Free Essay

It Department

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By captured31613
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The part of the system sending the queries is called the resolver and is the client side of the configuration. The name server answers the queries. Read RFCs 1034 and 1035. These contain the bulk of the DNS information and are superseded by RFCs 1535-1537. Naming is in RFC 1591. The main function of DNS is the mapping of IP addresses to human readable names.

Three main components of DNS

Name server
Database of resource records (RRs)
Domain Name System

The Domain Name System (DNS) is basically a large database which resides on various computers and it contains the names and IP addresses of various hosts on the internet and various domains. The Domain Name System is used to provide information to the Domain Name Service to use when queries are made. The service is the act of querying the database, and the system is the data structure and data itself. The Domain Name System is similar to a file system in UNIX or DOS starting with a root. Branches attach to the root to create a huge set of paths. Each branch in the DNS is called a label. Each label can be 63 characters long, but most are less. Each text word between the dots can be 63 characters in length, with the total domain name (all the labels) limited to 255 bytes in overall length. The domain name system database is divided into sections called zones. The name servers in their respective zones are responsible for answering queries for their zones. A zone is a subtree of DNS and is administered separately. There are multiple name servers for a zone. There is usually one primary name server and one or more secondary name servers. A name server may be authoritative for more than one zone.

DNS names are assigned through the Internet Registries by the Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA). The domain name is a name assigned to an internet domain. For example, represents the domain name of an educational institution. The names and represent the domain names at those commercial companies. Naming hosts within the domain is up to individuals administer their domain.

Access to the Domain name database is through a resolver which may be a program or part of an operating system that resides on users workstations. In UNIX the resolver is accessed by using the library functions "gethostbyname" and "gethostbyaddr". The resolver will send requests to the name servers to return information requested by the user. The requesting computer tries to connect to the name server using its IP address rather than the name.

Structure and message format

The drawing below shows a partial DNS hierarchy. At the top is what is called the root and it is the start of all other branches in the DNS tree. It is designated with a period. Each branch moves down from level to level. When referring to DNS addresses, they are referred to from the bottom up with the root designator (period) at the far right.
The Basics

There are thousands of DNS servers around the world that contain pieces of the database, but there are only 13 root DNS servers that contain the entire database on each server.

There are two types of DNS servers – primary and secondary. It is important to note, however, that any DNS server can be used as a primary or a secondary server, depending on the preference of the sever administrator. It is even possible to have the same server be a primary server for one zone and a secondary server for another.

If you're interested in learning more about primary and secondary DNS servers, then you may want to consider the following information.

Primary Master DNS Servers

A primary master name server reads data for the domain zone from a file located on the web server of the hosting account. This server usually also sends information to the secondary server as well.

Zone data is the information specified by the server administrator that tells the server how to behave and communicate with other servers. When a primary server communicates with a secondary server, it is called a zone transfer because zone data is being transferred from one DNS to another.

Two DNS servers are assigned to each domain to make administration easier and provide more security than just a single server. Once zone data has been created for a primary server, it does not need to be copied over to the secondary server because the two servers automatically share zone data.

Secondary DNS Servers

A secondary DNS server, also called a slave server or simply a slave, receives zone data from the primary server automatically after starting. In Microsoft's DNS manager software, secondary DNS servers are referred to as secondaries. Every time a secondary server functions, it requests information from its master server.

It is important to note that a secondary server does not need to pull data form a primary server because another secondary server can be set up as the master server.

Secondary DNS servers are just as important as primary servers because they provide security in the form of redundancy. They also lessen the load placed on the primary server and ensure that there is always a server working to deliver data. By diversifying the administrative structure of domain name servers, the security of web sites and the internet in general is ensured.
Linux and Windows are two different types of operating systems. Linux is the most popular operating system for web servers. Since Linux-based hosting is more popular, it has more of the features web designers expect. So unless you have websites which need specific Windows applications, Linux is the preferred choice.
Depending size and how many nodes will determine these factors and exactly what they want their network to do.

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