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Is-It Strategy

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IS/IT Strategy Use at Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority-Tanzania


MAGANGA, MOHAMED George (MBA-ITM/0179/T.2013)

JAN 2014

Coursework cover sheet – be sure to keep a copy of all work submitted * Submit via the coursework at Room No. 20 Administration Building * Section A - To be completed by the student – PLEASE PRINT CLEARLY Family Name(s) MAGANGA | Module Code ARUM40EKM | First name(s) Mohamed George | | IAA Student Registration Number MBA -ITM/0179/T.2013 | | LecturersDr.Titus Tossy and MS Joy Joseph | Module TitleIS/IT STRATEGY | Due date:10th January 2014 | Assignment No. / TitleIS /IT USE AT NCAA | Extensions & late submissions allowed:No | Estimated Time (hrs) | Assignment type:Individual | % of Module Mark50 | Hand out date: 10th January 2014 | Penalties: Marks will be reduced by 10% of the original mark for every week late. No work will be accepted that is more than two weeks | Declaration: I/we the undersigned confirm that I/we have read and agree to abide by the Coventry University and Institute of Accountancy Arusha regulations on plagiarism and cheating. I/we confirm that this piece of work is my/our own. I/we consent to appropriate storage of our work for checking to ensure that there is no plagiarism/ academic cheating.Signature(s): -----------------------------------------------------------Date:-------/-------/2014 |

Table of Contents

Table of Contents iii Abstract vi Chapter 1 1 1.0 General perspective of Tourism sector in Tanzania 1 1.1 Background Information on Ngorongoro Conserv ation Authority 1 1.1.1 Introduction 1 1.1.2 NCAA Vision 2 1.1.3 NCAA Mission Statement 2 1.1.4 Development Objectives 2 1.1.5 Business Strategy statement 2 1.1.6 Organization structure of NCAA 2 Chapter 2 3 2.0 The analysis of IS/IT at NCAA 3 2.1 Internal and External Analysis of NCAA 3 2.2 Internal Analysis 3 2.2.1 SWOT Internal Analysis 3 Strength 3 Weakness 3 2.3 External Analysis 4 2.3.1 SWOT External Analysis 4 Opportunity 4 Threats 4 2.3.2 PEST Analysis 4 2.3.3 Porter’s Five Forces 5 The threat of entry of new entrants (competitors) 5 The threat of substitutes 5 The Bargaining power of buyers 5 The Bargaining power of Suppliers 6 The Degree of Rivalry 6 Chapter 3 7 Use of IT and IS 7 3.1 System Users 7 3.2 Challenges faced by the CEO of NCAA 8 Chapter 4 9 Organization Systems 9 4.1 Introduction 9 4.2 Purposes of Information Systems 9 4.3 Evaluation of NCAA organization system 9 Chapter 5 10 IS/IT strategy 10 5.1 What is IS/IT strategy 10 5.2 How existence of IS/IT strategy can help the NCAA 10 Chapter 6 11 Findings/Recommendations 11 6.1 Findings 11 6.2 Recommendations 11 6.3 Conclusions 11 List of references 12 Annex I- Proposal Draft of IS/IT strategy for NCAA 13

List of Abbreviations
GIS Geographical Information systems
GPS Geographical Positioning System
HR Human Resourcses
NCA Ngorongoro Conservation Area
NCAA Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority
PEST Political, Economic, Social & Technological Factors
SWOT Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats
TAWIRI Tanzania Wildlife Research Instiyute
WTTC World Travel & Tourism Council

Abstract The aim of this report is to investigate, analyze the use of IS/IT and propose IS/IT strategy which will align with the business strategy for an organization in the tourism sector (the case of Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority); In order to achieve this various management tools for internal and external analysis of an organization will be used. The overall use of IT has been examined at this Authority and the result brings a proposed IS/IT strategy that has been used for recommendation and conclusion of this report. The analysis shows that, opportunities and challenges exist in any firm in Tanzania particularly Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority. There are a lot of opportunities and few challenges in this world; Even though the number of organizations performing different activities increases but still the world provide vast prospect of all kind. With the free market economy system where any sort of business can be performed timely strategic business launching is important. By using the right tools and by applying resources effectively enormous returns to the company can be achieved. The use of IS/IT strategy and good change management approaches in any organization is the only weapon to make the company remain competitive. In Tanzania most of the companies especially working in the public sector are not competing strategically. They are operating for the matter of providing service in any how and their strategies are not implemented they are just written on paper only due to lack of commitment.

Chapter 1 1.0 General perspective of Tourism sector in Tanzania
Tanzania’s tourism industry is prosperous and is one of the fastest growing sectors in the country and lead in bringing foreign exchange. According to the Minister of Tourism and Natural resources Ambassador Khamis Kagasheki the number of tourist arrivals has increased from 867,994 in 2011 to 1,077,058 last year indicating a rise by 24 percent. (Daily News 01 May 2013). According to the World Travel and Tourism Council, tourism directly generated 1,182,500 jobs in 2011(WTTC 2012).
The government of Tanzania apart from international tourism has recognized the importance of domestic tourism towards contribution of economic growth. The government through its agencies is working closely with private sector to promote domestic tourism. Through media such as television, radio and newspaper advertisement are made to local community to make them aware of touristic places. Local fairs such “Karibu Travel Fair”, “Nane Nane” and “Saba Saba” are also used for the same purpose. By keeping low entrance fees to visit museum and antiquities where adults pay TZS 1500 and children TZS 500 encourages residents to visit these areas.From these initiatives the number of tourist has increased to 826,000 from 578900 recorded in 2010/12(Ministry of Tourism and Natural Resources 2012).

1.1 Background Information on Ngorongoro Conserv ation Authority 1.1.1 Introduction
Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority was established in 1959 as a multiple land use area with the duty of promoting the conservation of natural resources, safeguarding the interests of indigenous residents of NCA and promoting tourism.NCA is the only area in the whole of Africa which is protected and it’s the area where conservation of natural resources is integrated with human development The NCA is composed of the Ngorongoro Crater, The Serengeti Plains which support more than 2.5 millions of migratory wildlife species of the Serengeti Mara-ecosystem (TAWIRI 2003) and the catchment forest; the NHFR. The archaeological and paleontological site located at Olduvai Gorge and the early human foot-prints that were discovered at Alaitole in Ngarusi area are also part of NCA.Due to these particular features and the harmonious co-existence between wildlife and people that existed for years, NCA was accorded the status of a World Heritage Site by UNESCO’s in 1979 as a World Heritage site and declared as Biosphere Reserve in 1981.
The NCAA is not performing well due to lack of clear and strong IS/IT Strategy. 1.1.2 NCAA Vision
The vision of NCAAA is to be a self-financed World Heritage Site that provides sustainable benefits for NCAA indigenous residents, Tanzanians and guarantees protection of natural, cultural and archaeological resources for global community. (Ngorongoro Conservation Authority 2012). 1.1.3 NCAA Mission Statement The mission of NCAA is to struggle to maintain the Status of NCAA being an eighth wonder of the world as well as a World Heritage Site. (Ngorongoro Conservation Authority 2013) 1.1.4 Development Objectives
The ultimate objective of the NCAA is to protect and develop the natural resources of the Conservation area. (Ngorongoro Conservation Authority 2012). 1.1.5 Business Strategy statement
The Authority has three important areas of opportunities. The first one is to protect and develop natural resources of Ngorongoro Conservation Area. The second one is to improve the way its functions units operate in terms of quality, quantity and the efficiency with which the functions are delivered. The third one is to enhance the Authority’s internal capacity to undertake these functions in terms of resources, planning and systems operations (Ngorongoro Conservation Authority 2012) 1.1.6 Organization structure of NCAA
IT Dept

Chapter 2
2.0 The analysis of IS/IT at NCAA
The aim of this situation analysis of NCAA is to investigate its performance and reflect the significance of strategic implementation of IS/IT. By using management tools such as internal and external analysis tools, management approaches and change management models the real framework for planning, implementation and performance of this Authority can be examined.
2.1 Internal and External Analysis of NCAA
Management tools like SWOT, PEST and Porter’s five forces will be used for internal and external analysis of the Authority.
2.2 Internal Analysis
In order to analyze the internal situation, the SWOT scanning tool will be applied 2.2.1 SWOT Internal Analysis
The acronym SWOT stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunity and threats. It can be used for scanning the company internally and externally. The internal scanning of the company reveals the current situation and will help in deciding how to improve the Authority’s performance. In this context the SW part of SWOT analysis will be used to illustrate the internal situation of the Authority. Strength
The positive aspects of NCAA which ensures market advantages will be used as strengths of the Authority and are listed below. * It is has area which covers nearly 8,300 sq. kilometers * It is the only crater with wildlife in it; it is the only crater after extinction that is able to hold life. * There all sorts of animals that can’t be found on other craters * It is a unique phenomenon you can’t find anywhere else in the world. * Relatively secure destination * Good cultural relationship with US,UK and EU countries Weakness
The listed below are the deficiencies of the Authority which causes the deprivation of competitive advantages * It is still a mystery to many people on the world * High entrance fee for non domestic tourists * Poor support from top management in innovation and planning of change * Poor infrastructure(bad roads, few communication facilities) * Inadequate effective and efficient tourism promotional strategies and not abiding to the everyday changing technology * Lack of experts * Less variety of foods * Poor customer services * Lack of accessibility * Lack of IS/IT strategy
2.3 External Analysis
The external analysis gives a chance to examine the external factors that can be used as guiding principles for making strategic plan in order to improve the performance of the Authority in order to gain competitive advantages. PEST analysis, Porter’s five forces and the OT part of SWOT analysis shall be used for external analysis. 2.3.1 SWOT External Analysis
The Opportunities and Threats as part of SWOT analysis shall be used for external analysis of the Authority Opportunity
The opportunities for the authority are as follows; * Unexploited domestic tourism market * Expansion of global digital economy(E-business) * Untapped tourism potential(E.g. eco-tourism, culture, conference and cruise) * Branding and Positioning * Strengthening eco-tourism * Development of markets Threats
Threats mean any external unfavorable condition or situation which can jeopardize the operations and effectiveness of an organization (Mullins 2007:541).The threats to the Authority are as follows: * Services offered by competitors(e.g. Masai Mara-kenya) are of high quality compared to that of NCA * Inflation rates * Erosion of cultural values * Increased spread of infectious diseases 2.3.2 PEST Analysis
The acronym PEST stands for Political, Economic, Social and Technological factors. The PEST analysis looks at the macro environmental factor, wider environment and crucially they are often uncontrollable factors. PEST analysis links to things like opportunities as they alert us to risks and show key drivers of change and more importantly tells about growth. This factor might influence demand and they might stimulate or on the other hand restrict demand. In this manner the Authority can design and implement its strategic plans so as to remain competitive. The following are the factors which may affect NCAA in accomplishing its objectives.

2.3.3 Porter’s Five Forces
Michael Porter (1985) has identified five forces that are widely used to assess the structure of any industry. Porter’s five forces are * The threats of new entrants(competitors) * The threat of substitutes * The bargaining power of buyers * The bargaining power of suppliers * The degree of rivalry between existing competitors The threat of entry of new entrants (competitors)
The number of new tourist destination created globally is increasing at a fast pace. Last year alone 25 new tourist destinations were created. (World Travel& Tourism Council 2012). The threat of substitutes
The customer care at NCA is not of high quality and this can be an advantage to other competitors like Masai-Mara (World Travel& Tourism Council 2012). The Bargaining power of buyers
Buyers are the people or organizations that create demand in industry; for the case of tourism industry it is the tourist who buys attraction services.NCA is the only place on planet which is unique in its nature so buyers have weak bargaining power.
However attractive places have potential competitors in the market that make the buyers to have substantial bargaining power. The Bargaining power of Suppliers
For the tourism industries the tourists (as resources) have no power for bargaining the price of attractions which give the host countries a chance of setting price. The Degree of Rivalry
The degree of rivalry between existing players(Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania) is high as Kenya receives more tourists compared to Tanzania even though Tanzania have a lot and good attractions compared to the three countries. (World Travel& Tourism Council 2012).

Chapter 3 Use of IT and IS
As the main objective of NCAA is to protect NCA with the use of GPS it can meet its anti poaching strategy at minimum cost. The use of human resources information system can help in improving productivity .Also with the effective use of internet it reaches its stakeholders easily and cheaply. With the use of Collaborative technologies it can enhance real time communication with its scattered office branches. Given below are the systems which can be used by NCAA in order to archive its objectives.

3.1 System Users
The following table 1 below shows the system/technology used by the stakeholders at NCAA.

3.2 Challenges faced by the CEO of NCAA
The Important challenges faced by the CEO discussed as follows: * Keeping organization competitive
Keeping organization competent is important for the existence of the company * Poaching
Anti poaching is an act of illegally smuggling or killing of wildlife. The CEO of NCAA is facing a lot challenges as dealing with poachers has been a long time problem and the techniques they use changes all the time.(TANAPA 2013).But with the use of IT the problem can be addressed using Map reading/GPS ,radio communication in monitoring targeted animals.

* Lack of skilled personnel to treat Wildlife and most endangered species * Poor infrastructure makes it impossible for quality delivery of services to indigenous and tourists.

Chapter 4
Organization Systems
4.1 Introduction
Information systems do not exit on air. Information Systems have a reason and a social/organizational context. A common reason is to provide a solution to a particular problem. The social context of the system consists of the beliefs and values that determine what is acceptable and possible within the culture of the organization. In order for managers to be successful they must have relevant information that increases their knowledge of internal processed and external business environment. With this knowledge managerial decisions are more rational and practical. Without relevant information nearly all the decisions made by managers will be like trial and errors, and as a result efficiency and profitability are decreased and the uncertainty is increased within the organization.
4.2 Purposes of Information Systems
Organization develops and use information systems so as to * Gain competitive advantage * Solve problems * Assist in decision making.
4.3 Evaluation of NCAA organization system
The use of Mansoft HR system at NCAA makes it possible for almost all HR processes being done using it. For example automation of tasks and process cut down the use of resources which can be material or human.
By providing HR self-services i.e. Computer based training; online recruitment HRIS helps an organization increasing efficiency and effectiveness in their organization (Hedrickson 2003).
Most HRIS produces data to frontend web applications which transfer data to employees and line managers (Ruel et al... 2011).
Apart from Mandoft HR NCAA uses Paytan for accounting information to improve effectiveness and efficiency in handling accounting matters. According to Zimmerman(1995) Accounting systems are considered as to important organization as they decrease overheads for the organizations.
According to Michael Porter value chain analysis in any value adding process there are secondary and primary activities. Accounting systems, human resources systems when utilized effectively they confer competitive advantages.

Chapter 5

IS/IT strategy
5.1 What is IS/IT strategy
According to Peppard J and Wadd, J (2002) an IS/IT strategy is made of two parts, an IS component and an IT component. The IS strategy defines the requirements/demands of an organization for information and systems to support the overall strategy of the business. The IT strategy on the other hand is concerned with delineation the vision of how the organizations demand for information and systems will be supported by technology.
5.2 How existence of IS/IT strategy can help the NCAA
Having an IS/IT strategy will help the organization to do the following * Invest in systems that supports their business * Achieve compatible objective * Integrate systems easily and hence duplication of effort and data is avoided * Prioritize IS projects/resources and constantly changing plans hence increasing productivity * Manage information effectively make sure that it is available, consistent and accurate * Invest adequately in infrastructure * Evaluate projects on financial basis only

Chapter 6


6.1 Findings
The analysis show that NCAA is moving slowly towards achieving its objective; the number of tourist visiting the area is still very low despite the fact that it is the most attractive place on earth. More than three decades has passed since its declaration by UNESCO as natural heritage and till now is mystery to many people around the world.
The NCAA has no IS/IT strategic plan and the lack of it make it miss the competitive advantages conferred by the use of IS/IT. The IS/IT strategy draft has been proposed for the NCAA.See Annex I
6.2 Recommendations
The NCAA is the government agency which has enormous source of funds for implementing its development projects; having a well-structured IS/IT strategy and change management will help in attaining its vision by grasping the funding opportunities. Furthermore the infrastructure needs to be expanded.
Apart from opportunities they have, great efforts should be made to combat the threats from neighbor countries touristic area like Masai -Mara Kenya (WTTC 2012).
6.3 Conclusions
The developments and quality service delivery at NCAA is hindered by the reluctance of top management to combat changes. The analysis suggests that despite of being unique phenomenon on earth NCA remain mystery to most people, with poor services due to the lack of desire to change.
It is clear that, if the opportunities around NCAA are utilized effectively number of tourist visits will increase.
Finally should NCAA emphasizes on the use of IS/IT and change management tools to become prosperous in tourism industry.

List of references
Aggarwal, N., & Kapoor, M. (2012). Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS)-Its role and importance in Business Competitiveness. Gian Jyoti E-Journal, 1(2).

Bondarouk, T. , Ruel, H.(2009) Electronic Human Resource Management;Challenges in the digital era.The international Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(3), 505-514

Chapman A. (2011) PEST market analysis - free template [Online] Available from <> [22 Dec 2013]
DAILY NEWS NEWSPAPER News from the parliament [Online] Available from “”[16/12/2013]
Laudon, K, C and Laudon,J, P.(2005)9thEdition.MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM: Managing the digital firm:Indiana:Prentice Hall.
MINISTRY OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND TOURISM Tourism Master Plan Strategy and Actions 2002[Online] Available from “”[22/12/2013]
Mullins, L.J (2007) 8thEdition.Management and Organizational Behavior. England: Financial Times Prentice Hall.
Ngorongoro Conservation Authority (2010) Cooperate Strategic Plan
O’Brien, J.A(2004) 6th Edition.MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM:Managing Information Technology in the Business York:McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Reclies D.(2001)Skills Style Strategy Systems Shared values Staff Structure[Online]Available from“”[02/01/2014]
TANAPA AND MEDIA TO WORK CLOSELY ON ANTPOACHING [online] available from [25/12/2013]
Turban, E. and Volonino, L. (2010) 7th Edition. Information Technology for Management,Asia,John Wiley &Sons(Asia)Pte Ltd
Ward, J and Peppard, J.(2002)3rd Edition Strategic Planning for Information systems,England,John Wiley & Sons Ltd
WORLD TRAVEL AND TOURISM COUNCIL Travel &Tourism Economic Impact 2012 report [Online] Available from “”[20/12/2013]

Annex I- Proposal Draft of IS/IT strategy for NCAA
The current situation at NCAA has identified the gap that exists in the use of IS/IT due to lack of IS/IT strategy and led to the proposal of the following IS/IT draft so that gap can be closed. IS/IT STRATEGY DRAFT FOR NCAA
Category:NCAA Area Date Established: 10/01/2014
Responsible Office:NCAA IT Department Date Last revised:-
Responsible Executive:

The aim of this proposal is to lay down the procedures and rules to be followed in implementing the IS/IT strategies at NCAA
Business Context of NCAA
The NCAA will work closely with the NCA indigenous residents so as to conserve the natural and historical resources and provide social services to residents, visitors and staff while maintaining the status of NCA (World Heritage site)
Business Success of NCAA * Winning through stakeholders intimacy relationship
Business capabilities of NCAA
In order to meet the targets outlined in the business success section NCAA must have: * Information and tools for monitoring stakeholders to make fact based decision * Leadership and capabilities * To keep information secured
IT contribution * Information Technology plays a key role in reducing core administrative costs * Remote, flexible and mobile working is essential for NCAA staff to carry out their roles effectively. With a rapid pace in the development of mobile phones a greater use of mobile devices is required * NCAA’s website is the currently main channel to communicate NCAA’s work to the public and stake holders. In addition to that social media platforms like facebook ,twitter will be employed in communication

T Principles * NCAA will operate centralized systems and disaster recovery will be performed on regular basis. * All NCAA systems must adhere to government accessibility standards for both back-end and front-end interfaces. * NCAA will procure, operate and dispose IT equipments in accordance to Public Procurement act.
IT governance * The overall targets for NCAA 2013-2018 are in the Cooperate Business plans which were approved by managing board of director. The CIO is accountable for IT developments and delivery. * All systems are developed according to agreed standards * Appendix 1-Governance matrix showing responsibilities and roles of all decision-making entities of IT department

IT Financial management * NCAA holds the overall budget of IT * Depreciation is five years for all IT investments except for large investments and all investments should show a positive ROI over 3-5 years.
IT services
In order to win competitive advantage IT functions should support the whole organization so as to reduce administrative cost and increase efficiency by the use of innovative solutions. Due to the nature of the NCAA the following IT services are should be run by IT department
Desktop infrastructure, Server infrastructure, Communication infrastructure, confidential systems and user support
Business Solution Department should be responsible for business analysis so as to assist the NCAA to identify and understands business change needs, evaluate the impact of change and document requirements.
Business solution department will also evaluate new emerging technologies and developments in existing technologies to understand how they can contribute to NCAA infrastructure, processes improvements.
NCAA must have a well interactive website to communicate with stakeholders
Enterprise Architecture
For NCAA EA should provide a way to * Understand business drivers with regard to change * Identify current technologies or emerging technologies that could improve efficiency and effectiveness
EA should cover the core business processes and data in the NCAA
* The BSD of NCAA should ensure that it has the right capabilities workforce in aligning with changing business needs
Proposed Organization structure of the IT Depart Structure

Principal IT Analyst
Principal IT Analyst
Business Solutions
Support Department
Senior IT Analyst
Senior IT Analyst
Business Analyst
IT Analysts

Systems Analyst

NCAA should follow GOT public procedures for recruitment
* A well sourcing strategy must be established so as enabling selection of right partner depending on the value added in core business.
BSD Business solution Department
CIO Chief Information Officer
EA Enterprise Architecture
GOT Government of Tanzania
NCAA Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority
ROI Return On Investment

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Strategy’ growth, profitability and competitiveness. Since intangible assets usually created by a company that use it. In other words, it is usually based on a company’s products, long-term goals, management and culture. And hard for competitors to imitate, which makes them a powerful source of sustainable competitive advantage1 . Before we get in field of how to use intangible assets, we need to know how to measure intangible assets, and embed it in the context of the strategy the company is pursuing. Most identifications do coverage on the “immaterial” aspect of these assets, they have neither physical substance nor specific monetary value, yet they significantly contribute to value creation for a business. Furthermore, three components are generally recognized: Human Capital, Information Capital and Organization Capital. Only when the intangible assets closely related to a company’s strategy, then these will create value for the company. Here is a importance questions: how to know whether these assets and your strategy is perfect fit? Having all of the best skills, talent, and knowledge employees will make sure that they will formed a high efficiency team? Will using the most advanced information systems, networks, databases and networks guarantee that they provide the best data you need? As not everyone is suitable for driving the fastest car, when you lack the necessary training , the car may be out of control and you get hurt. It reminds me of a game experience when......

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...1. Explain the terms of organizational strategy and strategic management? Ans; Strategic management is a way in which strategists set the objectives and proceed about attaining them .It deals with making implementing decision about future direction of in an organization. It helps us to identify the direction in which an organization is moving. It is continuous process that evaluates control the business and industries in which organization is involved. 2. Organization strategy is the strategy that concerned with your business creating a good value in eyes of your customers and making a strong position in the market. It describes the long term outlook for business and defining new technology and economic conditions. It can also be defined as knowledge of the goals, the uncertainty of event and need to take into consideration or actual behavior of others. 2. Describe the types of strategy in terms of organizational planning and development? Ans: : The types of strategy in terms of organizational planning development are following: * Corporate strategy: Corporate strategy is term which is used to combine or acquire with some other company. * Operational strategy: It is the term used by the area manager’s to give some instructions to the managers to sort out the problems within the organization. * Business strategy: it is the term used to enlarge our business ion the market by introducing new products and by god management skills. *......

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...The Grand Strategy of the United States by R.D. Hooker, Jr. INSS Strategic Monograph Institute for National Strategic Studies National Defense University The Grand Strategy of the United States R.D. Hooker, Jr. INSS Strategic Monograph National Defense University Press Washington, D.C. October 2014 Opinions, conclusions, and recommendations expressed or implied within are solely those of the contributors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Defense Department or any other agency of the Federal Government. Cleared for public release; distribution unlimited. Portions of this work may be quoted or reprinted without permission, provided that a standard source credit line is included. NDU Press would appreciate a courtesy copy of reprints or reviews. Cover: President Barack Obama and Vice President Joe Biden meet with members of the National Security Council in the Situation Room of the White House hours before his national address, September 10, 2014 (The White House/Pete Souza) First printing, October 2014 Contents The Roots of American Grand Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 A Century Like No Other. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The Ends of Grand Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 The Means of Grand Strategy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...

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...Thompson−Strickland−Gamble: Crafting and Executing Strategy: Concepts and Cases, 16th Edition I. Concepts and Techniques for Crafting and Executing Strategy 1. What Is Strategy and Why Is It Important? chapter one © The McGraw−Hill Companies, 2008 1 What Is Strategy and Why Is It Important? Strategy means making clear-cut choices about how to compete. —Jack Welch Former CEO, General Electric A strategy is a commitment to undertake one set of actions rather than another. —Sharon Oster Professor, Yale University The process of developing superior strategies is part planning, part trial and error, until you hit upon something that works. —Costas Markides Professor, London Business School Without a strategy the organization is like a ship without a rudder. —Joel Ross and Michael Kami Authors and Consultants Thompson−Strickland−Gamble: Crafting and Executing Strategy: Concepts and Cases, 16th Edition M I. Concepts and Techniques for Crafting and Executing Strategy 1. What Is Strategy and Why Is It Important? © The McGraw−Hill Companies, 2008 anagers face three central questions in evaluating their company’s business prospects: What’s the company’s present situation? Where does the company need to go from here? How should it get there? Arriving at a probing answer to the question “What’s the company’s present situation?” prompts managers to evaluate industry conditions and competitive pressures, the company’s current performance and market standing, its resource......

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...India Introduction Fast Food Industry Overview India is blessed with one of the fastest growing fast food market of the world. It is estimated to be nearly worth of 41.3 billion USD and it is a healthy growing industry at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11%. The Organized Food Service Industry is worth $13.79 bn (approx. 33% of total Indian Food Service Industry), which is growing towards at 17%. (Industry report 2014) By year 2017 this bench marks will reach by other category, like as follows: (Ref) Category | Current Market Share | Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) | Expected Market Share by 2017 | Organized | 30% | 12-14% | 45% | Unorganized | 70% | 8-10% | 55% | In present situation Indian GDP is around 6 % for last couple of years. As a result there is a significant numbers of monthly disposable Income are growing gradually. Now a day people of India spend on eating outside almost Rs.33, 000 Crore according to the size of the market. Some recent research study is expected this growth will reach US$68 billion by 2018. (Ref) On the other side delivery segment is an integral part of the Indian Food Service segment. The size of Organized Indian QSR delivery market is US$0.62 billion, growing at a healthy CAGR of 20% and is expected to reach US$1.1 billion by 2017-18. (Ref) In major cities comprise of large workplace clusters and high density residential areas people and young Indian consumers are highly price sensitive, through online they compare the...

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...integration of resources to implement successful strategy and how our division contribute to achieve overall company’s goal. Since, our company is leading Project Services/Consulting provider and one of reputed name in its market segment, so obviously it has long term prospect, Appendix – 2 provide our vision, mission and core value/differentiator About Strategy: To achieve desire prospect/goal (Appendix - 4), Company need to set a course of action plans at each level and throughout till successfully execution of decided plan - Strategy. In other word, Company start this process by thinking about Strategy one side and do analysis its internal and external environment (Appendix – 3) another side, after analysing it focus on core competencies which gives competitive advantage (differentiator) to support strategy to be formulate. Strategy formulation then turns into communication, implementation and monitoring phase, where management set performance based goals (see Appendix - 4) for each business units, departments and employee. Continuous monitoring of internal resources and external environment is extremely required, as todays globalization has ability to change thing very quickly, moreover monitoring is major part of establishing and successfully executing the strategy. (Appendix – 1) Example: To achieve company’s overall goal, our department – project accounting plays a key role to support it. As per above strategy formulation and management process,......

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...Knowledge Objectives * central concepts in competitive strategy * strategy frameworks for internal and external analysis * key issues in competitive strategy formation and implementation Skill objectives * ability to apply the concepts and theoretical frameworks to real-life business cases * ability to analyse the sources of firm's competitive advantage * ability to understand how to sustain the competitive advantage over time * ability to analyse the industry structure and evolution, and appraise its influence on profitability * ability to understand how to develop firm's resources and capabilities LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this course, students will have developed a more complex and nuanced view of competitive strategy. In particular students will be able to: * decode the complexity of firms' internal and external environments in terms of the strategic concepts and frameworks * analyse and appraise firm's strategic positioning, resources and industry structure * recognise key challenges in strategic analysis, strategy formation and implementation * critically evaluate the implications of strategic decisions on firm boundaries, future opportunities, and competition The group presentations are available for anyone to watch. The link is: * * The password is: SAP What is Strategy? The choice of a future for the company......

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