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Investigatory Project

In: Science

Submitted By Marshymarnz
Words 2061
Pages 9
Group 1

Chapter 1: Problem

Natural Pesticide

A. Introduction

Philippines is a tropical country. Filipinos’ source of livelihood is from different fields especially in the field of agriculture. Many Filipinos researches more things that can help them in having larger amount of products. They do this for a better quality and quantity of the products they want to sell. Making researches and discoveries help in the development of the agricultural field in the country.

For every development there are problems that arouse. In the farm all over the country, we, Filipinos have our problems about pests that destroy our crops. Locusts, grasshoppers, caterpillars and rats are the major animals and pests that are the big problems of the farmers. That’s why different materials are used and different chemicals are applied to our crops. One of the most used chemical is the Pesticide.

Pesticides are widely used by farmers to get rid of pests in the farm. Commercial or branded pesticides are used in farms which are easily found in different stores all over the country. But due to the over using of chemicals, many problems arouse. Water pollution, land and air pollution are the product of the too much use of these chemicals. That’s why experts propose that natural pesticides are more ideal to use.

Natural pesticides are more efficient to use because they are easier to make. Natural materials that are bountiful in the country are used in making this kind of pesticide. The different plants and fruits are used which are easier to find and are cheaper to use. And these natural pesticides are safer to use since most of it are home-made kind of pesticides.

As Filipinos, we can contribute or help our farmers to get rid of pests. One way is making this natural pesticide which may help them a lot. Since natural pesticides are easy to make, we can make our own by using natural materials that are easily found in our country. We can make our own natural pesticides in our homes.

B. Statement of the Problem

This study lies to find the effectivity of this Natural Pesticide.

1. Are there differences that can be found in this natural pesticide with the commercial pesticide in terms of its quality?

2. Will this natural pesticide helps in getting rid of pests as commercial pesticides do?

3. To find out if the materials that will be used in the project can really be a pesticide or pest killer.

C. Significance of the Study

Pests are big problems of farmers today. They kill and destroy crops which affect the livelihood of the farmers. Pests also bring problems in our household. Pests like cockroach and rats. They carry bacteria to people. They give people diseases as well as it can harm and suffer from these diseases and causes death.

This project will help a lot in getting rid of these pests. Pests which are found in the farms and in our houses. By making this natural pesticide, we can spend a small amount of money rather than buying expensive commercial pesticides sold in the market. And also by making our home made pesticides, we know the materials and the chemicals that are added to make our pesticide effective. Unlike the commercial ones, we don’t know what and how it was really made.

We can also enjoy making this natural insecticide. We can learn more things while doing the project. And lastly, we can contribute in the decrease of pollution in our environment.

D. Scope, Limitation and Delimitation

The scope of the project is with the use of the pesticide. This natural pesticide can be used in getting rid of different pests. Pests that are problems in our houses and pests that destroys crops in our farms.

The effectivity of pesticide is limited or based to its expiration. The expiration of the natural materials like the malunggay, chili and garlic because it will take days or weeks to produce a bad smell. And it is limited to small pests like cockroaches, locusts and caterpillars.

This natural pesticide can be as effective as commercial or branded pesticides. It does not limit its use and its effectivity. It does not require a large amount of money for its preparation so we can make this kind of pesticide as many times as we want.

Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature

The Pesticide is a broad term that refers to any device, method, or chemicals that kill plants or animals that compete for humanity’s food supply or are otherwise undesirable. It is any chemical that is applied to crops and plants against damage caused by pests. A Pesticide chemical can rarely be used as originally manufactured. The pesticide must be diluted with water, oil, air or chemically inactive solids so that it can be handled by application equipment and spread evenly over the area to be treated. A single pesticide is often sold in several different formulations.

A Pesticide chemical can rarely be used as originally manufactured. The pesticide must be diluted with water, oil, air or chemically inactive solids so that it can be handled by application equipment and spreas evenly over the area to be treated. A single pesticide is often sold in several different formulations. The applicator should choose the formulation that will best hs requirements for a particular job. Considerations in making choice include effectiveness against the pests, habits of the pest, animal or surface to be protected. The final product is called a pesticide formulation and is ready to use either as packaged or diluted with water or other carriers.

Pesticides are substances or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any pest. Pesticides are a special kind of products for crop protection. Crop protection products in general protect plants from damaging influences such as weeds, diseases or insects. A pesticide is generally a chemical or biological agent (such as a virus, bacterium, antimicrobial or disinfectant) that through its effect deters, incapacitates, kills or otherwise discourages pests. Target pests can include insects, plantpathogens, weeds, molluscs, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes (roundworms), and microbesthat destroy property, cause nuisance, spread disease or are vectors for disease. Although there are human benefits to the use of pesticides, some also have drawbacks, such as potential toxicity to humans and other animals. According to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, 9 of the 12 most dangerous and persistent organic chemicalsare pesticides. Pesticides are categorized into four main substituent chemicals: herbicides; fungicides; insecticides and bactericides.

Malunggay also known as Horseradish “Malunggay” in Philippines, “Sabina” in the Indian Subcontinent, and “Moringa”in English, it is a popular tree. It grows wildly in a hot tropical climate. Both the leaves and fruits are very nutritious, which may contain many vitamins like Vitamin C and other minerals. It contains the properties of galactagogue, rubefacient, antiscorcutic, diuretic, stimulant, purgative, antibiotic and antifungal. Malunggay is a good source of pesticide because it contains rubefacient. It is an active component of malunggay leaves. A substance for external application that produces a redness of the skin by causing dilation of capillaries and increase blood circulation.

The Malunggay plant grows in the Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand and other regions of Asia. It can grow up to fifteen feet tall and has small, tender muti leafed branches similar to a fern, but with more of a roundish or lobe leaf. The plant is edible and is sometime called the horseradish tree for the taste of its roots and its leaves taste like spinach but contains three times more iron. Because of its high concentration of nutrients and vitamins the plant is believed to have a number of medicinal-properties such as slowing the aginging process, promoting life extention and fighting cancer, among many others. Malunggay (Moringa Oleifera), is a popular plant known for nutritional value as well as a herbal medicine. Malunggay is a plant that grows in the tropical climates such as the Philippines, India and Africa. Malunggay is widely used as vegetable ingredient in cooking, as herbal medicine for a number of illness and other practical uses. The Malunngay plant can grow to as high as 9 meters with erect white trunks. The compund leaf has about 3 to 9 leaflets. Malunggay has white fragrant flowers that pruduces long pods with 3-angled winged seeds. Malunggay may be propagated by planting its seeds about an inch in the ground or matured malunggay stem cuttings of about 3 feet in length may also be planted into the ground. Planted malunggay cuttings grows faster compared to planted seeds. Chili, is which is spelled differently in many regions chili, chile, and chilli. The term chili in most of the world refers exclusively to the smaller hot types of capsicum. It is a hot pepper. Even though chilies maybe though as vegetable, their culinary usage is, a generally spice, the part of the plant that is usually harvested is the fruit. Researchers used capsicum from chilies to kill the nerve cells in the pancreas of mice. And Chili also contains hotness which can kill cockroaches and other small insects.

Garlic is a bulbous herb of a lilt family widely cultivated for its pungent compound bulbs much used in cookery. It can be a component of a pesticide for its smell and the chemicals it releases when it rots.

Allium sativum, commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion genus, Alliums. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and rakkyo. With a history of human use of over 7,000 years, garlic is native to central Asia, and has long been a staple in the Mediterranean region, as well as a frequent seasoning in Asia, Africa, and Europe. It was known to Ancient Egyptians, and has been used for both culinary and medicinal purposes.

Manufacturing pesticide involves at least three separate activities. The active ingredients is first synthesize in a chemical factory, then formulated in the same plants or sent to a formulator, to prepare a liquid or powder form. Synthesizing the pesticide is a complex chemical procedure. An emulsified formulation is usually concentrated to render transport easier, but granulated and dry pesticides are ready to use.

Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at temperatures above 0 °C (273.15 K, 32 °F) at sea level, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state (water vapor or steam). Water also exists in a liquid crystal state near hydrophilic surfaces.

Oil is any neutral chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures, is immiscible with water but soluble in alcohols or ethers. Oils have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are usually flammable and slippery (no polar). Oils may be animal, vegetable, or petrochemical in origin, volatile or non-volatile.

Definition of Terms:

CAPSAICIM- is an active component of chilli. It is an irritant for mammals including human, and producing a sensation of the pancreas of mice.

RUBEFACIENT- is an active component of malunggay leaves. A substance for external application that produces a redness of the skin by causing dilation of capillaries and increase blood circulation.

METHIONINE and CYSTINE- an amino acid. One of the sulphur – containing proteinogenic amino acids.

PESTICIDE- chemicals that kill plants or animals. It must be diluted with water, oil, air or chemically inactive solids

References:

http://www.malunggay.com,http://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/pesticides/index.cfmhttp://www.answers.com/topic/pesticide,http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/chilli/pepper, http://stuartxchange.com/malunggay.html, Britannica Junior Encyclopedia, 1981, Margaret Sutton; Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary, 1991, Frederick C. Mish; and Exploring the world of Science, 1987, Hubert P. Kelsey

Chapter 3: Methodology

Materials

* spray bottle

*mortar and pestle

Ingredients

*10 stalks of malunggay leaves

*20 pieces of chili fruit

*100 ml distilled water

*3-5 bulbs of garlic

*2-3 spoons of oil

*onions (optional)

Procedure:

1. Get the extract of the malunggay leaves using the mortar and pestle.

2. Next is getting the extract of garlic.

3. Do the same thing for getting the extract of the chili.

4. Combine the extract of all the ingredients then mix it with oil.

5. Lastly, mix the ingredients with water.

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