Premium Essay

Ireland's Economic Crisis and Recovery

In: Business and Management

Submitted By brightladylily
Words 2160
Pages 9
Assignment Title: Understanding Ireland’s Economic Crisis and Recovery
Words Count: 1500 words (Excluding references)


In 2008 Ireland plunged into one of its most severe economic crisis recorded since pre-war times.
This paper looks at the monetary policies and conditions during Ireland’s recessionary years and in conjunction the key features and policies that were introduced by monetary authorities in order to restore financial stability in Ireland. This includes looking at policies such as the recapitalisation of banks and blanket guarantee in order to stabilize the banking system. Following this an insight into Ireland’s people and the banking systems combined. This deals with restructuring loans given to households and companies. A huge emphasis was placed on mortgages given to households during the boom times.

Prevailing monetary conditions and policy context for the Irish Economic Crisis
When Ireland was announced “in recession” back in 2008 numerous monetary conditions and policies were to blame. Ireland had issues with its banking systems. Its banks needed urgent and constant capital injection to the point the government alone could no longer support them. This soon highlighted that there were clearly further solvency issues underlying.
The cause of the recession was blamed on the ever expanding property market to its bust point. This played a significant factor but was not the main reason for the recession as was soon discovered. This was linked to the construction industry which had seen some outstanding performance during boom times. On the collapse of the property bubble the construction industry suffered leading to high unemployment and declining growth rates.
Mortgage and lending was an issue that sparked recession. This involved banks giving loans over and...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Iceland V Ireland

...better choice? ------------------------------------------------- Contents 1. Introduction to the financial crisis 2 2. Conditions leading up to the Irish and Icelandic economic crisis 3 2.1 The business cycle 3 2.2 The era of the Irish ‘Celtic Tiger’ 4 2.3 The ‘Financial Vikings’ of Iceland 5 3. Financial crisis response 6 3.1 Government response to the financial crisis 6 3.2 The default decision 10 4. Economic outlook and long-term repercussions 14 5. Conclusion 18 1. Introduction to the financial crisis The Great Recession began in 2007 as the United States housing market fell into a sharp decline. Many economists consider the resulting financial crisis to be the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. While the crisis can be traced back to a variety of economic origins, the volatility that existed in the world economy from the 1990’s undoubtedly played a large role (Roubini, 2010). The Asian Crisis that arose after the fall of car manufacturer Kia in 1997 and the burst of the Dotcom Bubble in the early 2000’s resulted in many wealthy countries decreasing interest rates to all-time lows to encourage growth in their economies (Roubini, 2010). These low interest rates led consumers, particularly those in the US, to borrow more money than they could afford to repay (Roubini, 2010). During the financial crisis, credit defaults brought the solvency of a number of major international banks into question, and several ......

Words: 5823 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

International Case Study - Ireland and the Eu Treaty

...1. Executive Summary This report, targeted at senior Government officials considers the current issue of the EU treaty and the impact the outcome will have on Ireland. A referendum will be held to decide this outcome but it is noted that the political parties will have a strong influence on the public’s decision. As with all the EU countries, Ireland’s economy retracted sharply with the global financial crisis in 2008. They have recovered better than most of the EU but the major economic issue still facing Ireland is the unemployment rate which currently sits at over 14 per cent. Signing this EU treaty will impose tighter fiscal discipline on members by entrenching tougher tax regulations and limiting government spending (Halpin 2012). The overall aim of the treaty is based on the Keynesian theory of using monetary policy to create budget surplus. EU countries will reduce their budget deficits by the strict spending regulations outlined in the treaty. The downside to signing the treaty is the lack of control Ireland will have over the country. The primary avenue for government spending will be limited to tax increases. Ireland has been criticised for having one of the lowest personal and company tax rates in the EU. The benefit of the low corporate tax rate is the large foreign multinational corporations that create employment in Ireland. Increasing taxes could have a negative effect on the economy. If Ireland do not sign the treaty, although they will still be a......

Words: 3146 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay


...of western countries while the national output are not very big. Comparing the financial history of the events leading up to the financial crisis of both Iceland and Ireland Ireland Financial Bubble Burst Among the countries currently experiencing sovereign debt crises, Ireland’s case is perhaps the most dramatic. Over the past decade, Ireland has made remarkable economic achievements which created a record of continuous growth miracle. From 1996 to 2007, average annual economic growth rate of Ireland was 7.2%, which won the "Celtic Tiger" reputation. After several years of development, according to per capita GDP, Ireland became the second wealthiest country in a comparison of European Union countries, after Luxembourg. One of major factors to drive rapid growth economy of Ireland is high-tech development. Since the mid-20th century, the Irish government put great emphasis on high-tech development, implementation of the strategy of reinvigorating the Ireland with science and technology, which laid the foundation of the Irish pharmaceutical and chemical companies as well as communication and information competitiveness. Whether the export or to attract foreign investment, the Irish are also eye-catching performance, which contributed to economic growth. But there are some bad. Real estate bubble is the initiator of the debt crisis in Ireland. With the real estate bubble burst, coupled with the impact of the...

Words: 1444 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Analysis of the Irish Labour Market and Immigration Since Eu Enlargement

...provides a critical assessment of the labour market of a particular country. You will be allocated the country in the seminar in week 1. If you have not attended this seminar, then you need to consult the module leader to obtain the country you will cover. Part 1 of the report (worth 40% of the marks) requires you to provide a statistical profile of your allocated country’s labour market and present an overview of the most important trends and developments in this country’s labour market over the past decade. Part 2 of the report (worth 60% of the marks) requires you to provide a critical review of the particular situation in your country of NEETs – young people not in employment, education or training. Specifically, using appropriate economic concepts, you should analyse the causes and consequences of being NEET. Your analysis should also critically comment on existing policy solutions and make relevant proposals to improve future policy directions. Part 1: ‘A labour market can be understood as the mechanism through which human labour is bought and sold as a commodity and the means by which labour demand (the number...

Words: 3641 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Ireland Debt

...UCD CENTRE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH WORKING PAPER SERIES 2011 Ireland’s Sovereign Debt Crisis Karl Whelan, University College Dublin WP11/09 May 2011 UCD SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN BELFIELD DUBLIN 4 Ireland’s Sovereign Debt Crisis Karl Whelan University College Dublin 1 May 2011 1 This paper was presented at a workshop on "Life in the Eurozone With or Without Sovereign Default?" that took place at the European University Institute in Florence on April 14, 2011. 1 1. Introduction Among the countries currently experiencing sovereign debt crises, Ireland’s case is perhaps the most dramatic. As recently as 2007, Ireland was seen by many as top of the European class in its economic achievements. Ireland had combined a long period of high economic growth and low unemployment with budget surpluses. The country appeared to be well placed to cope with any economic slowdown as it had a gross debtGDP ratio in 2007 of 25% and a sovereign wealth fund worth about €5000 a head. Fast forward four years and Ireland is shut out of sovereign debt markets and in an EUIMF adjustment programme. Its debt-GDP ratio has soared over 100% and the sovereign wealth fund is effectively gone. In this short paper, I provide a brief review of how this rapid change came about and discuss potential future developments in relation to Ireland’s sovereign debt situation. 2. The Rise and Fall of the Celtic Tiger It is now well known that Ireland’s famed “Celtic Tiger”......

Words: 5442 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Financial Crisis in the European Union: the Cases of Greece and Ireland

...Financial Crisis in the European Union: The Cases of Greece and Ireland Sara F. Taylor Thesis submitted to the faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Political Science Scott G. Nelson, Chair Karen M. Hult Deborah J. Milly September 7, 2011 Blacksburg, Virginia Keywords: EUROPEAN UNION, EUROZONE, GREECE FINANCIAL CRISIS, IRELAND BANKING CRISIS, EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK Copyright 2011 Sara F. Taylor Financial Crisis in the European Union: The Cases of Greece and Ireland Sara Frances Taylor ABSTRACT The 2008 eurozone financial crisis has only worsened as of summer 2011 raising questions about the economic future of the eurozone and sending shock waves through economies around the world. Greece was the first state to receive a bailout from the European Union and the International Monetary Fund, surprisingly followed only six months later by Ireland. The goal of this thesis is to analyze the challenges posed to smaller, weaker economies within the eurozone, specifically Greece and Ireland, since the recent eurozone financial crisis. This study is based on the experiences of both Greece and Ireland as very different members of the single currency. How and why did these states meet the criteria for euro convergence? To what extent was there support for the euro in both countries in the past? To what extent is there support today after the near......

Words: 30568 - Pages: 123

Premium Essay

Euro Crisis

...Local Economy The euro crisis Andrew Jones Local Economy 2011 26: 594 DOI: 10.1177/0269094211421748 The online version of this article can be found at: Published by: On behalf of: London South Bank University Local Economy Policy Unit Partner Organisation: Centre for Local Economic Strategies Additional services and information for Local Economy can be found at: Email Alerts: Subscriptions: Reprints: Permissions: Citations: >> Version of Record - Nov 17, 2011 What is This? Downloaded from at UNIV OF GUELPH on November 17, 2013 Review article The euro crisis Andrew Jones Local Economy Policy Unit, London South Bank University, UK Local Economy 26(6–7) 594–618 ! The Author(s) 2011 Reprints and permissions: DOI: 10.1177/0269094211421748 ´ ˜ Marco Buti, Servaas Deroose, Vıtor Gaspar and Joao Nogueira Martins (eds), The Euro: The First Decade, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2010; 1048pp: ISBN 978-9279098420, £95 (hbk); Roy H. Ginsberg, Demystifying The European Union: The Enduring Logic of Regional Integration (2nd edn), Rowman & Littlefield: Lanham, MD,......

Words: 15233 - Pages: 61

Premium Essay

Marketing Channel

...Domestic Product) of two countries which were Ireland and Malaysia. During the year 2006, the GDP of Ireland recorded 5.3% because Ireland’s economic prospects remain good and growth looks set to strengthen further during 2006 with consumer spending is expected to be the main engine of economic growth. Economic growth remains firm in year 2007, employment has grown significantly, full employment, the public finances are in excellent shape and inflation remains relatively low, so the GDP growth rate increase to 5.6%. In September 2008, Ireland became the first euro zone country to officially enter recession. The recession was confirmed by figures from the Central Statistics Office showing the bursting of the property bubble and a collapse in consumer spending that terminated the boom that was the Celtic Tiger. The figures -3.0% shown the GDP growth rate fell. Next was followed by GDP -7.0% in year 2009, Ireland’s government debt had become the riskiest in the euro zone, surpassing Greece’s sovereign bonds, according to credit-default swap prices. The loss of output in the economy in 2009 and 2010 is likely to result in a broadly similar loss of employment and a sharp rise in the rate of unemployment which is forecast to average 113⁄4 per cent of the labour force this year rising to an average of about 141⁄2 per cent in 2010. After 2009, it is sustained recovery in 2010 where is -0.4%. The Ireland economy returned to growth in 2011 after three years of contraction. GDP......

Words: 875 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...everyone who left had a third-level education in the 12 months to April this year. The I.T graduates are also leaving the country due to better opportunities in their fields in other countries, such as the UK, the US and Australia. (Irish Examiner , 2014) * Skills Shortages In its ‘ICT Skills Audit’, Fastrack to IT (FIT), estimates that there are 4,500 vacancies in Ireland’s ICT sector. These are not being filled, because of “the severely limited supply of suitably skilled applicants”. The study, shows that many of the vacancies are at the intermediate-skills level, and could be filled after training programmes of six to 24 months. FIT runs courses enabling people to re-skill. The sectors with most job vacancies include digital/creative media, contact centre support, games development, cloud computing, PC maintenance and mobile technologies. (Percival, 2013) * The Economy ICT is not only one of the fastest growing industries, directly creating millions of jobs, but it is also an important creater of innovation and development. ICT is a large contributor to the recovery of the economy after the economic crisis. It helps the economy by direct job creation, contribution to GDP growth, emergence of new services and industries, workforce transformation and business innovation. (Kvochko,...

Words: 276 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The European Soveirgn Debt Crisis

...European Sovereign-debt Crisis Throughout history, debt has been an issue and a concern for many countries around the world. Nations borrowing money, unnecessarily spending, corruption, inability to pay back loans and a variety of other factors have contributed to the devastating and lasting effects of monetary absolution. In recent years, some of the most significant and devastating economic occurrences that have taken place were released to the general public. One that has received a great deal of attention is known as the European Sovereign- debt Crisis or the Euro zone crisis. The European Sovereign Debt crisis is an ongoing financial crisis that has made it impossible for some countries in the Europe to repay or refinance their government debt without the assistance of third parties (Wikimedia). Countries across the European Continent are struggling to find ways to cope with the crisis and the impact that it has taken on debt stricken nations. Europe’s politicians, regulators, and market players are trying different approaches to deal with the problems at hand (Bloomberg LLP). Due to the number of countries that are involved this financial crisis is not only affecting these countries but the entire world. The Euro zone crisis had a variety of origins that grew their roots over a course of many years, but the situation was not released to the general public until back in late 2009 when the concerns intensified. Fears of a Sovereign Debt Crisis arose among investors......

Words: 3676 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Ireland, Rise and Fall of the Keltic Tiger

...Ireland, Rise and fall of the Celtic Tiger INB-300 International Business Abstract This paper will attempt to summarize the rise and fall of the Irish Celtic Tiger. The paper will begin with a brief description of Irish history and religion. A map will be utilized as a reference to provide Ireland’s geographical location and reference to other European nations. The paper will discuss the factors that influenced the Irish name “Celtic Tiger” and the rise thereof. It will examine Irish policy maker’s decisions that set the stage for unprecedented economic stature. The paper will then transition to the changes and decisions that led to the fall of the Celtic Tiger and near bankruptcy of the government. Specific discussions will include the real estate bubble, unemployment, exports, emigration and currency. Then the paper will describe the unsupported bail out negotiated with the EU/IMF. In conclusion the paper will discuss the end of one ruling party and entry of a new government and the challenges they are faced with in light of the country’s economic situation.   References Anonymous (2011) Celtic storm: Irelands voters exact revenge for country’s debt. McClatchy –tribune News. Retrieved March 17, 2011 from Associated Press. (2011). Ireland Upper House Passes Financial Bailout Bill. Pitsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved March 17, 2011 from Eurpeon Map. (2011). Gate-1 Travel. Retrieved from ......

Words: 3067 - Pages: 13

Free Essay


...Sharma Guohan.Wang The Debt Crisis of Greece Early October 2009, the Greek government suddenly announced that in 2009 the government budget deficits and public debt as a percentage of GDP was expected to reach 12.7% and 113% respectively, far more than the EU's <stability and growth pact> rules of the upper limit of 3% and 60%. Given the Greek government finances deteriorated significantly, the three major credit rating agencies fitch, standard & poor's and moody's have cut Greece's sovereign credit rating, the debt crisis in Greece officially kicked off. However, when joining the EU, Greece saw himself was far away from the two standards related. This was not a good thing of Greece and the Euro zone. Especially when the euro first came out and then began to depreciate. Greece would then turn to the U.S. investment bank Goldman Sachs for assist. Goldman Sachs then design a set of currency swaps for Greece in order to cover up a sum of up to 1 billion Euros public debt, which made the Greek conform to the standard of Euro members. In addition, Goldman Sachs designed for Greece a variety of ways to accumulate capital and at the same time they did not lead to rising debt. Such as the national lottery and aviation tax income in the future as a mortgage, in exchange for cash. This kind of mortgage now became a sale in statistics instead of debt. In other words, it became the securitization of bank creditor's rights. The root cause of the debt crisis in Greece was......

Words: 1170 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

European Crisis

...The Eurozone crisis (often referred to as the Euro crisis) is an ongoing crisis that has been affecting the countries of the Eurozone since late 2009. It is a combined sovereign debt crisis, a banking crisis and a growth and competitiveness crisis.[8] The crisis made it difficult or impossible for some countries in the euro area to repay or re-finance their government debt without the assistance of third parties. Moreover, banks in the Eurozone are undercapitalized and have faced liquidity problems. Additionally, economic growth is slow in the whole of the Eurozone and is unequally distributed across the member states.[8] In 1992, members of the European Union signed the Maastricht Treaty, under which they pledged to limit their deficit spending and debt levels. However, in the early 2000s, a number of EU member states were failing to stay within the confines of the Maastricht criteria and turned to securitising future government revenues to reduce their debts and/or deficits. Sovereigns sold rights to receive future cash flows, allowing governments to raise funds without violating debt and deficit targets, but sidestepping best practice and ignoring internationally agreed standards.[9] This allowed the sovereigns to mask (or "Enronize") their deficit and debt levels through a combination of techniques, including inconsistent accounting, off-balance-sheet transactions as well as the use of complex currency and credit derivatives structures.[9] From late 2009, fears......

Words: 12881 - Pages: 52

Premium Essay

Euro Crises

...THE EURO IN CRISIS Objective Of Study The objective of the following study is to understand and analyse the recent euro debt crisis which led to the temporary fall of the euro. Through this study, attempt has been made to single out EU member countries and the events in those countries that led to the crisis. Policy recommendations have also been stated to further help the main objective of dissecting and understanding the problem. INTRODUCTION Over the last two years, the euro zone has been going through an agonizing debate over the handling of its own home grown crisis, now the ‗euro zone crisis‘. Starting from Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Spain and more recently Italy, these euro zone economies have witnessed a downgrade of the rating of their sovereign debt, fears of default and a dramatic rise in borrowing costs. These developments threaten other Euro zone economies and even the future of the Euro. Such a situation is a far cry from the optimism and grand vision that marked the launch of the Euro in 1999 and the relatively smooth passage it enjoyed thereafter. While the Euro zone may be forced to do what it takes, it is unlikely that the situation will soon return to business as usual on its own. Yet, this crisis is not a currency crisis in a classic sense. Rather, it is about managing economies in a currency zone and the economic and political tensions that arise from the fact that its constituents are moving at varying speeds, have dramatically different fiscal......

Words: 22358 - Pages: 90

Premium Essay

Internship Report

...Zone and the introduction of the Euro 2 3.0 Key Causes of the European Financial and Economic Crises 3 4.0 The Start and Progression of the European Debt Crisis 5 5.1 Greece 6 5.2 Portugal 6 5.3 Italy 7 5.4 Spain 7 5.5 Ireland 8 5.6 Iceland 9 5.0 Measures Taken (so far) to Combat the Debt Crisis (European Level) 10 6.7 European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF). 10 6.8 European Financial Stabilization Mechanism (EFSM). 10 6.9 ECB interventions. 10 6.10 Brussels Agreement. 11 6.0 Implications of the European Debt Crisis: For the European Union 12 7.0 Implications of the European Debt Crisis: For the Global Economy 13 8.0 Implications of the European Debt Crisis: For Global Politics 14 9.0 Implications of the European Debt Crisis: For Pakistan 15 10.0 Implications of the European Debt Crisis: For the Welfare State 16 11.0 Solutions for the European Debt Crisis 16 12.11 Eurobonds. 16 12.12 Restructuring of Eurozone. 18 1.0 Overview: With a nominal GDP of $16,242 Billion in 2010 (20% of global GDP), the European monetary union is not only the world’s largest economic block, but also the foremost integrated economic and political association of nations in history. The economic crisis the Euro Zone currently faces is unique in all of its aspects. While, like all financial...

Words: 7079 - Pages: 29