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It 320 Wan Unit 1

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IT 320 WAN

Homework Unit 1

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching (Pg 3)

Matching

a) When referring to clocking, the CSU/DSU is this piece of equipment Data Circuit Terminating Equipment (DTE)

b) The software used by a router Cisco IOS

c) Dialup and ISDN are examples of these types of networks Circuit Switching

d) Describes the timing between the router and the CSU/DSU Synchronous

e) Lost when a device is powered down or rebooted Contents of RAM

f) Wires or other media through which data is transmitted from one place to another Serial Link

g) Connects LANs to WANs Interface

h) The physical connection point on networking devices where signals enter and exit Router

i) A smaller, more compact physical connection physical interface specification Smart serial interface

j) A WAN link contracted for use by the customer Leased Line

k) Frame relay and ATM are examples of these types of networks Packet Switching

l) When referring to clocking the customer’s router , this piece of equipment is used Data Terminal Equipment (DTE)

m) A communications link that is outside the normal IP network, like a console cable or a phone call between two modems and the aux port. Out of Band Management

n) A network that spans a large geographic region WAN

o) A telecommunications path that sends 1 bit at a time Serial Interface

p) The router port that connects a WAN link Bus

q) A WAN service provider Telephone Company (telco)

r) Connects a router to a DSU Serial Cable

s) The management port on a router Console Port

t) Equipment that is located in the customer’s wiring closet and provides a clocking signal to the router Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit (CSU/DSU)

u) A general term that describes the measurement of a route Metric

v) If a device does not know how to get to a destination, it sends data to this device Default Gateway

w) The number of bits per second that the service provider can accept and send to the customer Clocking/Clock Rate

x) What the WAN service provider calls your collection of equipment, including the router and the CSU/DSU Customer Premises Equipment (CPE)

Concept Questions (pgs 4-5)

1) What is the most important function of a router? Routers route packets of information from one destination to another

2) Define default gateway. On a computer a reference to an IP address on the same subnet, with that IP address being the address of the router. When the computer needs to send a packet of information another subnet, it sends the packet to its default gateway. It is also called a default router.

3) Explain the purpose of DCE and DTE in WAN links. DCE – A device that connects to the leased line provided by the telco. DCE provides clocking to DTE. DTE – A device that sends data over a circuit. Routers act as DTEs because they send IP packets over WAN Links

4) Explain what a router is and what it does. A router is a specialized piece of computer equipment that is used for forwarding information from one host to another over a network

a. It routes packets of information over WAN Links

b. It acts as a DTE

c. It is the physical connection on a network where packets of information enter and exit

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion (pgs 5-6)

The main purpose of a router is to ROUTE packets. A router, like a typical PC, has a CPU and memory componets. It also has specialized software, which in Cisco routers is the IOS. The provides the basic routing logic. The router also has ROM MEMORY, just like PCs, which holds basic diagnostic software that runs when the router is first booted. All of these basic components (CPU, RAM, ROM, and an OS) are found in PCs.

In addition, just like PCs have an interface to connect to networks (usually called a

or , routers also have interfaces. Instead of using a hard drive, routers use two types of memory to permanently store data ROM and FLASH MEMORY.

The main internal router components are as follows:

• RAM which stores ROUTING tables and the RUNNING CONFIGURATION file while the router is powered. It loses content when a router is powered down or restarted.

• NVRAM which provides storage for the startup CONFIGURATION file and retains content when a router is powered down or restarted.

• FLASH MEMORY which is a type of EEPROM. It holds the image and retains content when the router is powered down or restarted.

• ROM which maintains instructions for MONITOR SOFTWARE diagnostics and stores bootstrap program and basic operating system software

• BUSES which connect routers to a network for packet entry and exit

Flash memory is used for storage of the CISCO IOS software image. The router normally acquires the default IOS from lash. These images can be upgraded by loading a new image into the flash. The IOS can be in uncompressed or compressed form. In most routers, an executable copy of the IOS is transferred to RAM during the boot process.

The three basic types of connections on a router are SERIAL interfaces, DSL interfaces, and ISDN ports. The term interface specifically refers to physical connectors that forward packets. In contrast, the term port refers to a physical connector that manages and controls a router.

The LAN and WAN connections provide network connections through which frame packets are passed. To connect to LAN interfaces, routers use STRAIGHT THROUGH cable to connect to a switch, just like a STRAIGHT THROUGH cable should be used to connect a PC NIC to a switch. If you connect a router direct to a PC NIC without an intermediate device, like a hub or a switch, you must use a CROSSOVER cable. This type of connection is common in many of the labs you will configure. To connect to WAN interfaces, the router uses and ETHERNET or SERIAL cable to attach to a CSU/DSU or when directly connecting tow WAN interfaces in a lab environment.

The function of management ports is different from that of other connections. The management port provides a text-based connection for the configuration and troubleshooting of the router. The common management interfaces are the CONSOLE and AUX ports. The console ports are EIA-232 WAN Interface Card serial ports and are not designed as networking ports.

Concept Questions (pg. 10)

1) What three components of a router retain their memory when power is not present? NVRAM, ROM, and Flash Memory

2) In what three ways can you configure a router? Console, Telenet, Aux

3) Of the two management ports, which is preferred and why? While both are designed to be used for out-of-band management, the main difference is that the console port allows local access, while the aux port is intended for remote access when the engineer is not on site. The console port is used more often than the aux port when the engineer has local access to the router.

4) Besides the PC and the router, what three components (software and hardware) are required to connect a PC to a routers management port? CSU/DSU, Cisco IOS (or other applicable software), and the cabling

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