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Ipv6 Address Type Multicast

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Submitted By mattr66
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Matthew Reece
IPv6 address type- multicast There is are several differences between ipv4 and ipv6 below I will break them down a bit
IPV4 is 32 bit over 4 octets doesn’t have built in security uses broadcast and bits extend from 2^32 power
IPv6 is 128 bits over 8 quadrats has built in security doesn’t use broadcast and bits extend from 2^128 power
Those are the major differences between IPv4 and IPv6 next we get into a function of IPv6 which is unique it’s called multicast
Neighbor Discovery
Neighbor Discovery uses ICMPv6 messages to manage neighboring node interaction. Neighbor Discovery replaces ARP, ICMP Router Discovery, and ICMP Redirect and provides additional functionality.
Neighbor Discovery Messages
All functions of Neighbor Discovery are performed with the following messages: * Router Solicitation

IPv6 hosts send Router Solicitation messages to discover IPv6 routers present on the link. To prompt IPv6 routers to respond immediately, hosts send multicast Router Solicitation messages rather than waiting for a periodic Router Advertisement message. * Router Advertisement

IPv6 routers send Router Advertisement messages either periodically or in response to the receipt of Router Solicitation messages. Router Advertisement messages contain the information required by hosts to determine what the link prefixes are, what the link MTU is, whether or not to use address autoconfiguration, and the duration for which addresses created through address autoconfiguration are both valid and preferred. * Neighbor Solicitation

IPv6 hosts send Neighbor Solicitation messages to discover the link-layer addresses of on-link IPv6 nodes. Neighbor Solicitation messages include the link-layer address of the sender. Hosts send Neighbor Solicitation messages to multicast addresses to resolve addresses and to unicast addresses to verify the reachability of a neighboring node. * Neighbor Advertisement

IPv6 nodes send Neighbor Advertisement messages in response to the receipt of Neighbor Solicitation messages. Nodes also send unsolicited Neighbor Advertisements to inform neighboring nodes of changes in link-layer addresses. Neighbor Advertisement messages contain information that nodes require to determine the type of Neighbor Advertisement message, the link-layer address of the sender, and the sender’s role on the network. * Redirect

IPv6 routers send Redirect messages to inform an originating host of a better first-hop address for a specific destination. Routers send Redirect messages for unicast traffic only and only to originating hosts. Only hosts process Redirect messages.
To ensure that all Neighbor Discovery messages were sent by a node on the local link, all Neighbor Discovery messages are sent with a hop limit of 255. When a Neighbor Discovery message is received, the Hop Limit field in the IPv6 header is checked. If the field is not set to 255, the message is silently discarded. Verifying that the Neighbor Discovery message has a hop limit of 255 provides protection from network attacks that are based on Neighbor Discovery and launched from off-link nodes. If a message has a hop limit of 255, a router could not have forwarded the message from an off-link node.
Neighbor Discovery Options
RFC 2461 defines the following Neighbor Discovery options: * Source Link-Layer Address Option

The Source Link-Layer Address option indicates the link-layer address of the Neighbor Discovery message sender. Neighbor Solicitation, Router Solicitation, and Router Advertisement messages include this option. This option is not included when the source address of the Neighbor Discovery message is the unspecified address (::). * Target Link-Layer Address Option

The Target Link-Layer Address option indicates the link-layer address of the neighboring node to which IPv6 packets should be directed. Neighbor Advertisement and Redirect messages include this option. * Prefix Information Option

The Prefix Information option is sent in Router Advertisement messages to indicate both address prefixes and information about address autoconfiguration. Each Router Advertisement message can include multiple Prefix Information options, indicating multiple address prefixes. * Redirected Header Option

The Redirected Header option is sent in Redirect messages to specify the IPv6 packet that caused the router to send a Redirect message. This option can contain all or part of the redirected IPv6 packet, depending on the size of the IPv6 packet that was initially sent. * MTU Option

The MTU option is sent in Router Advertisement messages to indicate the IPv6 MTU of the link. This option can be used when the IPv6 MTU for a link is not well known or must reflect a translational or mixed-media bridging configuration. The MTU option overrides the IPv6 MTU that the interface hardware reports.

In bridged or Layer-2 switched environments, different link-layer technologies with different link-layer MTUs can exist on the same network segment. In this case, differences in IPv6 MTUs between nodes on the same network are not discovered through Path MTU Discovery. The MTU option indicates the highest IPv6 MTU supported by all link-layer technologies on the network segment.
Host Data Structures
To facilitate interactions between neighboring nodes, RFC 2461 defines the following host data structures as examples of how to store information for Neighbor Discovery processes: * Neighbor cache

Stores the on-link address of a neighbor, its corresponding link-layer address, and an indication of the neighbor’s reachability state. The neighbor cache is equivalent to the ARP cache in IPv4. * Destination cache

Stores information about forwarding or next-hop addresses for destinations to which traffic has recently been sent. Entries in the destination cache contain the destination IP address (either local or remote), the previously resolved next-hop address, and the Path MTU for the destination. * Prefix list

Lists on-link prefixes. Each entry defines a range of IP addresses for destinations that are directly reachable (neighbors). This list is populated from prefixes that routers advertise in Router Advertisement messages. * Default router list

Lists IP addresses corresponding to on-link routers that send Router Advertisement messages and that are eligible to be default routers.
RFC 2461 defines these structures as an example of an IPv6 host conceptual model. An IPv6 implementation is not required to create these exact data structures as long as the external behavior of the host is consistent with RFC 2461. For example, the IPv6 protocol for Windows Server 2003 uses a routing table rather than a prefix list and default router list. The routing table contains sufficient information to determine how to forward IPv6 packets. For more information, see “IPv6 Routing” later in this section.
Neighbor Discovery Message Exchanges
The Neighbor Discovery protocol provides message exchanges for the following processes: * Address resolution * Duplicate address detection * Router discovery * Redirect function
Address Resolution
To resolve addresses, IPv6 nodes exchange Neighbor Solicitation and Neighbor Advertisement messages to resolve the link-layer address of the on-link next-hop address for a given destination. The sending host sends a multicast Neighbor Solicitation message on the appropriate interface. The multicast address of the Neighbor Solicitation message is the solicited-node multicast address derived from the target IP address. The Neighbor Solicitation message includes the link-layer address of the sending host in the Source Link-Layer Address option.
When the target host receives the Neighbor Solicitation message, it updates its own neighbor cache based on the source address of the Neighbor Solicitation message and the link-layer address in the Source Link-Layer Address option. Next, the target host sends a unicast Neighbor Advertisement to the Neighbor Solicitation sender. The Neighbor Advertisement includes the Target Link-Layer Address option.
After receiving the Neighbor Advertisement from the target host, the sending host updates its neighbor cache with an entry for the target host based on the information in the Target Link-Layer Address option. At this point, the sending host and the target host can send unicast IPv6 traffic to each other.
As an example of this process, Host A has an Ethernet MAC address of 00-AA-00-11-11-11 and a corresponding link-local address of FE80::2AA:FF:FE11:1111. Host B has an Ethernet MAC address of 00-AA-00-22-22-22 and a corresponding link-local address of FE80::2AA:FF:FE22:2222. To send a packet to Host B, Host A must resolve Host B’s link-layer address.
The following figure shows Host A sending a solicited-node multicast Neighbor Solicitation message (based on Host B’s IP address) to the address of FF02::1:FF22:2222. (Microsoft, 2008)

Works Cited
Microsoft. (2008, march 28). How IPv6 works. Retrieved 8 24, 2015, from technet:

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