Premium Essay

Islamophobic Beliefs

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By JANEROSE88
Words 6742
Pages 27
Table of Contents

Title page 1

Abstract 3

Introduction 4

The psychological importance of the veil: shaping first impressions 7

The present research 10

Method 12

Positive Survey 13

Non Muslim perception of Islam in the West 13

Non Muslim perception of Islam in the West 15

Non Muslim perception of Islam in the west 20

Non Muslim perception of Islam in the west 23

Communication scale 28

Islamophobia scale 29

Design 30

Participants 30

Materials 30

Procedure 30

Analysis 31

Potential applications 33

Limitations and future directions 34

Conclusion 36

References 37

Abstract

This research study will aim to measure the Islamophobic beliefs in non-Muslim people living in the West in multi-cultural, multi-ethnic and multi-faith societies such as London. To conduct this study, I will be replicating a study that has been produced by Everett et al (2015) called ‘Covered in Stigma? I will be conducting this research project to test Non-Muslim responses towards Muslim appearing people such as men in traditional clothes, beards and women in head coverings. I will use quantitative analysis to test my hypothesis, using two questionnaires, the Islamophobia scale and the Communication Scale as well as images of Muslim men and women in Islamic clothing depicted in an affirmative light or a poorly to prime participants beforehand.

Introduction Prejudice and inequity towards the Muslim community has risen largely over the last few years. There is great proof indicating that Muslims are experiencing different categories of prejudice and discrimination (Pew Research Centre, 2007). Also, this pattern has increased greatly particularly after the terrorist attack of 9/11 in America and the 7/7 attack in the United Kingdom (Pew Research Centre, 2007). Straback & Listhaug (2008) examined...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Islamophobia in Britain

...INTRODUCTION It is commonly agreed that humanity entered into a new age, which is considered to be the “age of terror”. Undoubtedly, the consequences of the terrorist massacre that took place in the 11th of September in 2001 were significantly extensive. A great number of new forms of determinative legislation has been imposed in order to avoid certain terrorist actions. Nevertheless, it should be mentioned that a great amount of these particular measures collide and violate the human rights. The matter is that democratic and liberal values are overwhelmingly threatened in the name of the national security. In this way, not only a sacrifice of pure civil liberties comes along but precautionary measures are taking place in the form of preventive wars as well. These wars are supposed to constitute anti-terrorism measures. Basic human rights experience vague violation and this solely effect does not comprise a form of fundamental anti-terrorism measures. A vast number of innocent civilians is being enforced to embrangle in situations that are not involved while they also have to encounter potential disgraceful incidents. The truth is that anti-terrorism measures ought to exist, so that certain terrorist actions are prevented; yet they should be demonstrated and implemented in a form that their function operates in favour of the human rights. THE CASE OF MUSLIMS IN GREAT BRITAIN-ISLAMOPHOBIA As far as Muslims in Great Britain are......

Words: 2477 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Islamophobia

...Common Facts about Islamophobia The list below, provided by the Council of American-Islamic Relations, details many of the misconceptions commonly held by Islamophobic people: * Islam is unchanging and refuses to adapt to new realities or changing times. * Islam shares no common values with any of the other major religions. * Islam is no longer relevant and their ideals are irrational. * Islam is tied to terrorism. * Islam promotes violence. * None of these items are true by any means, but are still commonly held by many people suffering from Islamophobia. While these unfortunate misconceptions have been held for centuries, Islamophobia has been on the rise in recent times. Since the September 11th attacks in the U.S., many uninformed Americans have started viewing followers of the Islamic faith as an “enemy” of the United States. This sentiment is absolutely untrue. There is no link between Islam and terrorism and this type of incorrect information is a leading cause of Islamophobia. Causes of Islamophobia The leading cause for Islamophobia is usually misinformation or total lack of information based on the religion. Unfortunately, Islamophobic people are not likely to be willing to educate themselves about their fears or spend time around any Islamic people. This feeling is somewhat understandable, as they do claim to be physically afraid of the Islamic people, but this attitude will likely lead to a worsening...

Words: 450 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Representation of Terrorism, Islam and Muslim Identities on Popular Us Series Homeland

...The representation of terrorism, Islam and Muslim identities on popular US series Homeland Introduction Images of Muslim and Islam have dramatically increased in the media coverage as well as popular culture ever since we have entered the “post-9/11 era”, as Elizabeth Poole observed. (2008:81) The shocking real life images from the horrifying terrorist attack in September 2011 has triggered various interpretation on the discourse of what it means to be Muslim and the image of Islam and its culture in the western media, and still have profound influence even after more than a decade and ongoing. Apart from the coverage on news media, TV entertainment, especially TV dramas also provide a powerful outlet for the popular prevailing discourses on Muslim and Islamic culture, which compare to news reports, leaves a more vivid and graphic impression on audience with its discourse and narratives. The proposed subject I am going to study is revolved around the representation of Islam and Muslim identity in the popular US TV drama Homeland. (Showtime, 2011) Homeland (Showtime, 2011) has been arguably the most successful TV series focusing on the theme of counter-terrorism and national security across the Atlantic since 2011, following its predecessor 24 (Fox, 2001) developed by the same producers. When asked what made the show distinctive compared to its predecessors, Damian Lewis, who played as Sgt Nicholas Brody, the male lead in Homeland replied, “We feel a bit......

Words: 4172 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Islamphobia

...Islamophobia is at the highest in the United States, however it isn’t taken seriously. Before the events of 9/11, stereotypes, hatred, and prejudices of Muslims or those perceived to be linked with Islam were taken lightly by the United States public. After 9/11, and across the globe, Muslims have faced individual and systemic acts of discrimination and violence after 9/11 as a form of retaliation for the collective guilt ascribed to the followers of Islam and anyone who resembled them‖ (Zine, 2004, p.111). The acts of 9/11 have brought on a new attacks on Islam, all which are negative. Every where around the world Muslim are faced with growing prejudice and are at times singled out. Hate crimes committed against muslim or Mosques are hardly every heard about on the news. While Islamophobia is on the rise it is time to break those barriers and bring communities together in a peaceful manner. This would have to a lot with media portrays Islam. If we take a look at the average news media outlet's headliners in the past 5-10 years and it's clear that a certain word or group has managed to stand out: Muslim or ISLAMOPHOBIA PAGE 7 ISLAMOPHOBIA ANDRIANAKOS Islam. Now with the spotlight on 1.57 billion people following its five pillars of Islam. Their every move is taking apart and analyzed and in most cases show cased in a negative light. The religion of Islam has existed since the 7th century C.E but......

Words: 1588 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Terrorism

...Terrorism Scapegoating Islam for Terrorism Name: Maryam Khalil Class: Social Science HSP3U1 Date: May 30, 2014 Essay Most of the westerners today see Islam as a religion of hate and violence. This is due to the events of the terrorist attacks that have been happening around the world. Islam has been associated with terrorism more and more often due to few extremists who are doing terrible crimes in the name of Islam (Islam Way). The whole world knows what has been happening to Muslims in America after 9/11, but blaming 1.6 billion Muslims for the crimes of less than 10,000 people is not ethical. Those people who have never read the Quran and know nothing about Islam says that Islam teaches to kill people and to commit act of terrorism. The purpose of this essay is to resolve the misconception that Islam teaches terrorism. Islam teaches us to practice peace in every area of our daily life. The real reason why people really become terrorists is hidden from most of the people in world. Today’s media is also misrepresenting Islam and Muslims. Tragic events such as attack on World Trade Centre in New York and bombing of London and Madrid are supposed to be justified by Islam in the minds of some people (Islam Way). The actual origin of terrorism was from the Cold War between Russia and America and the place of its origin was Afghanistan. Islam is a religion of peace. To understand Islam’s point of view on terrorism one must refer to its original source which is......

Words: 1675 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Zubba

...Over the years, Muslim and non-Muslim historians have written many books about Prophet Muhammad as a leader, highlighting the divinely guided qualities of his personality as the final messenger of God, according to Islamic beliefs. But in the past century or so, a modernist, rationalist school of Islamic thought has emerged, which focuses on examining Prophet Muhammad as a charismatic leader as well as being the messenger of God. Developed by thinkers like Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Shibli Nomani in India and Sheikh Muhammad Abduh and Rashid Rida in the Arab world, this school seeks to minimize the miraculous nature of the Prophet's biography to explore the rationalist and humanist dimensions of his personality. Their interpretations are formed by many categories that guides modern thinking -- the Prophet Muhammad as statesman, as a businessman, as a political leader and a spiritual guide. British management scholar John Adair's new book, The Leadership of Muhammad, joins this body of work, even though he is not a modernist Muslim. But Adair's interpretation is different from most Muslim biographers of Prophet...

Words: 1293 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Strayer Chapter 3 Study Guide

...Religions and Politics (Prof. Mondonga M. Mokoli, Ph.D.) According to the scientific theory of evolution, life on Earth evolved naturally over time. Evolutionary theory was proposed by Charles Darwin in the 19th century and it was affirmed by the 20th century biologists and geneticists. Thus, this theory has achieved scientific consensus as the origin of human humankind. In contrast, supporters of intelligent design believe that all life on the Earth was created deliberately. Intelligent design theory proposes that the overwhelming complexity of the universe suggests a rational, omnipotent designer, be it God, an alien, or some other source. Thus, intelligent design theory was developed as an alternative not only to Darwin’s evolutionism but also to religious creationism which argues that God is the only creator of life, universe and their contents. The Purpose of this Chapter • Our purpose in this chapter is not to show the truth or falsehood of any of these perspectives nor the doctrines of any particular faith. Rather, it is: - To describe the nature of religion and the general character of certain major religions of the past and the present; - To give some attention to the role that religion has played in the development of human societies, that is; o not only to integrate and stabilize them but also, o at times, to create conflicts; - To consider the present-day influence of social change on religion and, - conversely, the influence of......

Words: 2856 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Muslim Discrimination in the Us

...On the 24th of March, the police department of El Cajon, CA, found Shaima Alawadi, a 32 year old Iraqi woman lying in a pool of blood with a note next to her corpse saying “go back to your own country, you terrorist” (ABC News,2012). Unfortunately, those acts that are simply labeled as “hate crimes” are more casual than what you see or hear through the mainstream media, and the reasons behind those can be peculiarly blamed to an extent on the religious diversity in the United States. Religion is one of the strongest acts that affect people, it can develop bonds as well as conflicts, and because different religions are practiced throughout the world such as Islam, Christianity, Judaism and many more its not surprising that their followers will have disagreements. And even though it might seem like those feelings are diminishing people still feel a sense of insecurity when it comes to this issue even if they tend to hide it or refuse to admit it. Religious segregation is pretty much still alive in many parts of the world, even in countries that claim the right of freedom of religion. It has led many people to be treated unfairly and wrongfully judged just because they are the minority who practice a religion which is different from the public orthodoxy. In modern day, Arabs and Muslims in exact suffer from being labeled as extremists or terrorists especially in Western cultures. five out of ten Americans believe Islam is more likely than other religions to encourage violence,......

Words: 2418 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Ibl and How to Be

...Paras 33 – 38 Regional mechanisms Para 39 Some basic issues and answers Pages 12-15 Annex One – Analysis of right to freedom of religion or belief Page 16 Annex Two – Treaties and other international provisions Page 19 Annex Three – Some useful websites Page 21 Annex Four – Freedom of religion or belief in Europe, an Pages 22-27 introductory overview by Prof. Malcolm Evans 2 Why has the FCO produced these...

Words: 10059 - Pages: 41

Free Essay

Role of Social Media in Promoting Religious Extremism

...RADIMED Explaining and understanding the role of exposure to new social media on violent extremism. An integrative quantitative and qualitative approach Summary en kwantitatieve benadering/ Commissioners Promoter/coordinator Co-promoters Researchers Belspo FOD Binnenlandse zaken – Directe algemene veiligheid Lieven PAUWELS - UGent Fabienne BRION - UCL Brice DE RUYVER – Ugent Marleen EASTON - Ugent Nele SCHILS – Ugent Julianne LAFFINEUR - UCL 1 1. Introduction Research problem Worldwide, both policy and research pay a lot of attention to extremism, and radicalization as the process leading to extremism (Van de Linde & Rademaker, 2010). Scholars and policymakers increasingly focus on unravelling the processes of radicalisation, hoping to prevent the violent radicalisation of their own youth and eventually political violence (Van de Line & Rademaker, 2010). The Internet and its constant technological developments in particular are causes of concern (Conway, 2012). Recently, we have seen a boom in new social media (NSM) and other web 2.0 applications, bearing a large potential for communication and networking (Conway, 2012). These developments have transformed the world in an online village, with every offline actor being represented online. It is therefore no surprise that criminals, radicals, violent extremists and terrorists also use this medium to their advantage (Benschop, 2006; Stevens & Neuhmann, 2009; Weimann, 2004). By......

Words: 15802 - Pages: 64

Free Essay

Europe and the Middle East

...www.ccsenet.org/res Review of European Studies Vol. 4, No. 3; July 2012 Europe and the Middle East: From Imperialism to Liberal Peace? Raymond Hinnebusch1 1 School of International Relations, University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK Correspondence: Raymond Hinnebusch, School of International Relations, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9AX, Scotland, UK. Tel: 44-1334-462-861. E-mail: rh10@st-andrews.ac.uk Received: November 24, 2011 Accepted: April 26, 2012 Online Published: July 1, 2012 doi:10.5539/res.v4n3p18 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/res.v4n3p18 Abstract Europe’s relation with the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is discussed in the context of normative (International Society) and materialist approaches (World System’s Theory). First, European imperialism’s export of a flawed Westphalian state system is summarized. How Europe is “caught” between MENA and the US and co-opted into a division of labour toward the region is then surveyed. The gap between the normative rhetoric and actual inequitable outcomes and structures constructed under the Euro-Mediterranean partnership is examined, looking at the three “baskets” of economic developmental, political reform and cultural convergence. Four “hard cases,” EU policies toward Palestine, Iran, Syria and Turkey, illustrate the ambiguities of the EU’s approach to MENA. MENA public opinion’s ambivalence toward Europe reflects these realities. The conclusion is that the EU’sMENA......

Words: 11398 - Pages: 46

Premium Essay

Feminism

...Feminism in Multicultural Societies An analysis of Dutch Multicultural and Postsecular Developments and their Implications for Feminist Debates Eva Midden A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for the requirements of the degree of PhD at the University of Central Lancashire May 2010       Student Declaration Concurrent registration for two or more academic awards I declare that while registered as a candidate for the research degree, I have not been registered candidate or enrolled student for another award of the University or other academic or professional institution Material submitted for another award I declare that no material contained in the thesis has been used in any other submission for an academic award and is solely my own work Signature of Candidate Type of Award School ___PhD_________________________________ ___Centre for Professional Ethics___________ 1   Abstract It was long assumed that both multiculturalism and feminism are connected to progressive movements and hence have comparable and compatible goals. However, both in academia and in popular media the critique on multiculturalism has grown and is often accompanied with arguments related to gender equality and/or feminism. According to political scientist Susan Moller Okin for example there are fundamental conflicts between our commitment to gender equality and the desire to respect the customs of minority cultures or religions. If we agree that......

Words: 97145 - Pages: 389