Free Essay

Italy

In: Business and Management

Submitted By missy92310
Words 1714
Pages 7
OBSERVATION SHEETS:
Directions: Please record your observations on the following dimensions for Italy versus the United States from what you have seen and experienced during this program. This is an individual assignment—I am interested in reading your own views on these dimensions. You may, however, discuss these dimensions with other participants in the program including VT students, and you may ask Italians or others about their views on these matters. Please be reminded that the Virginia Tech Honor Code applies to this and all other work in the study abroad program. Please type your final responses.
1. Nature of relationship between employer and employees/supervisors and supervisees

Italy: I noticed good relationships between employer and employee in all of the businesses we visited. Employees listened to their employer and were very respectful. I noticed in one store the supervisor and her supervisees laughing and joking while at work which showed the nature of their relationship as well.

U.S.: Employers in the US treat their employees with respect and vice versa. Anywhere I have worked, I have experienced good relationships between my coworkers and my employer. 2. Gender Issues (e.g., role of women in the workforce & in society)

Italy: Women are allowed almost a year off of work when they are going to have a baby. They cannot be fired and are still paid too. This is a serious issue for Italy as a woman can have 2 kids in a row and not work for years without losing her position at work.
U.S.: There are strict rules put into place so that gender discrimination is not tolerated and a business could be in huge trouble if they do discriminate against one gender. I have never experienced gender discrimination anywhere I have worked. If you are good at your job, it doesn’t matter what your gender is. 3. Orientation towards time and importance placed on being “on time”.

Italy: There are certain bylaws that allow a worker to be late to work without being fired, according to our Vatican radio guide. I noticed some stores were still not open an hour after the said opening time on their door. Lots of the small, family owned businesses had very flexible hours.
U.S.: A worker in the United States is expected to always be to work on time or even a little early. Being late often results in being fired and is extremely looked down upon in the workplace. Stores always open on time and will not close until the closing time they display on their door. 4. Racial Relations (e.g., discrimination, equality/inequality of opportunity)

Italy: I didn’t notice an inequality for opportunities because of race but there were many street vendors (a worse job than others) that were of one race where usually shop owners were Italian. But the street vendors were everywhere and it was funny to watch them have to pick up their goods and run if they saw a cop coming.

U.S.: There are racial issues in the US, including illegal immigrants and the jobs they are given. Although there are many different cultures in the United States and every year racial issues are getting better, they are still very real in some areas. I know many people who are extremely racist. 5. Work ethic (i.e., how long and hard people work)

Italy: I noticed businesses hours were pretty flexible. Sometimes I’d see a store that opened at 8 am and the shop owner still hadn’t opened it at 8:30. When we visited Maserati the workers had a long day and only 26 minutes to do their job along the assembly line. For most of Italy though, I felt like days weren’t too long and the workers weren’t overly stressed about their job.

U.S.: People in the US work hard and long days mostly and they have to have a good work ethic or will not get a raise or promotion. It’s a work hard, get everything done, and you will be rewarded type of environment. However, a lot of people in the US are very stressed out because of their jobs not being lackadaisical. 6. Relationship between corporation and government

Italy: The relationship does not seem close because Italy doesn’t have very many rules and regulations that businesses need to follow, and some of the rules they do need to follow are not helpful ones. Many of the shops in Italy are mom and pop shops too making the relationship less intimate.

U.S.: The free market that the US has set up makes the relationship between corporate and government not as close. The government has also many rules and regulations that must be followed. It is a closer relationship with government if the business is big.

7. Corporate social responsibility/business ethics

Italy: I think that social responsibility is good here and their business ethics also good. When writing my paper for Ferragamo I read their business ethics which included worker safety, health protection, etc. As I read other company profiles, they also usually had a good code of ethics. I remember Bvlgari made a special ring that helped an organization called Save the Children, which clearly shows they have good social responsibility. U.S.: The businesses in the US almost always have a good code of ethics to protect the worker, make sure everything is safe in the workplace, and have non-discrimination. Businesses usually have a good sense of social responsibility too. There are always commercials about drinking responsibly or helping others in your community. 8. Concern about the environment

Italy: I didn’t hear too much about the environment when talking to the tour guides but the cities for the most part were pretty clean. There was graffiti everywhere however and they never covered it up. In a lot of places, it seemed like trash cans were scarce, yet there wasn’t trash lying on the ground a lot either. They also all drove little cars or smart cars that were environmentally friendly.

U.S.: The US is super involved with keeping the environment clean but also drives huge trucks and gas guzzling cars that aren’t very good for the environment. Typically the streets are cleaned up well though and the graffiti is painted over to keep the city looking nice also.

9. Consumer Issues
a) product safety and quality

Italy: Product quality is very important to Italians. They hand make a lot of their goods, like in the leather school, which I also noticed they did with their food too.

U.S.: I think the US goes more for quantity than quality a lot of the time. There are standards for food, for example, that have to be met, but once they are its quantity from then on. b) marketing of tobacco & alcohol

Italy: I didn’t really notice the marketing of tobacco or alcohol but I did notice everyone smoking. I feel like there is no need to market tobacco or alcohol because everyone already smokes and kids are brought up with alcohol, and being able to drink so it isn’t a big deal.

U.S.: Tobacco and alcohol are marketed everywhere in the US; on billboards, in the store windows, magazines, and commercials. Marketing alcohol and tobacco is good for business because it draws in the underage kids. c) customer service

Italy: I’m not gonna lie, customer service in Italy was not good. Especially in Rome, people were rude and did not really care about the customer’s needs as much as they should have. Rome is all tourists so I felt like the locals didn’t care if they were rude or not since they would probably never see the tourists again

U.S. After going to Italy, I can appreciate the US customer service so much more. They will split a check for you without blinking an eye. And workers are always nice to customers because they will get fired or scolded at least if they are not. 10. Treatment of Handicapped Individuals

Italy: I didn’t really see anyone who was handicapped, except for some beggars on the street with limbs missing or something. As far as handicapped spots or ramps for a handicapped person, I saw none. Everyone seemed very fit and healthy (aside from smoking cigarettes all the time).

U.S.: The US caters to a handicap individual’s every need. There are many handicapped parking spots and always another way to get a wheelchair up stairs. It just seems like a better place to live if one does have a handicap.

11. High-end/luxury goods

Italy: Let’s just say Italians know how to shop. They have entire streets dedicated to luxury goods. They take pride in the fact that they have many of the best luxury goods in the world and have high end shops like Prada, Gucci, Cartier, everywhere to show that.

US: The US has luxury stores but there are also many shops like Forever21 and thrift stores mixed in. There is more of an even mixture of cheaper clothes and high end clothes when you go shopping in a mall or on the streets of NYC, which is better for me since I’m a poor college student haha.

12. Culinary/food
Italy: The weirdest thing in Italy for me about food was McDonalds. I expected a 6$ cheeseburger meal like in the US and got a 15$ meal with an elaborate cheeseburger that had many different things on it. There were many stores you could walk in that had food premade that you watched them reheat for you, which was a little gross since you knew it had been sitting there all day. Overall the food in Italy was delicious, probably because I love Italian food. Water was their only real downfall since it cost 3 euro for one bottle of water, no free water at all.
US: Getting back to the US where I could order as many glasses of water I wanted for free was the BEST. And there is so much variety for food. In Italy there would be a bunch of pizzerias and spaghetterias on one street and then one Chinese restaurant. America has an indian place, Chinese place, pizza place, and so on all over.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Italy

...I HISTORY OF ITALY History The migrations of Indo-European peoples into Italy probably began about 2000 B.C. and continued until 1000 B.C. From about the 9th century B.C. until it was overthrown by the Romans in the 3rd century B.C. , the Etruscan civilization was dominant. By 264 B.C. , all Italy south of Cisalpine Gaul was under the leadership of Rome. For the next seven centuries, until the barbarian invasions destroyed the western Roman Empire in the 4th and 5th centuries A.D. , the history of Italy is largely the history of Rome. From 800 on, the Holy Roman Emperors, Roman Catholic popes, Normans, and Saracens all vied for control over various segments of the Italian peninsula. Numerous city-states, such as Venice and Genoa, whose political and commercial rivalries were intense, and many small principalities flourished in the late Middle Ages. Although Italy remained politically fragmented for centuries, it became the cultural center of the Western world from the 13th to the 16th century. Etymology The assumptions on the etymology of the name "Italia" are very numerous and the corpus of the solutions proposed by historians and linguists is very wide. According to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin: Italia, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning "land of young cattle" (cf. Lat vitulus "calf", Umbvitlo "calf").The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant......

Words: 4042 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Italy

...Phaedra Elliott Professor DuBois International Business 300 6/6/2011 Country Analysis: Italy Introduction: Each country had it own history of economic policies and political climates that make it a good idea to invest in. Countries that have been in existence for centuries and have sustained a power within the entire world are usually the best choices to engage in business with. When determining the business it was unanimously decided that the partners wanted to start a makeup venture in a part of the world where there is a rich historical and profitable market. The partners looked at many factors in deciding which country to choose, which included personal backgrounds and knowledge of international business and countries, and decided on Italy. While none of our partners have prior knowledge of the Italy the country seemed to be the best option in order to have a profitable business. The partners set out with the goal to have the business succeed and flourish in Italy. In order to do this we had to look in depth at many factors that would contribute to the partners starting a prosperous business. While many people believe that finances are the key to success, in reality factors such as history, culture, politics, economy, and the market are vital to understand if a lucrative business is to be achieved abroad. History: Italian history is a rich and interesting one. It began with the Greeks settles in the southern tip of the Peninsula in the 8th and 7th......

Words: 1620 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Mnc in Italy

...Multinational Italy 2008 The “Multinational Italy 2008” survey by ICE examines the activities of multinational companies that involve the domestic economy: the Italy-based multinationals and their foreign subsidiaries and the Italian firms in which foreign-based multinationals hold an interest. The sectors considered are: extraction and manufacturing; energy, gas, water; construction; wholesaling; logistics and transport; telecommunication services; software and IT services; other professional services. There are 7,152 Italian investee companies in which 3,961 investor companies own equity. Their employees in Italy total 852,741, while 2006 revenues of the investee companies was € 429,512 million. Controlling interests predominate, in this case, involving 92.1% of the companies, 91.1% of the employees, and 89% of total revenues. The foreign companies invested in Italy operate primarily in the service industries. The growth of investments in logistics and transport and in professional services reflects the trend of new infrastructure and the transition to services in the economies of the major industrialized countries and, at the same time, expresses the competitive superiority of international businesses in those sectors with respect to our companies. The wholesaling sector is also expanding, though at a slower rate, and is largely composed of the commercial subsidiaries of industrial multinationals. On the whole, however, the IT and telecommunication services......

Words: 797 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Unification of Italy

...Unification of Italy Q: Describe & Explain the Unification of Italy. The Unification of Italy divides in to 3 main stages: 1815-1830: Revolts all over Italy. Revolts are suppressed. 1848-1849: Revolts all over Italy. Revolts are suppressed. 1858-1870: The unification of Italy Introduction To understand the unification of Italy, matters before the revolution need to be examined. Up until 1716, Italy was just a big piece of land divided among small kingdoms of monarchs. (ref. H.O. #1 p.29) When napoleon Bonaparte conquered Italy, he left them 3 things, which were probably the key characteristics in the revolution: - Efficient Government. - A practical demonstrations of the benefits from a unified Italy - Hatred towards foreign influence. After the fall of Napoleon, the major European powers (Austria, Russia, Spain, United Kingdom, & Prussia) what was to be done with Italy, which was conquered at the time by Napoleon. It was thus decided that Italy would be divided among different monarchs, all associated with the Habsburgs (except for Piedmont Sardinia, which was to be ruled by Victor Emmanuel, an independent monarch, and Papal States, ruled by the pope.). (ref. H.O. #1 p. 29-30) Austria had very strong domination over Italy. It had agreements with Ferdinand, king of Kingdom of the 2 Sicilies, and helped the pope maintain his kingdom. Only Piedmont Sardinia wasn't influenced by Austria (ref. H.O. #1 p. 30). 1815 - 1830 Revolution Almost all "'Italians" hated the foreign...

Words: 2776 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Italy Report

...Foreign Country Assignment ITALY Table of Contents INTRODUCTION................................................................................Page 3 LOCATION.........................................................................................Page 3 POPULATION.....................................................................................Page 3 LANGUAGE.......................................................................................Page 4 BUSINESS CULTURE........................................................................Pages 4-6 CURRENCY........................................................................................Page 6 EXCHANGE RATE..............................................................................Page 6 TRADING ALLIANCE..........................................................................Pages 6-7 ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT..............................................................Page 7 POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT................................................................Pages 7-8 MORE INTEREST (FOOD)..................................................................Page 8 BUSINESS MODEL.............................................................................Page 8 Italy has been a nation-state since “1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II”.(World Factbook) Italy is a member of the......

Words: 1868 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Unification of Italy

...Unification of Italy Q: Describe & Explain the Unification of Italy. The Unification of Italy divides in to 3 main stages: 1815-1830: Revolts all over Italy. Revolts are suppressed. 1848-1849: Revolts all over Italy. Revolts are suppressed. 1858-1870: The unification of Italy Introduction To understand the unification of Italy, matters before the revolution need to be examined. Up until 1716, Italy was just a big piece of land divided among small kingdoms of monarchs. (ref. H.O. #1 p.29) When napoleon Bonaparte conquered Italy, he left them 3 things, which were probably the key characteristics in the revolution: - Efficient Government. - A practical demonstrations of the benefits from a unified Italy - Hatred towards foreign influence. After the fall of Napoleon, the major European powers (Austria, Russia, Spain, United Kingdom, & Prussia) what was to be done with Italy, which was conquered at the time by Napoleon. It was thus decided that Italy would be divided among different monarchs, all associated with the Habsburgs (except for Piedmont Sardinia, which was to be ruled by Victor Emmanuel, an independent monarch, and Papal States, ruled by the pope.). (ref. H.O. #1 p. 29-30) Austria had very strong domination over Italy. It had agreements with Ferdinand, king of Kingdom of the 2 Sicilies, and helped the pope maintain his kingdom. Only Piedmont Sardinia wasn't influenced by Austria (ref. H.O. #1 p. 30). 1815 - 1830 Revolution Almost all......

Words: 2767 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Cultural Analysis of Italy

...Cultural Analysis of Italy I. INTRODUCTION Italy is one of the most crowded nations in Europe with a population of roughly 58.2 million. As country, it has much to offer its citizens and visitors. The capital of Italy is Rome (also known as the Eternal City) and is almost 3,000 years old. It has been the capital since 1871 and is home to the Dome of St. Peter's, the Sistine Chapel, the Coliseum, and the famous Trevi Fountain. They are well known for their culture and food, along with their easily recognizable shape as a boot. They are passionate about many things, including their food. When McDonald's opened in 1986 in Rome, food purists outside the restaurant gave away free spaghetti to remind people of their culinary heritage. The richness of its past and the 'live-life-to-the-fullest' attitude combine to make Italy a must-see travel destination. II. RELEVANT HISTORY Evidence of civilization has been found on the Italian peninsula dating far into pre-history. Thousands of rock drawings discovered in the Alpine regions of Lombardy date from around 8,000 BC. There were sizable settlements throughout the Copper Age (37th to 15th century BC), the Bronze Age (15th to 8th century BC) and the Iron Age (8th to 5th century BC). In the north of Italy, the Etruscan culture took hold around 800BC, while Greeks settled in southern Italy from 700 to 600BC, namely in Apulia, Calabria and Sicily (then known as Magna Graecia). The Roman Empire (5th Century BC to 5th Century AD)......

Words: 5559 - Pages: 23

Free Essay

Hofstede's Dimensions Italy

.............................................................................................................6 Long-term Orientation..........................................................................................................................7 Indulgence vs. Restraint........................................................................................................................8 Do's & Don’ts in Italy............................................................................................................................9 Bibliography........................................................................................................................................10 2 Power Distance The PDI (Power Distance Index) deals with the inequalities amongst individuals. It is defined as „the extent to which the less powerful members (…) within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally“ (Hofstede, 2013a). Therefore, a high PDI implies that hierarchy is important and that class division in society is accepted and normal. Italy has a PDI of 50, which means that it is positioned exactly in the middle of the ranking. Therefore, hierarchy and inequalities are accepted and managers, for example, get more benefits than their subordinates (e.g. reserved parking space, larger offices, etc.) (Hofstede, 2013a). Usually subordinates are not allowed to call their...

Words: 1866 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Financial System - Italy

...The Financial and Banking system of: Italy Presented In Partial Fulfillments of the Course Requirements for FIN 4634 International Banking Presented for: Marcos A. Kerbel Participating Adjunct Professor Department of Finance & Real Estate Florida International University Miami, Florida Prepared by: Lisandra Cabrera Panther ID: 3553624 Phone: 786-518-8234 Email: lcabr025@fiu.edu Reported dated: 7/21/2012 Table of Contents I. Geography ................................................................................................................................. 4 II. History of the Country............................................................................................................... 5 III. Country’s Financial System..................................................................................................... 6 a. History Overview ………………………………….................................................... 6 b. Present Monetary Laws and Regulations…………………………………………….. 7 c. Types of Financial Institutions operating in the country............................................... 8 d. The Central Bank ...………………………................................................................... 8 e. Bank Regulation............................................................................................................. 8 f. Commercial Banks Operating in the country ................................................................ 9 IV.......

Words: 5118 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Italy Culture

...Culture of Italy ← The famous elements of Italian culture are its art, music, fashion, and iconic food. Italy was the birthplace of opera,[3] and for generations the language of opera was Italian, irrespective of the nationality of the composer. ← Popular tastes in drama in Italy have long favored comedy; the improvisational style known as the Commedia dell'arte began in Italy in the mid-16th century[4] and is still performed today. Before being exported to France, the famous Ballet dance genre also originated in Italy. Fashion and Design ← The Italian fashion industry is one of the country's most important manufacturing sectors and one of the jewels in the crown of the "Made in Italy" brand. The majority of the older Italian couturiers are based in Rome. However, Milan is seen as the fashion capital of Italy because many well-known designers are based there and it is the venue for the Italian designer collections. ← Many of Italy's top fashion designers have boutiques that can be found around the world. Among the best-known and most exclusive names are Armani, Benetton, Fendi, Gucci, Versace, and Prada. Accessory and jewelry labels, such as Bulgari and Luxottica are also internationally acclaimed, and Luxottica is the world's largest eyewear company. Music ← From folk to classical, music has always played an important role in Italian culture. Having given birth to opera, for example, Italy provides many of the very foundations of the classical music......

Words: 292 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Country Brand Management Italy

...Country Brand Management Italy Report 2012 CONTENTS Introduction 1 Strength Italy is situated is the center of the Mediterranean Sea. The main strength of geographical location is that Italy belongs to the coasts of four different seas (Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea and Ligurian Sea). There are two large mountain ranges in Italy: Alps and Apennines. It is a big plus for tourism sector of the country. Tourism is one of the fastest growing and profitable sectors of the national economy. Italian climate is very different. It is comfortable to travel to this country in every season. If it is summer you can relax in a seaside resorts or take a rest near different lakes. Also in summer you can mountaineer. In winter it is possible to skiing. In autumn and spring you have an opportunity to visit the famous cities of the world cultural heritage. Cultural heritage is another strength side of Italy. Italian culture has a rich history that includes art, classic architecture, popular traditions, and customs. Includes links to trends in Italy today as well as resources on folklore, history, and artistic traditions. Italy has many environmental problems and it took a long time to confront these. One of strengths in this sphere is that now Italy is one of the world leaders of producing renewable energy. Italy is a member of European Union (EU), of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and also of many international......

Words: 1724 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Italy Study Abroad Program

...part in the College of Architecture’s 2011 Italy Program will definitely be advantageous to my architectural career. Italy is home to centuries of architectural history. There are architecture from prehistoric and roman architecture, early Christian and byzantine architecture, Romanesque and gothic architecture, renaissance and baroque architecture, and now many modern architectural wonders. Studying in Italy will give me first hand experience of all this historic architecture that I studied. I will also be exposed to the language and culture of Italy making me a more diverse architecture student. Studying aboard will enhance the value of my Bachelors of Architecture degree. While aboard, I may gain a new academic interest and perspective on architecture. I will be able to take courses in a multicultural educational environment that are not available in the United States. This program will also add more value to my degree and therefore enhances my future employment opportunities. The world is becoming more globalized and employers are also looking for employees with diverse and international experience. Many large firms, such as HOK and USR, have offices internationally, especially in Italy, and studying abroad will improve my portfolio. However, if I decide to attend graduate school instead, studying aboard will also increase my chances of admission into the program. No matter what I choose to do with my experiences in Italy, I am sure that this program will......

Words: 262 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Problems 1918 Italy Was Facing.

...Italy, 1915 was facing many problems due to a number of reasons, including the main 3 factors I consider to be the greatest, these are economic weakness, weakness of the liberal political system and the lack of Italian identity. Economic Weakness. Italy was still a predominantly rural and agricultural country in the south and most peasants and labourers lived in day to day poverty and deprivation. Industry was at a great drawback because of the lack of natural resources, mostly coal and iron ore, and the iron and steel that was being developed was restricted for military purposes and railways. These financial problems Italy was experiencing meant the government received little in taxes thus making it more difficult for them to fund such national projects such as the enlargement of schooling and the expansion of Italian armed forces. I consider this to be one of the biggest problems 1915 Italy faced as it was an immediate hindrance that effected the Italian people directly in their day to day finances, and also the economy’s weakness also had long term effects such as Italy having a weak military force and some children growing up without the opportunity of an education. Weaknesses of the Liberal political system. Italy seen 29 prime ministers in just 55 years, this was due to the Liberal political system being relatively weak from 1870-1922. Italy’s parliamentary system had been based on the British but it lacked vital aspects and turned out to be very different. One...

Words: 564 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Intro Italy Paper

...Discussion Board Forum 1 Located at the southernmost region of Europe, Italy is my chosen country of study for the Global Business Cultural Analysis research paper. With Rome as its capital, this fascinating Republic is full of rich history and Christian heritage. Lead by a Prime Minister, Italy boast being the seventh largest economy in the world (Thomas White International, 2013). The Italian peninsula is rich in the diversity of business, including world renowned automotive companies, fashion, textiles, tourism, and of course, the bounty of gastronomical wonders. Unfortunately, and adding to the flavor of this country, is the stronghold of corruption and organized crime that ultimately affects its own citizens and the further growth of their economy. Corruption has reached even as high as the Prime Minister, Silvio Berlusconi, who “has since been convicted of tax fraud, banned from public office for two years, and handed a one-year sentence.” (Cohen, 2013). I would like to study and learn about their local and international financial system, and discover why such a blessed country has such high unemployment rates among its citizens. I would also like to research their business culture, the types of corruption within the Government, their financial potential for improvement, and how international companies view investing in this interesting and diverse economy. Despite many negative factors, Italy continues to be the romantic capital of the world, full of dreamy......

Words: 303 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

To What Extent Was Italy Unified by 1870?

...To what extent was Italy Unified by 1870? By 1870, Italy had finally captured Rome and as a result of this military victory had conquered the whole of the Italian Peninsula. Previously, the Austrians controlled Venetia and Lombardy so subsequently Italy was divided into many different states. However, by 1870, Piedmont had managed to unite all of Italy under one ruler. On the other hand, there were many divisions in this new state leading up to 1870. For example there were many people in the South of Italy who felt that they were being forced to pay and adapt to the Northern Italian way of life. Another issue was that Italy would be a federal state therefore weakening its power and that there would be not a sense of great national unity. Leading on from this in 1870, Italy had a weak government that could not control key political figures such as Garibaldi. There were also problems over the economic integration of this new state and that the infrastructure was poor. Another issue was that Rome and Venice had only been recently captured by the Italians and there was fallout over these recent events. The Pope had failed to recognise that Rome was even part of Italy and many people may have agreed with the Pope such was his influence in those times. By 1870, there were many problems with the South of Italy. The region had a poor economy and there was widespread poverty that was incompatible with the North. Another reason why it was a problem was that there was a lot of......

Words: 1399 - Pages: 6