Premium Essay

Is Culling Be Used to Eradicate Bovine Tb?

In: Science

Submitted By naeemkay
Words 1586
Pages 7
Can culling be used to eradicate bovine TB?
Bovine TB is an infectious disease of cattle but can also be present in other mammals which are caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). This disease is also zoonotic which means it can be transmitted from animals to people and cause a similar disease to human TB but is not very common. Bovine TB takes place over a prolonged period of time and the clinical signs of the disease are: weakness, loss of appetite, weight loss, fluctuating fever, intermittent hacking cough, diarrhoea, large prominent lymph nodes.
The disease is more prevalent in most of Africa, parts of Asia however other countries such as the UK still have significant pockets of infection despite reducing Bovine TB. Areas of England that have high incidences of Bovine TB in cattle also tend to have high number of badgers. The disease is spread by contact between infected animals and non-affected animals. The usual route of infection is by inhaling infected droplets which are expelled from the lungs by coughing which makes it mainly a respiratory disease. Calves and humans can also become infected by ingesting raw milk from infected cows. As the course of the disease is slow it can take up to months or years before the animal dies but in that time the disease can pass to other herd mates before it begins to manifest the clinical signs.
The standard method for detection of TB is the tuberculin test, where a small amount of antigen is injected into the skin, and the immune reaction is measured. Cattle that react to the skin test are taken away for slaughter and the farmer compensated. The testing occurs every four years however can happen annually to those cattle at higher risk. The image below shows the number of cattle tested positive for bovine TB up to 2010. In addition to the skin testing, Gamma interferon blood testing is used along side...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Section 3 Predator Pcb

...Section 3: Predation (part B), Herbivory, parasitism, popn. Regulation, biocontrol, fisheries, conservation biology. PREDATION… Continued (Part B) C. Studying predator effects on prey populations in the field. 1. Manipulative experiments 2. Accidental Experiments 3. Comparative Studies- woodland caribou -Food limited -Predator limited D. Optimal Foraging theory: how do predators choose their diets? (see chapter 3) *What is the optimum strategy? = Energy maximization or time minimization Max En/T Assumptions about the predator (forager): -Eating and searching for the next food (prey) item are mutually exclusive activities. -Items are found sequentially, items are found one at a time. Energetic Value of prey: EACH PREY ITEM HAS AN ENERGENTIC VALUE (ei) Handling time: A HANDLING TIME (hi) Profitability: : e/h= profitability of each prey item (such that prey can be ranked) Rule: optimal foraging rule (prediction) – always eat the most profitable prey and eat the next most profitable prey if the gain is greater than the gain from rejecting it and searching for a more profitable prey. Predictions of Optimal Foraging Theory: The highest ranked prey type should always be eaten when encountered. 1) Predators with small handling times and long search times should be GENERALISTS. 2) Diets should be broad in pre-poor (unproductivr) environments. 3) The abundance of low ranking......

Words: 2346 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Jared Diamond Collapse

...COLLAPSE HOW S O C I E T I E S CHOOSE TO FAIL OR S U C C E E D JARED DIAMOND VIK ING VIKING Published by the Penguin Group Penguin Group (USA) Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, U.S.A. Penguin Group (Canada), 10 Alcorn Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4V 3B2 (a division of Pearson Penguin Canada Inc.) Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England Penguin Ireland, 25 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Ireland (a division of Penguin Books Ltd) Penguin Books Australia Ltd, 250 Camberwell Road, Camberwell, Victoria 3124, Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) Penguin Books India Pvt Ltd, 11 Community Centre, Panchsheel Park, New Delhi—110 017, India Penguin Group (NZ), Cnr Airborne and Rosedale Roads, Albany, Auckland 1310, New Zealand (a division of Pearson New Zealand Ltd) Penguin Books (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd, 24 Sturdee Avenue, Rosebank, Johannesburg 2196, South Africa Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England First published in 2005 by Viking Penguin, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. 13579 10 8642 Copyright © Jared Diamond, 2005 All rights reserved Maps by Jeffrey L. Ward LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING IN PUBLICATION DATA Diamond, Jared M. Collapse: how societies choose to fail or succeed/Jared Diamond. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-670-03337-5 1. Social history—Case studies. 2. Social change—Case studies. 3. Environmental policy— Case studies. I. Title. HN13. D5 2005......

Words: 235965 - Pages: 944