Free Essay

Irish Immigration and Nativism

In: Historical Events

Submitted By mmcdermott61
Words 579
Pages 3
United States History I
11 April 2013
Irish Immigration and Nativism
Immigration to the United States has shaped our country from its founding to the present day. The United States went through a large agricultural and industrial expansion in the 19th century and with that came a large wave of immigration from Western Europe. During this time Ireland’s potato crop became diseased, causing widespread famine and the country went through a period called the Great Hunger. These two factors were instrumental in the almost 3.5 million Irish that immigrated to American between 1820 and 1880. The Irish met with much adversity when they arrived here. A wave of nativism toward their religion, and also poverty made life difficult in the beginning. The Irish had faced adversity and oppression before, but their solidarity along with their strength and religious beliefs made it possible for them to find a better life by striving for success economically, politically and socially.
Irish immigrants arrived here with very little education or skill set and jobs were hard to find. They came from poverty so they had little money or resources to start a business. Many of them did not want to return to farming because of their experience in Ireland. Women found jobs as maids, cooks, nannies or factory workers. Because of the country’s large industrial expansion many of the male immigrants worked long hard hours building bridges, railroad and canals for very low wages. Americans were not happy the Irish were taking many of their jobs which added to the already hostile environment. Business owners made it very clear that they did not want the Irish working for them by hanging signs in their windows that read, “Irish Need Not Apply.” Their living conditions here were not much better than what they left in Ireland. They stuck together and formed small communities to live in close to where they worked. Many lived in “shanty towns” that were crammed with shacks and had no sanitation.
The Irish were met with a wave of nativism when they arrived in the United States. There was a fear of the negative influence of immigrants especially the huge migration of Irish Catholics. The English Protestants who were settled here differed in the management and policies of their church. This would soon change when in 1828, Andrew Jackson became the first president of Irish heritage. He was known for giving favors to local supporters and he also gained the support of the lower class which would change the political climate forever. By the middle of the nineteenth century, American cities were undergoing rapid growth and developing. At the same time government infrastructure was emerging and the Irish began filling many of the jobs that were created. Irish policemen and firemen are not just stereotypes. Also at this time many Irish American workers could be found at many different types of occupations and at all levels. The Irish success in government enabled the Irish to have more opportunity and many more jobs were delegated to them. One example is the building of the Brooklyn Bridge which was presided over by an Irishman and Irish laborers. Many Irish were still common laborers and with this came long hours and no pay increase. This prompted Irish Americans to band together and form unions to help improve working conditions. The unions’ ability to strike and run boycotts threatened industry, forcing them to negotiate and eventually improve working conditions for all laborers.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Italian Immigration Dbq

...The Immigration Act of 1924 sparked conversations surrounding whiteness that complemented nativist practices towards Italian immigrants. During and after WWI, the sweeping immigration of Italians was met with white backlash surrounding their ethnic and national backgrounds, with many whites branding Italians as swarthy, illiterate, and ragpickers.” Furthermore, fiction novels of the early twentieth century portrayed Italians as distinctly non-white. While the Immigration Act was well received by white nativists behind such xenophobic actions, heavily biased mathematical engineering behind the quota system inadvertently spurred the consolidation of an Italian ethnic identity through geo-national pride. While the Immigration Act of 1924, influenced...

Words: 1664 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Immigration

...Joey Dorion American Immigration II Professor McEvoy Paper 1 The United States has long held the title of a “land of immigrants,” a place where the downtrodden and rejected peoples of the old world could come to ply their trade, to attempt to carve out a meaningful existence for themselves. The American Dream was alive and well in the early waves of immigrants, as they came from the desired parts of Europe: namely England and Western Europe. They came with fire in their spirit, and determination to make a better life for themselves than they were able to have back in the Old World. They adapted, they assimilated, and they were able to become functioning and respected members of American society. It wasn’t until the second waves of immigrants arrived that a major opposition was formed, as fear of the foreigner spurred “old” immigrants and the “old” families of the northeast to preserve their ideals. It was with a deliberate and systematic approach that legislation was passed between the years of 1882 and 1929, keeping out those less than desired groups: Italians, Chinese, those from southwestern Europe. The White Anglo-Saxon Protestant preference was alive and out in the open in the American public, and all other policymaking went towards limiting only those who were thought not to possess the potential to become the epitome of the American citizen. The history of American immigration is one that is littered with racism, and more often than not blatant...

Words: 1994 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Immigrant Workers in Canadian History

...THE CANADIAN HISTORY OF IMMIGRATNT WORKERS Canadian labour history is tainted by hatred, discrimination and fear of immigrant workers and immigration. This stems in part from Government sponsored racism and the capitalistic use of immigration as a means to defy the labour movement. We can start with the stereotyping and discrimination of the Irish in the 1840’s, our first large scale exploitable labour pool and move right through to today’s racial profiling and cultural unacceptance of Arabs and east Indians. Through our history the acceptance of immigrants gradually improve but even today we haven’t achieved an acceptable level of tolerance. Were not perfect but we eventually seem to learn from the mistakes of our past. After Mackenzie King and into the sixties government supported racism through our immigration department seemed on the decline. With the 1982 Charter of Rights and Freedoms Act being signed into the constitution we took a huge leap forward. However, this doesn’t erase a past full of discrimination and exploitation of immigrants by government, employers and labour. In Canadian history immigrant workers have been racially stereotyped, discriminated against and subjected to differing levels of acceptance within Canadian culture and the working class society. Immigrant workers found themselves in varying levels of distress upon arrival to Canada, being exploited by employers, shunned by labour and oppressed as second class citizens by government. This may......

Words: 3351 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Ellis Island Dbq

...years, America had become a symbol for hope and prosperity and this was seen as a gift by the world, which would lead to a high immigration rate inside the U.S. that required the formation of certain immigration ports such as New York and San Francisco. The end result would be the movement of over 10 million people into the U.S. over a 20 year span, which would lead to similar acts of nativism by the people that we sometimes face today. In my essay I will explore the early years of immigration through Ellis Island, how Ellis Island was important for being the torch in the East and how the geography would affect the situation immigrants faced.     Before the torch, before the arrival of millions of people into the U.S. seeking...

Words: 1211 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Apush Chapter 14

...Activity 1: 1. Lincoln attempted to carve out a moderate position on slavery, by basically saying that he did not highly like the idea of slavery however he would not stop people or states from having or acquiring slaves. He says this because he knows that if he would completely go against slavery then the South would most likely wants to split from the Union. So Lincoln attempted to keep a moderate position. 2. Lincoln contended that Douglas' ultimate goal was with regard to the expansion of slavery within the country. While Lincoln argue that equality was for all people, Douglas argued strongly against him. However no matter how much they argued both knew that abolishing slavery would be hard because it was such in demand especially in the South. Lincoln contended that Douglas' ultimate goal was with regards to extend slavery. 3. During the debate each man accused the other one about certain things. In this debate Lincoln accused Douglas of not following with Dred Scott decision. Douglas then accuse Lincoln of being wrong about his accusation. Both lies go hand in hand, during those debates each man accused the other of lying. 4. Lincoln asked whether the people of a territory could exclude slavery prior to applying for statehood. Douglas responded with the answer of yes, that prior to applying for statehood people with a territory could exclude slavery. 5. Douglas use the audience's racial fears to discredit Lincoln during the debate. The fear that the......

Words: 2398 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

History

...Gonzalez 1 Rachel Gonzalez AP U.S. History Mr. Cranston 20 March 2015 Chapters 12 and 13 Essay Assignment Major themes of history evolve as time progresses. From the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, to the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, massive shifts occur. Regarding work, exchange, and technology; America in the World; politics and power; as well as ideas, beliefs, and culture, the evolution between the centuries have changed the significant themes throughout the United States. Work, exchange, and technology play a huge role in Americans lives throughout each century. People rarely used money; services and products were paid for mostly through trades and barters. Home and work were not separated; they were the same place. Nobody stuck to a schedule; things were done as needed. Skills were acquired through apprenticeship. An apprenticeship lasted from three to seven years. Apprentices lived with their masters during this time period, while trading knowledge for labor. However, women were not allowed to have such apprenticeships. Women gained knowledge of domestic skills through their mother, as it was assumed that the women would marry. Some women would work respectably as: servants, laundresses, seamstresses, cooks, and food vendors—or not respected as prostitutes. Men directed the lives of family members and apprentices: deciding occupations for sons, marriages for daughters, etc. Women (the wives) were responsible for: food,......

Words: 3448 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Lone Wolf Terrorism

...Lone Wolf Terrorism Introduction Problem background and significance In the United States terrorism incidents such as the attack in 1995 in Oklahoma by Timothy McVeigh and the September 11th attack in 2001, have led to the realization that lone wolf terrorism posses a grave threat to the safety of the public. Terrorism analysts and law enforcement authorities have insisted that it is hard to spot lone terrorists before they strike and this is of great threat to the security of a nation. From FBI information it is evident that lone terrorism trends indicate that it is an ongoing risk both in side the United States and outside the country (Risen & Johnston, 2003) In 2003 the director of the FBI stated that there was an increased threat from persons who are affiliated or sympathetic with the Al Qaeda and they act without having any conspiracies surrounding them or external support. Scholars in the field of terrorism have in the past concentrated on the how terrorist groups work so as to explain how individuals work. The general view of terrorism is that it is a group activity which is mainly influenced by leaders training, recruitment, obedience and conformity, solidarity and moral disengagement. Due to the imbalance that exists between the focus by scholars on terrorism that is group based on one hand and apparent threat posed by lone wolf terrorist on the other hand, necessitates the empirical and conceptual analysis of lone wolf terrorism so as to establish a good......

Words: 8796 - Pages: 36

Free Essay

Discussion

...Chapter 17 The Industrial Revolution ­Learning Outcomes After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 17-1 Describe and discuss the development of the Industrial Revolution in America after the Civil War, concentrating on the major industries and their leaders. 17-2 Describe how America’s regional and local markets merged into one truly national market and how this influenced the consumer demand for products and services, as well as some of the costs associated with the transition. 17-3 Discuss the functioning of national, state, and local politics during the late 1800s. 17-4 Describe the formation of the early labor unions in the United States, including their goals, activities, and situations at the end of the nineteenth century. 290 C h apt e r 15 The Continued Move West “ The world that had consisted of small farms, artisans’ workshops, and small factories transformed into a full-scale industrial society. ” As the process of ensuring political, economic, and social rights of African Americans waned during the 1870s, most Americans turned their attenNo invention had more lasting impact than the incandestion to another transformation cent light bulb. brought on by the Civil War: the Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree Industrial Revolution. During 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 the half-century between                                                    1865 and 1915, the United States evolved from a......

Words: 10590 - Pages: 43

Premium Essay

California an Interpretive History - Rawls, James

...CALIFORNIA CALIFORNIA An Interpretive History TENTH EDITION James J. Rawls Instructor of History Diablo Valley College Walton Bean Late Professor of History University of California, Berkeley TM TM CALIFORNIA: AN INTERPRETIVE HISTORY, TENTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Previous editions © 2008, 2003, and 1998. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States. This book is printed on acid-free paper. 1234567890 QFR/QFR 10987654321 ISBN: 978-0-07-340696-1 MHID: 0-07-340696-1 Vice President & Editor-in-Chief: Michael Ryan Vice President EDP/Central Publishing Services: Kimberly Meriwether David Publisher: Christopher Freitag Sponsoring Editor: Matthew Busbridge Executive Marketing Manager: Pamela S. Cooper Editorial Coordinator: Nikki Weissman Project Manager: Erin Melloy Design Coordinator: Margarite Reynolds Cover Designer: Carole Lawson Cover Image: Albert Bierstadt, American......

Words: 248535 - Pages: 995

Premium Essay

Religion, Fundamentalism and Ethnicity Global Perspective

...Ethnicity, Identity and Public Policy Critical Perspectives on Multiculturalism David Bromell Institute of Policy Studies Ethnicity, Identity and Public Policy Critical Perspectives on Multiculturalism David Bromell Institute of Policy Studies First printed in 2008 Institute of Policy Studies School of Government Victoria University of Wellington PO Box 600 Wellington © Institute of Policy Studies ISBN 158 IPS/Pub/978-1-877347-26-9 This book is copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced without the permission of the Institute of Policy Studies. Copy editor: Belinda Hill Cover design: Milne Printers Ltd Printed by Milne Printers Ltd Contents List of Tables iv List of Figures iv List of Boxes iv Foreword v Acknowledgments and Disclaimer ix Part One: Introduction and Context of Inquiry 1 Introduction 2 New Zealand Context 3 21 Part Two: Communitarian Responses to Liberalism Introduction to Part Two 61 3 Civic Republicanism: Michael Sandel 63 4 The Politics of Recognition: Charles Taylor 83 Part Three: Multiculturalism Introduction to Part Three 105 5 Multicultural Citizenship: Will Kymlicka 107 6 Common Citizenship in a Multicultural Society: Bhikhu Parekh 151 Part Four: Critical Responses to......

Words: 135228 - Pages: 541

Free Essay

2004 Un Article Multiculturalism

...HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2004 Cultural Liberty in Today’s Diverse World Accommodating people’s growing demands for their inclusion in society, for respect of their ethnicity, religion, and language, takes more than democracy and equitable growth. Also needed are multicultural policies that recognize differences, champion diversity and promote cultural freedoms, so that all people can choose to speak their language, practice their religion, and participate in shaping their culture— so that all people can choose to be who they are. 65 108 166 55 34 82 3 14 91 51 40 138 29 62 6 99 161 134 114 66 128 72 33 56 175 173 130 141 4 105 169 167 43 94 73 136 144 168 45 163 48 52 30 32 Albania Algeria Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, Dem. Rep. of the Costa Rica Côte d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic 17 154 95 98 100 120 103 109 156 36 170 81 13 16 122 155 97 19 131 24 93 121 160 172 104 153 115 23 38 7 127 111 101 10 22 21 79 9 90 78 148 28 44 110 135 50 80 Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea...

Words: 113315 - Pages: 454

Free Essay

One Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.

...E SSAYS ON TWENTIETH-C ENTURY H ISTORY In the series Critical Perspectives on the Past, edited by Susan Porter Benson, Stephen Brier, and Roy Rosenzweig Also in this series: Paula Hamilton and Linda Shopes, eds., Oral History and Public Memories Tiffany Ruby Patterson, Zora Neale Hurston and a History of Southern Life Lisa M. Fine, The Story of Reo Joe: Work, Kin, and Community in Autotown, U.S.A. Van Gosse and Richard Moser, eds., The World the Sixties Made: Politics and Culture in Recent America Joanne Meyerowitz, ed., History and September 11th John McMillian and Paul Buhle, eds., The New Left Revisited David M. Scobey, Empire City: The Making and Meaning of the New York City Landscape Gerda Lerner, Fireweed: A Political Autobiography Allida M. Black, ed., Modern American Queer History Eric Sandweiss, St. Louis: The Evolution of an American Urban Landscape Sam Wineburg, Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts: Charting the Future of Teaching the Past Sharon Hartman Strom, Political Woman: Florence Luscomb and the Legacy of Radical Reform Michael Adas, ed., Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History Jack Metzgar, Striking Steel: Solidarity Remembered Janis Appier, Policing Women: The Sexual Politics of Law Enforcement and the LAPD Allen Hunter, ed., Rethinking the Cold War Eric Foner, ed., The New American History. Revised and Expanded Edition E SSAYS ON _ T WENTIETH- C ENTURY H ISTORY Edited......

Words: 163893 - Pages: 656

Premium Essay

Language and Identity

...ENGLISH ONLY COURT CASES INVOLVING THE U.S. WORKPLACE: THE MYTHS OF LANGUAGE USE AND THE HOMOGENIZATION OF BILINGUAL WORKERS’ IDENTITIES KARI GIBSON University of Hawai‘i Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act protects against discrimination in employment on the basis of race, color, sex, religion and national origin. However when the judicial system has examined English only workplace policies in light of Title VII, it has generally determined that such policies are not discriminatory if an employee is able to speak English. Although plaintiffs have argued that language is inextricably linked to national origin and cultural identity, the courts have stated that the use of a language other than English is detrimental to the morale of monolingual English speakers and a single language is necessary to ensure workplace harmony and proper management. This paper examines the court cases where English Only workplace policies have been challenged, and identifies the prevalent myths and ideologies held by businesses and the courts about language use, identity, and bilingual speakers. Through the process of homogeneism, linguistic diversity is rejected as monolingual English speakers are able to create and enforce rules that favor themselves as they construct the identity of “American” in their own image. Language is a central feature of human identity. When we hear someone speak, we immediately make guesses about gender, education level, age, profession, and place of origin....

Words: 21473 - Pages: 86

Premium Essay

Cyrus the Great

...critical theory today critical theory today A Us e r - F r i e n d l y G u i d e S E C O N D E D I T I O N L O I S T Y S O N New York London Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business Routledge Taylor & Francis Group 270 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10016 Routledge Taylor & Francis Group 2 Park Square Milton Park, Abingdon Oxon OX14 4RN © 2006 by Lois Tyson Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business Printed in the United States of America on acid‑free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number‑10: 0‑415‑97410‑0 (Softcover) 0‑415‑97409‑7 (Hardcover) International Standard Book Number‑13: 978‑0‑415‑97410‑3 (Softcover) 978‑0‑415‑97409‑7 (Hardcover) No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging‑in‑Publication Data Tyson, Lois, 1950‑ Critical theory today : a user‑friendly guide / Lois Tyson.‑‑ 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0‑415‑97409‑7 (hb) ‑‑ ISBN 0‑415‑97410‑0 (pb) 1.......

Words: 221284 - Pages: 886