The Muscular System

Did You Know That!
 More than 50% of body weight is muscle!
 Muscle is made up of proteins and water

Muscles are responsible for all movement of the body.

Info about Muscles • Only body tissue able to contract • Create movement by flexing and extending joints • Body energy converters (many muscle cells contain many mitochondria)

Fascicles - Bundles of fibers

Classification of Muscle
1. Skeletal Muscle • Found in the limbs • Voluntary movement of skeletal parts • Spans joints and attached to skeleton • Multi-nucleated, striated, cylindrical fibres • Function to produce movement, maintain posture, generate heat, and stabilize joints 2. Smooth Muscle • Found mainly in the walls of hollow organs • Involuntary • Spindle shaped uni-nucleated cells • Striations not observed • Actin and myosin filaments are present( protein fibers) • Functions to alter the activity of various body parts to meet the needs of the body at that time

3. Cardiac Muscle • Found in the heart • Involuntary rhythmic contraction • Branched, striated fibre with single nucleus and intercalated discs • Functions to provide the contractile activity of the heart

Characteristics of Muscle • Muscle cell = muscle fiber • Contraction of a muscle is due to movement of microfilaments (protein fibers) • All muscles share some terminology - Prefixes myo and mys refer to muscle - Prefix sarco refers to flesh

Shapes of Muscles
1. Triangular- shoulder, neck
2. Spindle- arms, legs
3. Flat- diaphragm, forehead
4. Circular- mouth, anus

Different Arrangements of Fascicles
1. Parallel (strap-like) - Sternocleidomastoid
2. Parallel (fusiform) – biceps brachii
3. Convergent – Pectoralis major
4. Unipennate – Flexor pollicis longus
5. Bipennate – Rectus femoris
6. Multipennate - deltoid
7. Circular – Orbicularis oris

Naming skeletal muscles (examples)
• Location: brachialis is in arm (brachium = arm)
• Shape: deltoid is triangular (delta = triangle)
• Size: minimus (smallest), longus (long), brevis (short)
• Direction of fascicles and fibers: rectus (straight); transversus (right angle) and oblique (oblique) to midline
• Number of origins: biceps (“two heads”), triceps (“three heads”), quadriceps (“four heads”)
• Action: “flexor” (bends a part), “extensor” (straighten a part) “adductor” (moving toward the midline or central axis of the body) “abductor” (moving away the midline or central axis of the body)

Types of Responses
1. Twitch - A single brief contraction - Not a normal muscle function
2. Tetanus - One contraction immediately followed by another - Muscle never completely returns to a relaxed state - Effects are compounded

Where Does the Energy Come From?
• Energy is stored in the muscles in the form of ATP
• ATP comes from the breakdown of glucose during Cellular Respiration
• This all happens in the Mitochondria of the cell
• When a muscle is fatigued (tired) it is unable to contract because of lack of Oxygen

Exercise and Muscles
1. Isotonic - muscles shorten and movement occurs (most normal exercise)
2. Isometric- tension in muscles increases, no movement occurs (pushing one hand against the other)

How are Muscles Attached to Bone?
1. Origin - attachment to a movable bone
2. Insertion - attachment to an immovable bone

Skeletal Muscles There are about 650 muscles in the human body. They enable us to move, maintain posture and generate heat.

1. Muscles of Facial Expression - Orbicularis oculi - Occipitofronatalis - Levator palpebrae - Corrugator supercilii
2. Sternocleidomastoideus - Flexes and Rotates Head
3. Masseter - Elevate Mandible
4. Temporalis - Elevate & Retract Mandible
5. Trapezius - Extend Head, Adduct, Elevate or Depress Scapula
6. Latissimus Dorsi - Extend, Adduct & Rotate Arm Medially
7. Deltoid - Abduct, Flex & Extend Arm
8. Pectoralis Major - Flexes, adducts & rotates arm medially
9. Biceps Brachii - Flexes Elbow Joint
10. Triceps Brachii - Extend Elbow Joint
11. Rectus Abdominus - Flexes Abdomen
12. External Oblique - Compress Abdomen
13. External Intercostals - Elevate ribs
14. Internal Intercostals - Depress ribs
15. Diaphragm - Inspiration
16. Forearm Muscles • Flexor carpi - Flexes wrist • Extensor carpi - Extends wrist • Flexor digitorum - Flexes fingers • Extensor digitorum - Extends fingers • Pronator- Pronates • Supinator - Supinates
17. Gluteus Maximus - Extends & Rotates Thigh Laterally
18. Rectus Femoris - Flexes Thigh, Extends Lower Leg
19. Gracilis - Adducts and Flexes Thigh
20. Sartorius - Flexes Thigh, & Rotates Thigh Laterally
21. Biceps Femoris - Extends Thigh & Flexes Lower Leg
22. Gastrocnemius - Plantar Flexes Foot & Flex Lower Leg
23. Tibialis Anterior - Dorsi flexes and Inverts Foot

24. Muscles of the Head and Neck • Scalp Muscle: epicranius - frontal belly - occipital belly - gala aponeurotica • Muscles of Facial Expression: insert on skin or another muscle • Muscles of Mastication (chewing): all have insertions on the mandible • Anterior Neck Muscles • Posterior Neck Muscles

25. Muscles of the Anterior Neck • Above hyoid (suprahyoid): form floor of oral cavity, anchor tongue, elevate hyoid, move larynx superiorly during swallowing • Below hyoid (infrahyoid): depress hyoid and larynx during swallowing and speaking
26. Anterolateral neck • Scalenes elevate first 2 ribs
27. Posterior neck • Splenius’ (capitis and cervicis) extend head
28. Deep muscles of the thorax: breathing • Intercostals - Short: rib to rib • Diaphragm - prime mover of inspiration.
29. Anterior Chest Muscles • Superficial: sternocleidomastoid pectoralis major • Deeper: pectoralis minor serratus anterior subclavius
30. Muscles of the abdominal wall • From more superficial to deep: - External oblique - Internal oblique - Transversus abdominis • Nearer midline: - Rectus abdominis
31. Muscles moving the scapula - trapezius - levator scapulae - rhomboids
32. Muscles crossing shoulder joint: • movement of arm (humerus) • Three most powerful of the nine and prime movers: - pectoralis major (1) - latissimus dorsi (2) - deltoid (3) - Rotator cuff supraspinatus (4), infraspinatus (5), subscapularis (6), teres minor (7)

- Forearm extensors (posterior) Triceps brachii (8) and Anconeus (9)
33. Retinaculae (retinaculum, singular) • “retainers,” “wrist bands”, “ankle bracelets” • Bands of fascia holding tendons of wrist and ankle in place (prevent “bow-stringing”)
34. Forearm muscles: movement of wrist, hand and finger. • At wrist joint: flexion, extension, abduction and adduction of the hand • At finger joints: mostly just flex and extend (other movements- by small muscles in the hand itself)
Two compartments (each with superficial and deep muscle layers) • Anterior - flexor compartment ( except includes 2 pronators) • Posterior - extensor compartment (except includes supinator and brachioradialis)
35. Deep anterior hand muscles (some) - Flexor pollicis longus - Flexor digitorum profundus (only muscle that flexes DIPs)
36. Hand Muscles • Thenar • Hypothenar • Midpalmar - Lumbricals - Interossei
37. Muscles crossing the hip and knee joints Three groups separated by fascia; all three enclosed by deep fascia of thigh (fascia lata) a. Anterior - Flex femur at hip; extend leg at knee (e.g. foreswing phase of walking) b. Posterior - Mostly extend thigh and flex leg (backswing phase of walking) c. Adductor - Move thigh only, not leg
38. Muscles that flex thigh at hip • Sartorius • Iliopsoas • Tensor fasciae lata • Rectus femoris (only quad with origin on pelvis) • Pectineus (medial compartment) • Thigh extensors (posterior) - Gluteus maximus • Hamstrings (cross hip and knee joints: extend thigh & flex knee) - Biceps femoris - Semitendinosus - Semimembranosus • Abductors of thigh - Buttocks muscles that lie lateral to hip joint - Gluteus medius - Gluteus minimus (under medius) - Tensor fascia lata • Lateral rotators - Piriformis • Adduction of thigh - Muscles originate medial to hip joint - Gracilis - Adductor magnus - Adductor longus - Adductor brevis - Pectineus
39. Leg (lower leg)
3 compartments - Anterior - Posterior - Lateral
Movements at joints: • Ankle - Dorsiflex - Plantarflex • Intertarsal - Inversion of foot - Eversion of foot • Toes - Flex (point) - Extend
Posterior compartment of leg • Superficial: these plantar flex foot - Gastrocnemius - Soleus - Plantaris • Deep - Popliteus - Flexor digitorum longus - Flexor hallucis longus - Tibilialis posterior
Anterior leg extensors • Mainly extend toes and dorsiflex foot - Tibialis anterior - Extensor digitorum longus - Extensor hallucis longus
Lateral compartment of leg • Fibularis (peroneus) longus: to first metatarsal and cuneiform • Fibularis (peroneus) brevis: to fifth metatarsal

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