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UNIT 1 Answer Key
CHAPTER 1

CHAPTER 1 Section 1

Prereading and Vocabulary 2

Reading Comprehension 3

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

oligarchy citizen democracy constitution state two basic levels; certain decisions; only the federal government; each of the states
Federalism is a system of government in which power is divided between a central government and several regional, or state, governments. 1. Population; the people who live within the boundaries of the state
2. Territory; land with known and recognized boundaries 3. Sovereignty; the supreme and absolute power within a state’s territory to decide its own foreign and domestic policies
4. Government; the institution through which society makes and enforces public policies
5. Force theory; the state was born of force, when one person or a small group gained control over people in an area and forced them to submit to that person’s or group’s rule. 6. Evolutionary theory; the state evolved from early families that united to form clans. Later, clans united to form tribes. As tribes settled into agricultural groups over time, they formed states.
7. Divine right theory; God created the state and gave a chosen few the right to rule.
8. Social contract theory; people voluntarily agreed to create a state and give to the government just enough power to promote the safety and well-being of all.
Government exists to serve the will of the people, and the people are the sole source of political power.

Chapter Outline 2
I. Section 1: Government and the State
A. Definition of Government and the State
1. legislative, executive, judicial
2. state
B. Political Ideas and the Purpose of
Government
1. force
2. evolutionary
3. divine right
4. social contract
5. Preamble
II. Section 2: Forms of Government
A. Who Can Participate?
1. representative democracy
2. direct
3. autocracy, oligarchy
B. Distribution of Power
1. unitary
2. federal
C. Executive and Legislative Branches
1. presidential
2. parliamentary
III. Section 3: Basic Concepts of Democracy
A. Foundations of Democracy
1. majority
2. compromise
B. Citizenship duties, responsibilities
C. The Free Enterprise System
1. capitalism
2. People

Reading Comprehension 2
1. Legislative power: Legislative power is the power to make laws.
Executive power: Executive power is the power to carry out the laws.
Judicial power: Judicial power is the power to settle arguments and decide on the meaning of the law.
2. Force Theory: Force theory is the idea that a small group took over an area and forced other people who came after them to follow their rules.
Evolutionary Theory: Evolutionary theory is the idea that the state began as a family, with related families soon joining and cooperating with the original family.
Divine Right Theory: Divine right theory is the idea that God created the state and gave people of royal birth a divine right to rule. Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
Social Contract Theory: Social contract theory is the idea that people with common needs came together to form a state. Out of this state, government developed to keep people safe and to use power for the common good.

Examples: Most Americans obey the laws, helping us all live together in peace.
Sometimes, however, government actions lead to domestic disturbances, such as antiwar protests. Statement: Provide for the common defense
Possible Reason: The Framers knew that drawing on the resources of all States would provide a stronger national defense than the
States could provide operating individually.
Examples: The United States has one of the world’s most powerful militaries. However, our security today depends in part on our allies. The war on terrorism is a global war, and we need to partner with other countries to fight this war successfully.
Statement: Promote the general welfare
Possible Reason: The Framers intended a government that serves, not oppresses, the people. Examples: The government provides many services, such as public schools, aid to low-income families, and environmental protection. The government does not fulfill all the basic needs of citizens. Americans are expected to work and provide for themselves.
Statement: Secure the blessings of liberty
Possible Reason: The colonists fought to liberate themselves from British rule, which they perceived as oppressive. The Framers recognized liberty as a core American value.
Examples: Individual liberties remain a core
American value. For example, Americans may criticize the government without fear of retribution. However, debate continues over how far individual liberties extend. For example, does an individual’s right to bear arms extend to owning an assault rifle?
Possible response to question: Yes. Only a society working together through government can keep order. Government makes laws, and citizens obey them, so that people can live together peacefully in a community. Without order, there can be no freedom. Everyone would live in fear. Individuals would fight for power, and the winners would subjugate the losers. Core Worksheet 3
Sample Answers:
Statement: We the People of the United States
Possible Reason: The Framers intended to establish a government that derives its power from the people, rather than a monarchy (like their British rulers).
Examples: The American people still rule by electing representatives and voting out those who disappoint. However, accountability to the people has eroded somewhat today, as average Americans must compete for influence with moneyed interests. For example, some members of Congress listen more to powerful lobbyists than to the views of their constituents.
Statement: In order to form a more perfect
Union
Possible Reason: The States needed a stronger
Union than the one created by the Articles of
Confederation to overcome the rivalries and jealousies among the States.
Examples: The Federal Government has sufficient power to act for the country as a whole, providing strength that no State could achieve on its own. The Union is not perfect, however. The division of powers between
State and Federal governments is still debated.
For example, should States be allowed to make their own gun laws?
Statement: Establish justice
Possible Reason: Resentment over British acts that the colonists perceived as unjust helped to ignite the American Revolution. After winning the fight, Americans wanted to ensure justice in their new government.
Examples: Equal justice for all remains a national goal, although prejudices still threaten justice for some groups. For example, fear of terrorism sometimes leads to harassment of Arab Americans.
Statement: Insure domestic tranquility
Possible Reason: The Framers recognized that all citizens would benefit from peace at home and that only a government could accomplish this goal.

Core Worksheet 2
Answers will vary, depending on the phrases that students choose or that the teacher assigns to them.
Phrase: We the People of the United States

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
Why included: The Framers intended to establish a government that derives its power from the people, rather than a monarchy (like the British).
Why important today: The American people still rule by electing representatives and voting out those who disappoint.
Phrase: In order to form a more perfect Union
Why included: The States needed a stronger
Union than the one created by the Articles of
Confederation to overcome the rivalries and jealousies among the States.
Why important today: The Federal
Government has sufficient power to act for the country as a whole, providing strength that no
State could achieve on its own.
Phrase: Establish justice
Why included: Resentment over British acts that the colonists perceived as unjust helped to ignite the American Revolution. After winning the fight, Americans wanted to ensure justice in their new government.
Why important today: Equal justice for all remains a national goal, although prejudices still threaten justice for some groups.
Phrase: Insure domestic tranquility
Why included: The Framers recognized that all citizens would benefit from peace at home and that only a government could accomplish this goal.
Why important today: Most Americans obey the laws, helping us all live together in peace.
Phrase: Provide for the common defense
Why included: The Framers knew that drawing on the resources of all States would provide a stronger national defense than the
States could provide operating individually.
Why important today: The United States has one of the world’s most powerful militaries and partners with other nations in the war on terrorism. Phrase: Promote the general welfare
Why included: The Framers intended a government that serves, not oppresses, the people. Why important today: The government provides many services that promote the general welfare, such as public schools, aid to low-income families, and environmental protection. Phrase: Secure the blessings of liberty
Why included: The colonists fought to liberate themselves from British rule, which

they perceived as oppressive. The Framers recognized liberty as a core American value.
Why important today: Individual liberties remain a core American value. For example,
Americans may criticize the government without fear of retribution.
Possible response to question: Yes. Only a society working together through government can keep order. Government makes laws, and citizens obey them, so that people can live together peacefully in a community. Without order, there can be no freedom. Everyone would live in fear. Individuals would fight for power, and the winners would subjugate the losers. Extend Worksheet:
Second Treatise of Government 3, 4
1. People had the freedom to choose their own actions and control themselves and their possessions without the consent of others. 2. One free person’s life, liberty, and estate
(property) will be threatened by another free person’s actions.
3. by people voluntarily coming together and agreeing to live in a group according to the will of the majority
4. People trade perfect freedom for increased security. They do so by mutually agreeing to abide by the will of the majority.

Extend Worksheet:
Assess Prior Knowledge 3, 4
Answers will vary, depending on what students already know about these topics.

Quiz A
Key Terms
1. a
2. d
3. f
4. b
5. c
6. e
Main Ideas
7. c
8. a
9. d
10. b

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
Quiz B

Examples: European Union, United States under the Articles of Confederation
Presidential: a form of government in which the executive and legislative branches are separate, independent, and coequal
Examples: United States; most other presidential systems are found in the Western
Hemisphere.
Parliamentary: a form of government in which the executive is chosen by the legislature.
Examples: Great Britain; most countries of the world have parliamentary governments.

Key Terms
1. a
2. c
3. f
4. b
5. e
6. d
Main Ideas
7. b
8. c
9. b
10. d

Reading Comprehension 2
1. In a democracy the government gets its power from the people. In a dictatorship, the government is run by one person who is not necessarily concerned with the will of the people.
2. Direct democracy: Direct democracy is a type of government in which all people create laws or policies. It only works on a small, local level.
Indirect democracy: Indirect democracy is a type of government in which a small group of people is chosen to represent the interests of the larger group. This is also called representative democracy.
3. Autocracy: An autocracy is a dictatorship in which a single person holds all power.
Oligarchy: An oligarchy is a dictatorship in which a small group of people holds all power. 4. In a unitary government, a single, central group holds power. In a federal government, power is divided between a central government and several local governments. 5. The United States has a presidential form of government. The legislative and executive branches are separate and equal, and each branch can check the power of the other.

CHAPTER 1 Section 2
Reading Comprehension 3
Democracy: a form of government in which the supreme authority rests with the people
Indirect: democracy in which the people express their will through their elected representatives Examples: United States, Great Britain
Direct: democracy in which the people themselves make public policy in mass meetings Examples: New England town meeting, the
Landsgemeinde in small Swiss cantons; direct democracy does not exist at the national level.
Dictatorship: a form of government in which the ruler or ruling group has absolute power and authority
Autocracy: a dictatorship in which a single person holds unlimited political power
Examples: Libya
Oligarchy: a dictatorship in which a small group of usually self-appointed elite holds all power to rule
Examples: Myanmar, China
Unitary Government: a centralized government in which all government powers belong to a single, central agency
Examples: Great Britain; most democratic governments in the world are unitary.
Federal Government: a form of government in which powers are divided between a central government and several local governments
Examples: United States, Australia, Canada,
Mexico, Switzerland, Germany, India
Confederate Government: a form of government made up of an alliance of independent states

Core Worksheet 3
Features:
Democracy: supreme authority rests with the people; government rules by consent of the people; direct or indirect
Dictatorship: single person or small group holds unlimited power; rulers not held responsible to the people; government not accountable for its policies; authoritarian; often totalitarian; holds

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued) power with the help of strong groups such as the military, religious leaders, and industrialists
Predictions:
Answers will vary. Sample answers:
Democracy:
1. The national and local governments would work together to get food to those who need it. The governments would form study groups to search for solutions.
2. The government encourages participation in the program by setting aside money to build recycling plants and wind turbines and to fund research into alternative fuels.
3. The government must follow the amendment process laid out in the constitution, and the decision is made by a vote of the people or their representatives.
Dictatorship:
4. The leaders and their supporters would take the available food for themselves and ignore other starving citizens.
5. The government builds the infrastructure and commands citizens to recycle and use alternative energy. The government might use scare tactics, such as the threat of imprisonment for those who do not comply. 6. The dictators simply continue in office without seeking anyone’s approval, or they decree that they are the leaders for life. 6. d
Main Ideas
7. b
8. a
9. c
10. b

CHAPTER 1 Section 3
Reading Comprehension 3
1. Individual worth; possible meaning:
All people have value and deserve to be treated with dignity.
2. Equality; possible meaning: Every individual is entitled to take advantage of life’s opportunities and to the same treatment before the law.
3. Majority rule and minority rights; possible meaning: Decisions of the majority hold, but the majority must be willing to listen to the views of the minority.
4. Compromise; possible meaning:
Compromise is a process of give-and-take among conflicting views to come to a decision that is acceptable to most people.
5. Individual freedom; possible meaning: All individuals may do as they like as long as their actions do not violate the rights of others. Reading Comprehension 2
1. a. Every person has worth and dignity.
b. Every person is equal and should be treated the same under the law.
Every person should have the same opportunities. c. The majority rule, but the opinions of the minority should be respected.
d. Compromise is the best way to settle differences. e. Every person is free, but no one can take away the freedom of others.
2. Any two of the following are acceptable: citizens have a duty to pay taxes, go to school, and obey laws.
3. Either of the following is acceptable: citizens have a responsibility to vote and to help in the community.
4. The free enterprise system is based on a market system in which goods and services are bought and sold in a competitive marketplace. Workers

Quiz A
Key Terms
1. c
2. a
3. f
4. b
5. e
6. d
Main Ideas
7. b
8. a
9. c
10. b

Quiz B
Key Terms
1. c
2. a
3. f
4. b
5. e

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued) compete for jobs and businesses compete for customers. Most economic decisions are made by individuals. The government plays a role by passing laws and regulations.
5. capitalism

Falling Short: In many cities, homeless people live on the streets.
Equality:
Reflecting Ideal: The city builds wheelchair ramps to provide access to government buildings for people with disabilities.
Falling Short: An employer pays men more than women doing the same job, asserting that men need more money because they must support a family.
Majority rule/minority rights:
Reflecting Ideal: City council surveys residents to find out if most people want the city to build a tennis court or a bike trail in the city park.
Falling Short: Until 1955, African Americans in Baltimore were not allowed to use “whiteonly” public swimming pools.
Compromise:
Reflecting Ideal: Before appointing a federal district court judge, the President consults with senators from the State where the judge will serve and chooses a candidate they support.
Falling Short: The President consults with the members of his Cabinet, and then proceeds with a policy they all oppose.
Individual freedom:
Reflecting Ideal: Keesha disagrees with the school’s dress code, so she writes an editorial in the school newspaper supporting her request for a change.
Falling Short: In 1873, the Supreme Court upholds a State law barring women from the practice of law.
Part 2:
Duties of Citizenship:
Jury duty: Citizens must be tried by a jury of their peers.
Attending school: Educated people make better citizens and are needed to participate in daily life.
Paying taxes: Money is required to pay for essential programs such as education, security, and roads.
Obeying laws: Otherwise, anarchy could result, with the loss of individual freedoms.
Responsibilities of Citizenship:
Voting: Although voting allows citizens’ voices to be heard, it is not required in the U.S.
Volunteering/being active in the community:
Citizens are allowed to determine the extent of the role they play in community life.
Understanding how the government works:
Knowledge of the principles and structure of

Bellringer Worksheet 3
1. Possible response: “Information at Cyber
Speed…But Beware”; I suggest this title because it captures the main idea of quick access to information on the Internet, and the warning at the end might intrigue readers to read on.
2. Possible response: The Internet provides average citizens easy access to a huge volume of political information. However, no one guarantees the accuracy of this information. Much of it is false or biased.
Plans to conduct online voting have been scrapped because the government could find no way to protect against voting fraud. 3. Possible response: Students might underline this sentence: “There is a vast amount of unverified, often unverifiable, and frequently false information and biased analysis in cyberspace.”

Bellringer Worksheet, ELL 2 theoretically unverified unverifiable informed guarantee biased quantity participation
Possible response: The Internet provides a lot of information about the government, making it easy to stay informed.
10. Possible response: Much of the information on the Internet is unproven, false, or biased. 11. Possible response: “Politics on the Web:
Read with Caution”
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Core Worksheet 3
Answers will vary. Sample answers:
Part 1:
Individual worth:
Reflecting Ideal: The government runs jobtraining programs to help people living in poverty gain employment skills.

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued) government can help citizens better monitor the actions of that government.

you can do for your country; we can do for the freedom of man; let us go forth to lead
3. Student responses will vary, but they should cite specific parts of the speech.
4. Possible answers: President Kennedy repeats the word citizen to appeal to
Americans’ sense of duty and citizenship.
By appealing to both American citizens and citizens of the world he emphasizes the connections of all people. President
Kennedy uses certain phrases (“not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need— not as call to battle, though embattled we are”) to emphasize the scope of the task.
The task is not limited to a single war.
It is very broad (“a struggle against the common enemies of man”) and will last a long time (“the burden of a long twilight struggle”). Skills Worksheet 3
1. In the excerpt, Kennedy urges Americans to work together to “defend freedom” against “the common enemies of man,” namely, tyranny, poverty, disease, and war.
2. Students’ responses may vary. Possible response: (a) Americans have a responsibility to fight against “the common enemies of man”; to support this idea, Kennedy notes that Americans are being summoned
“again” to this task, emphasizing that they have done it successfully in the past.
He also suggests that Americans have a strong duty to serve their country (“ask not. . .”). (b) Americans are up to the task of defending freedom; to support this view,
Kennedy tells his audience that the current generation would not be willing to trade places with any other generation, but that it relishes the challenge of service. He also couches this sentiment in heroic terms with heroic imagery.
3. Students’ responses will vary, but they should cite specific parts of the speech.
4. Possible answers: repetition of the word citizen—Kennedy repeats this word to appeal to Americans’ sense of duty and citizenship; turning phrases “inside out”
(e.g., a call to bear arms, though arms we need; a call to battle, though embattled we are)—Kennedy uses this technique to make a distinction between what he is asking people to do (to work hard—arms working in service and “battling” against oppression) and what he is not asking people to do (he is not merely speaking of military service, “bearing arms” and fighting literal battles); the word finally in the last paragraph signals to listeners that his speech is nearing its conclusion.

Quiz A
Key Terms
1. a
2. c
3. e
4. f
5. b
6. d
Main Ideas
7. b
8. c
9. d
10. d

Quiz B
Key Terms
1. c
2. b
3. e
4. f
5. a
6. d
Main Ideas
7. b
8. c
9. d
10. d

Skill Activity 2
1. President Kennedy is urging Americans to work together to defend freedom and advance humankind.
2. Important words and phrases include: summons us; a struggle against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war; defending freedom; what

CHAPTER 1
Test A
Key Terms
1. b

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
2. f
3. i
4. d
5. j
6. a
7. e
8. h
9. g
10. c
Multiple Choice
11. a
12. d
13. b
14. c
15. c
16. a
17. c
18. b
19. b
20. c
Document-Based Question
21. Sample response: In a democracy, public decision making must largely be a matter of give-and-take among various competing interests. It is a matter of compromise to find the position most acceptable to the largest number.
Compromise is important to democracy because, although the individual is highly valued, each individual is the equal of all others. Therefore, in a society composed of different people with different views, decisions cannot be made except through compromise. Government would be impossible without the process of compromise as a way of achieving majority agreement.
Critical Thinking
22. Possible response: Both democracy and the free enterprise system are firmly based on a commitment to the idea of individual freedom. In a democracy, supreme political authority rests with the people; in a free enterprise system, supreme economic authority rests with the people as well.
Individuals, not the government, make most of the decisions in a free enterprise system. Essay
23. Possible response: For a wide variety of reasons, government is necessary.
Order is essential to the well-being of any society, and keeping the peace at

home has always been a prime function of government. Similarly, defending the nation against foreign enemies is also a prime responsibility of government.
Without government, we would all be personally responsible for our own protection against domestic or foreign threats. We would all be personally responsible for our own education. Safe food and safe highways, as well as many other basic services, would be difficult or impossible to achieve. Civil rights would not be protected. We would live in a “state of nature” in which individuals would be only as safe as their own strength and intelligence could make them.

Test B
Key Terms
1. b
2. f
3. i
4. d
5. j
6. a
7. e
8. h
9. g
10. c
Multiple Choice
11. c
12. d
13. b
14. c
15. c
16. a
17. c
18. b
19. c
20. b
Document-Based Question
21. (a) President Ford is addressing the concept of compromise. (b) Compromise is the process of considering all sides of an issue. It is a matter of compromise to find the position most acceptable to the largest number. Therefore, in a society with different people with different views, decisions cannot be made except through compromise. President Ford says that, in a democracy, compromise is the best way to settle differences. Democratic government would be impossible without the process

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued) of compromise as a way of achieving majority agreement.
Critical Thinking
22. The free enterprise system developed as a result of the ideas written in the
Constitution and Bill of Rights. Democracy is based on the idea of rule by the people; that is, the country’s leaders are chosen by the people. The free enterprise system is also based on the idea of personal choice. In this system, individuals, not the government, make most economic decisions. Essay
23. Possible response: Without some form of government, most people would live in fear of losing their lives and property.
Government is necessary to keep order in society and protect lives, property, and individual rights. In order to accomplish this, government needs legislative, executive, and judicial powers so it can make and carry out laws and settle disputes. Another essential function of government is to defend the nation against foreign enemies. Government also provides important services such as schools and roads. Without some form of government, it would be difficult or impossible to obtain many of these services. 1. Magna Carta
2. English Bill of Rights
C. The Thirteen Colonies
1. Maryland, Pennsylvania, and
Delaware
2. Connecticut, Rhode Island
II. Section 2: The Coming of Independence
A. British Colonial Policies
1. taxing
2. Boston Tea Party
B. The First Continental Congress
Intolerable Acts
C. The Second Continental Congress
1. Articles of Confederation
2. Declaration of Independence
D. The First State Constitutions
1. conventions
2. legislature
III. Section 3: The Critical Period
A. Problems with the Articles of
Confederation
1. money
2. trade
B. Need for a Stronger Government
Constitutional Convention
IV. Section 4: Creating the Constitution
A. Plans of Government
1. bicameral
2. equally
B. Convention Compromises
1. Connecticut, or Great
2. Three-Fifths Compromise
V. Section 5: Ratifying the Constitution
A. Ratification
1. Federalists, ratified
2. opposed
3. Bill of Rights
B. The New Government
1. George Washington
2. New York City

CHAPTER 2
Prereading and Vocabulary 2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

possible answers: complaint, objection possible answers: approve, authorize possible answers: agreement, deal, bargain f d g a e b c CHAPTER 2 Section 1
Reading Comprehension 3
1. Magna Carta
Date: 1215
Democratic Reforms: trial by jury, due process, private property
Significance: established principle that power of monarchy is not absolute
Petition of Right
Date: 1628

Chapter Outline 2
I. Section 1: Our Political Beginnings
A. Basic Concepts
1. limited
2. representative
B. Landmark English Documents

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
Democratic Reforms: King can’t imprison or punish without judgment of peers or law of land; king can’t impose martial law in peacetime; king can’t require homeowners to shelter troops without their consent
Significance: challenged divine right of kings; even monarch must obey the law of the land
English Bill of Rights
Date: 1689
Democratic Reforms: no standing army in peacetime; free parliamentary elections; monarch may not suspend laws or levy taxes without consent of Parliament; subjects have right to petition the king; right to a fair trial; freedom from excessive bail or fines and from cruel and unusual punishment; right to bear arms
Significance: contributed many basic principles to development of our government 2. Crown: exercised direct control of colonies; approved laws
Governor: colony’s chief executive; appointed by king; appointed judges; approved laws
Council:
• selected by king; served as advisory body to governor and as highest court in the colony
• became upper house of the colonial legislature Lower House:
• elected by property owners eligible to vote • shared power to tax and spend with advisory council and governor

2.
3.
4.

5.

Reforms: King could not imprison people without a jury trial; king could not force rich people to make loans
English Bill of Rights
Date: 1689
Reforms: Parliament had to approve all taxes; king could not suspend Parliament; people could ask the king for help; people accused of a crime had the right to a jury trial All three documents were meant to limit the power of the king.
The royal governors were too strict, which angered the colonists.
Charter colonies had fair laws and judges. They had more freedom and selfgovernment than the other colonies.
Royal colonies: Massachusetts, New
Hampshire, New York, New Jersey, Virginia,
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
Proprietary colonies: Pennsylvania,
Delaware, Maryland
Charter colonies: Connecticut, Rhode Island

Core Worksheet 3
Part 1
Answers will vary. Students should support their comments.
Part 2
1. Students should select a few specific ideas from the documents and apply them to their own life.
2. Students should note that the restriction of individual freedoms under British rule helped spark the American Revolution.
3. Students should recognize that the concepts in these documents appear in the
Bill of Rights in the U.S. Constitution and are reflected in all State constitutions.

Quiz A

Reading Comprehension 2

Key Terms
1. a
2. e
3. c
4. b
5. d
6. f
Main Ideas
7. b
8. b
9. c
10. a

1. Magna Carta
Date: 1215
Reforms: King must consult with nobles; special taxes could not be raised without consent of nobles; free men could not be jailed without a trial with jury of peers; common people would elect people to
Parliament
Petition of Right
Date: 1628

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Unit 1 Answer Key (continued)
Quiz B

Separation of powers and checks and balances: Powers of government are divided among three branches. Each branch has the power to check the power of the other branches.

Key Terms 1. f 2. e 3. c 4. b 5. d 6. a
Main Ideas 7. b 8. b 9. c
1
0. a

Reading Comprehension 2 1. Group: First Continental Congress
Dates: 1774
Purpose/Actions: The Congress sent a
Declaration of Rights to King George to protest the Intolerable Acts and other colonial policies.
Group: Second Continental Congress
Dates: 1775–1781
Purpose/Actions: The Second Continental
Congress ran the government, organized an army, and supported the colonists during the Revolutionary War. It also wrote the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation. 2. Section: First section
Summary: The first section says that all people have the right to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” It says that if a government does not grant people these rights, the government should end.
Section: Middle section
Summary: This section lists the colonists’ complaints against the king of England.
Section: Last section
Summary: This section declares that the colonies are independent from British rule. 3. a. Popular sovereignty: The government can only exist if the people consent to it.
The people give the power to government.
b. Limited government: Government power is restricted.
c. Civil rights and liberties: People have certain rights and freedoms that the government must protect.
d. Separation of powers: The government is divided among three branches. Each branch has a way to control the power of the others. 4. They influenced the Framers when they drafted the Constitution of the United States.

CHAPTER 2 Section 2
Reading Comprehension 3 1. Cause: End of French-Indian War
Effect/Cause: costly British troops stay in
America
Effect/Cause: British financial crisis
Effect/Cause: British acts/taxes; Stamp Act
Effect/Cause: American outrage;
British refusal to back down
Effect/Cause: Stamp Act Congress;
Committees of Correspondence; mob violence; Boston Massacre
Effect/Cause: British Intolerable Acts
Effect/Cause: American resistance; First
Continental Congress; Lexington and
Concord
Effect/Cause: Declaration of Rights; stricter British measures
Effect/Cause: Second Continental
Congress
Effect/Cause: Declaration of
Independence; first U.S. Government
Effect: State constitutions;
REVOLUTIONARY WAR 2. Popular sovereignty: Government can exist only with the consent of the governed. The people are the only source of government authority.
Limited government: Government has only those powers granted by the people through the Constitution. Powers of government have many restrictions.
Civil rights and liberties: People have rights that government must respect.
Seven States established these “unalienable rights” in a bill of rights.

Core Worksheet A 3
Cartoon 1 1. the union of the British colonies 2. That it is necessary for all the colonies to unite in order for them to survive.

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Unit 1 Answer Key (continued)
Skills Worksheet 3

3. The colonies are shown as parts of a snake.
The parts appear to be in order from the left to right to imply the order of the states from south to north. The New England states are shown together, and as the head of the snake. It is possible that it was believed that a snake could reform and survive after being cut up. 4. the Colonists; the dire sentiment of the caption is geared toward rallying the colonists together against a common enemy, the king of England. 5. the snake could be shown as actually dead rather than alive, the image could be of a weaker and less potent animal such as a worm or rat. 6. No. The image does not use humor to create a reaction but rather a more visceral and dire image to cause an effect.
Cartoon 2 1. the Stamp Act 2. The Stamp Act will result in disaster. 3. the skull and crossbones and heavy black border, both suggesting impending doom 4. The colonists’ point of view. The colonists hated the taxes imposed by the Stamp Act. 5. A cartoon from the British viewpoint might have highlighted tax money going to support British troops defending the colonies. 6. No. It exaggerates the hatred for this tax, but with a serious, not humorous, tone.

1. The general subject of the excerpts is whether or not the British Parliament has a right to tax colonists even though the colonists have no elected representatives in
Parliament. The audience for the first excerpt is the British government. The audience for the second is American colonists. 2. The first excerpt asserts that the British government does not have the right to tax
American colonists because they do not have representation in Parliament. Only
American legislatures can impose taxation.
The second asserts that because the colonists have chosen to leave Great Britain, they have forfeited their ability (if not their right) to vote for Parliamentary representation. 3. Possible answer: Both Samuel Johnson and the members of the Stamp Act Congress were likely influenced by personal beliefs and experiences. As Americans, the members of the Stamp Act Congress were accustomed to making decisions for themselves and, being far removed from England, no doubt felt entitled to a certain amount of independence.
As a loyal British subject, Johnson saw the colonists as fellow countrymen who should remain loyal to the Crown. 4. The title of Johnson’s pamphlet “Taxation
No Tyranny,” which is an emotionally charged way to express his disagreement with the notion that “taxation without representation is tyranny.”

Core Worksheet B 3

Skill Activity 2

1. Possible response: The author sympathized with the townspeople. He described the incident as a “horrid murder” and suggested that the provocation was no more than snowballs thrown by young boys. 2. Possible response: No. The author does not suggest any reason for the firing from the British viewpoint. The soldiers are the villains in this account. 3. Possible response: The Boston Massacre inflamed colonial resentment against the
British, and accounts like this fueled the flames. 4. Possible account: An angry mob descended upon us, wielding clubs and throwing rocks. My men feared for their lives. I asked the people to disperse, but they refused. As the mob advanced, my men fired in self-defense.

1. The general subject of the excerpts is whether or not the British Parliament has a right to tax colonists even though the colonists have no elected representatives in Parliament. The audience for the first excerpt is the British government. The audience for the second is American colonists. 2. The first excerpt states that the British government does not have the right to tax
American colonists because they do not have representation in Parliament. Only
American legislatures can impose taxation.
The second excerpt states that because the colonists have chosen to leave Great
Britain, they have forfeited their ability (if not their right) to vote for parliamentary representation. Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

233

UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
3. Possible answer: Both the members of the
Stamp Act Congress and Samuel Johnson were probably influenced by personal beliefs and experiences. As Americans, the members of the Stamp Act Congress were accustomed to making decisions for themselves. Being far removed from
Great Britain, no doubt they felt entitled to a certain amount of independence.
As a loyal British subject, Johnson saw the colonists as fellow countrymen who should remain loyal to the Crown.
4. The title of Johnson’s pamphlet “Taxation
No Tyranny” expresses his disagreement with the notion that “taxation without representation is tyranny.”

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

self-evident ends endowed destructive pursuit foundation secure principles deriving effect consent alter Reading Comprehension 3
Preamble: explains why the Declaration of
Independence was written
Declaration of Natural Rights: lists the basic rights to which all people are entitled; the rights are unalienable and cannot be taken away; government gets its power from the people; when the government takes power from the people and does not protect their rights, the people have the right and responsibility to throw off that government and create a new one
List of Grievances: lists 27 complaints against the King George III, who has attempted to establish an absolute tyranny over the colonies; grievances include the king’s refusal to agree to laws for the public good, the king’s dissolving of representative houses and his refusal to allow the election of new legislators, the lodging of British soldiers in colonists’ homes, and the passage of harsh laws against the colonists when they tried to petition the king to correct his wrongs
The Resolution of Independence: declares that the colonies are free and independent States, by authority of the people of the States and of
God, and that the States can perform all acts granted to independent States

Quiz A
Key Terms
1. d
2. c
3. e
4. a
5. f
6. b
Main Ideas
7. d
8. c
9. a
10. b

Quiz B
Key Terms
1. f
2. b
3. d
4. a
5. e
6. c
Main Ideas
7. d
8. c
9. a
10. a

Core Worksheet 3
Part 1
Answers will vary. Students should support their evaluations.
Part 2
A1. Possible response: The stirring words and list of grievances might have inspired many to join the cause, while the radical step of declaring independence might have frightened many into remaining loyal to the British.

CHAPTER 2
Declaration of Independence
Prereading and Vocabulary Worksheet 2
1. instituted
2. inalienable
3. abolish

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
A2. Possible response: While some, particularly the lower classes, may have identified with the cause of freedom, many Britons would have been outraged by the audacity of the colonists and would have resolved to crush the rebels.
A3. Possible response: European
Enlightenment thinkers likely celebrated the colonists for trying to implement
Enlightenment ideas. Britain’s European rivals, who stood to gain from American independence, might have supported the colonists as well. However, they probably worried that this precedent might provoke insurrection at home and in their colonies.
A4. Possible response: American independence would cost them much power and wealth, so British royalty most likely was outraged and resolved to crush the rebellion.
B. Possible response: The outcome of the conflict would be decided, in large part, by the strength of support for each side.
The colonists needed popular support at home and significant military and financial support from Britain’s European rivals.
C. Possible response: The signers probably hoped the document would unite the colonies and stir them to fight and provide financial and other active support for the cause. (b) The king has imposed taxes on the colonies without the consent of the colonists. 5. The United Colonies are free and independent states.

CHAPTER 2 Section 3
Reading Comprehension 3
1. hard to reach a consensus; small States can block laws that might benefit most of the country 2. no funds to carry out responsibilities or powers assigned under the Articles
3. States impose taxes and bans on each other’s trade; weakens economic development 4. no avenue for resolving State disputes; court systems vary from State to State
5. threatens unity; undermines the whole enterprise financially, politically, and socially 6. nearly impossible to reach consensus; few laws would be enacted
7. cannot support a national military; cannot fund nationwide programs; cannot fund day-to-day operations of central government 8. threatens unity; makes the confederation vulnerable to foreign interference and invasion; undermines creation of national economy; increases suspicion and bickering 9. threatens unity; increases suspicion and bickering; increases likelihood of civil war
10. undermines trade; undermines development of State economies; undermines creation of national economy; increases suspicion and bickering
11. undermines creation of national economy and trade; boosts inflation; sound credit vanishes; public and private debts go unpaid; people lose their property, leading to violence

Reading Comprehension 2
1. The Preamble states that the “political bands” between the colonies and Great
Britain are being dissolved. The purpose of the Declaration of Independence is to declare the causes for the separation.
2. (a) All men have certain unalienable rights such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. (b) It is the purpose of government to secure the rights of the people.
3. (a) Governments get their just (rightful) powers from the consent of the governed.
(b) When government no longer respects the rights of the people, it is their right to abolish the government and institute new government. 4. (a) The king has cut off trade between the colonies and all parts of the world.

Reading Comprehension 2
1. a. Congress could make war. b. Congress could agree to treaties with other countries. c. Congress could take care of financial needs.
2. There were 13 delegates, one from each state. Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
3. Shays’ Rebellion was an attack on a federal arsenal in Massachusetts protesting the fact that many people had no money to pay their debts.
4. Any three of the following: Congress did not have the power to tax; there was only one vote for each state, regardless of size; Congress could not regulate trade;
Congress had no power to enforce its acts; there was no national court system; amendments had to be approved by all the states. 5. The Constitutional Convention was called to revise the Articles of Confederation because they were too weak to deal with the country’s problems.

would have drawn out the process even more. 3. Prediction possible response: Each State would have used its militia to protect its own borders, but would not have sent its troops to protect other States. Reason possible response: The top priority of each
State would be to protect itself, not the nation as a whole.
4. Prediction possible response: Some States would have made treaties with Native
Americans to gain some of their land.
Other States would have ignored claims and simply taken their land. Reason possible response: Each State would have operated separately in its own interest.
There would have been no overall policy toward Native Americans.
5. Prediction possible response: These nations would have kept much of the land they claimed, and the United States would be smaller than it is today. Reason possible response: The States, operating individually, would not have been powerful enough to take land or wealthy enough to buy much land from these other nations. Core Worksheet 3
Part 1
1. Virginia, Massachusetts, Connecticut,
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
2. Virginia
3. Answers will vary. Some students may note that the issue of Western land claims was so divisive that it would have precluded the possibility of any unity if it had not been solved. Surrendering land claims to the Federal government may have been the only way to solve the issue fairly. 4. Spain, Britain
5. Foreign land claims might lead to foreign interference, invasion, or threats. Without a strong unifying National Government, the
States may not have been able to stand up to these foreign threats.
Part 2
1. Prediction possible response: The States would have paid their own debts but ignored those of the National Government.
Reason possible response: The States would have operated like sovereign nations. They would have paid their own debts to improve their standing with foreign nations, but would not have seen an advantage to paying national debts.
2. Prediction possible response: Delegates from each State would have chosen a location after a long, drawn-out negotiation. Reason possible response:
With no central authority, the process would have taken a long time as the States bickered. Also, ratification by all 13 States

Core Worksheet 2
Part 1
1. Virginia, Massachusetts, Connecticut,
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
2. Virginia
3. Answers will vary. Some students may note that the issue of Western land claims was so divisive that it would have precluded the possibility of any unity if it had not been solved. Surrendering land claims to the Federal government may have been the only way to solve the issue fairly. 4. Spain, Britain
5. Foreign land claims might lead to foreign interference, invasion, or threats. Without a strong unifying National Government, the
States may not have been able to stand up to these foreign threats.
Part 2
1. Prediction possible response: The States would have paid their own debts but ignored those of the National Government.
Reason possible response: The States would have operated like sovereign

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)

2.

3.

4.

5.

Quiz B

nations. They would have paid their own debts to improve their standing with foreign nations, but would not have seen an advantage to paying national debts.
Prediction possible response: Delegates from each State would have chosen a location after a long, drawn-out negotiation. Reason possible response:
With no central authority, the process would have taken a long time as the States bickered. Also, ratification by all 13 States would have drawn out the process even more. Prediction possible response: Each State would have used its militia to protect its own borders, but would not have sent its troops to protect other States. Reason possible response: The top priority of each
State would be to protect itself, not the nation as a whole.
Prediction possible response: Some States would have made treaties with Native
Americans to gain some of their land.
Other States would have ignored claims and simply taken their land. Reason possible response: Each State would have operated separately in its own interest.
There would have been no overall policy toward Native Americans.
Prediction possible response: These nations would have kept much of the land they claimed, and the United States would be smaller than it is today. Reason possible response: The States, operating individually, would not have been powerful enough to take land or wealthy enough to buy much land from these other nations. Key Terms
1. f
2. d
3. c
4. e
5. a
6. b
Main Ideas
7. b
8. c
9. c
10. c

CHAPTER 2 Section 4
Reading Comprehension 3
1. New Jersey Plan
• unicameral Congress with States equally represented • Congress given limited powers to tax and regulate trade
• federal executive of more than one person, chosen by Congress; could be removed by request of majority of States’ governors • federal judiciary composed of a single
“supreme Tribunal” chosen by executive
Virginia Plan
• legislative, executive, and judicial branches • bicameral legislature, with each house based on population or money given to central government
• House members popularly elected; senators chosen by House from people nominated by State legislatures
• Congress held power to veto State law in conflict with national law, by force if necessary • Congress would choose a National
Executive and National Judiciary to form a Council of revision
• Council could veto acts of Congress, but
Congress could override
• Congress would have exclusive power to admit new States
2.
a. Connecticut Compromise
Conflict: whether States should be represented equally or by population in
Congress

Quiz A
Key Terms
1. c
2. e
3. d
4. f
5. a
6. b
Main Ideas
7. b
8. d
9. c
10. b

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
Resolution: Congress would be bicameral, with one house represented equally and the other by population.
b. Three-Fifths Compromise
Conflict: how slaves should be counted in State populations to determine representation Resolution: Three fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining representation and taxation.
c. Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise
Conflict: whether Congress would have the power to regulate foreign and interstate trade, including the slave trade
Resolution: The southern States agreed to support commerce power in exchange for an agreement that Congress could not tax exports from any State and could not interfere with the slave trade for at least 20 years. Conflict: whether Congress would have the power to regulate foreign and interstate trade, including the slave trade
Resolution: Congress would regulate trade between states and with foreign countries;
Congress could tax imports, not exports;
Congress could not end the slave trade for at least 20 years.

Core Worksheet 3
1. (1) Virginia, (2) Massachusetts, (3)
Pennsylvania, (4) North Carolina, (5) New
York, (6) Maryland, (7) South Carolina,
(8) Connecticut, (9) New Jersey, (10) New
Hampshire, (11) Georgia, (12) Rhode
Island, (13) Delaware
2. (1) Virginia, (2) South Carolina, (3)
Maryland, (4) North Carolina, (5) Georgia,
(6) New York, (7) New Jersey, (8) Delaware,
(9) Pennsylvania, (10) Connecticut, (11)
Rhode Island, (12) New Hampshire, (13)
Massachusetts
3. Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, North
Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia
4. Connecticut, Massachusetts, New
Hampshire, New Jersey, New York,
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island
5. The most populous States, such as
Virginia, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and
North Carolina, would have supported the
Virginia Plan. With representation based on State population or ability to finance the
National Government, large States would have more votes in Congress and therefore more power than small States.
6. Less populous States, such as Delaware,
Rhode Island, Georgia, New Hampshire, and New Jersey, would have supported the
New Jersey Plan. With each State equally represented in Congress, small States would have equal votes and equal power with large States.
7. Possible response: Yes. This compromise resolved the issue of representation in
Congress, which was so fundamental that progress would have stalled without it.
8. Possible response: Yes. The issue of how slaves would be counted for representation pitted southern States, which had the largest slave populations, against northern
States, which had fewer slaves.
9. Massachusetts. It had a large population, yet no slaves.

Reading Comprehension 2
1. Virginia Plan
Features: Strong central government with legislative, executive, and judicial branches; bicameral legislature; House members elected by each state; senators chosen by the House of Representatives;
Congress would choose a National
Executive and National Judiciary;
Congress would admit new states to the
Union
New Jersey Plan
Features: Congress with one house in which large and small states would be equally represented; Congress could tax and regulate trade; federal executive of more than one person
2. Connecticut Compromise
Conflict: whether states should be represented equally or by population in
Congress
Resolution: Congress would have two parts, with states represented equally in one house and by population in the other.
Three-Fifths Compromise
Conflict: how slaves should be counted in state populations
Resolution: Every five slaves would count as three free men.
Compromise on interstate and foreign trade Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
Quiz A

Reading Comprehension 2
1. James Madison; Alexander Hamilton; John
Jay; George Washington
2. Patrick Henry; Thomas Jefferson
3. A strong central government was needed to defend the nation and keep it united; the separation of powers and checks and balances would prevent any branch from becoming too powerful; the new government would have an independent judicial branch and would operate under the rule of law.
4. The Constitution would take away state and individual rights; it created a national government that was too strong. It did not protect people’s basic rights.
5. The Federalists agreed to add amendments to the Constitution that would protect individual rights. These first ten amendments are called the Bill of Rights.

Key Terms
1. d
2. c
3. e
4. b
5. f
6. a
Main Ideas
7. a
8. b
9. c
10. a

Quiz B
Key Terms
1. e
2. a
3. d
4. c
5. f
6. b
Main Ideas
7. a
8. b
9. c
10. a

Bellringer Worksheet 3
1. Delaware; Rhode Island
2. North Carolina, Connecticut, South
Carolina
3. Rhode Island, New York, Virginia
4. New York
5. Both were large States with influential leaders. The commercial State of New York separated New England from the rest of the nation. For the new government to succeed, it needed the support of both of these key States.

CHAPTER 2 Section 5
Reading Comprehension 3
1. Federalists: James Madison, Alexander
Hamilton, John Jay, John Marshall,
Edmund Randolph, George Washington;
Anti-Federalists: Patrick Henry, Richard
Henry Lee, John Hancock, Samuel Adams,
Amos Singletary, Robert Yates, James
Monroe, George Mason, Thomas Jefferson
(who George Washington later convinced to support ratification), George Clinton,
John Lansing
2. Federalists: Articles of Confederation too weak; need for strong central government to solve nation’s problems; liberties protected in State constitutions; separation of powers would prevent any branch from becoming too powerful; Anti-Federalists:
Ratification process flawed; presidency could become a monarchy; Congress could become too powerful; lack of a bill of rights Core Worksheet 3
Alexander Hamilton
1. Hamilton opposes a bill of rights.
2. Possible response: “Bills of Rights . . . dangerous.” 3. Possible response: Individual liberties do not need the protection of a bill of rights, because the power to restrict these rights is not given in the Constitution. A bill of rights might even provide a basis for government to claim more power than the
Constitution grants.
4. Possible response: I believe the argument is weak, because he insists that protection of rights is implied by the absence of government power to restrict them in the Constitution. People who fear infringement of their rights would likely want more explicit protection.

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued) a campaign whether a candidate will support your views or not.
Strongest Arguments for a Bill of Rights, possible response:
1. All people are entitled to a bill of rights to protect them from government oppression.
2. Rights are too important to depend on inference for their protection.
3. The majority of States have indicated by their votes that they believe their liberties would not be safe without a bill of rights.
Strongest Arguments Against a Bill of
Rights, possible response:
1. A written bill of rights might provide a basis for the government to claim powers not granted to it.
2. A bill of rights is not needed because the
Constitution does not give government the power to infringe on rights.
3. Your rights will be protected by electing representatives who are disposed to protect your rights.
4. Having a written bill of rights won’t protect you if you make poor choices in electing representatives.
5. A bill of rights that declares that all men are born free could threaten our ownership of slaves.

Thomas Jefferson
1. Jefferson supports a bill of rights
2. Possible response: “Let me add . . . on inference.” 3. Possible response: All people should have their basic liberties protected from government by a written bill of rights.
These protections are too important to be simply implied in the Constitution.
4. Possible response: I believe this argument is strong. If left unwritten, these implied protections would be open to varying interpretations. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
1. Pinckney opposes a bill of rights
2. Possible response: “Now, we . . . born slaves.” 3. Possible response: A bill of rights that suggests that all men are born free would go against our State’s commitment to slavery. 4. Possible response: This is a strong argument for the slave States. A bill of rights could become ammunition for an antislavery movement.
Mercy Otis Warren
1. Warren supports a bill of rights
2. Possible response: “Thus, it is . . . liberties.”
3. Possible response: Seven of the thirteen
States either rejected the Constitution or ratified it with the understanding that amendments would be added later.
Thus, the majority of states believed their liberties were not safe as the Constitution was originally written.
4. Possible response: I believe this is a strong argument. Democracy is based in part on respecting the will of the majority.
Roger Sherman
1. Sherman opposes a bill of rights
2. Possible response: “If you are to trust . . . of writing.” 3. Possible response: To protect your rights, you should elect representatives who will support those rights. Having rights written into a bill of rights won’t protect you if you elect representatives who will abuse them.
4. Possible response: I think this argument is weak. He contends that if government abuses individual liberties, it is the fault of the voters who elected the representatives.
This blames the victims for the abuse.
Also, it is often difficult to know during

Quiz A
Key Terms
1. a
2. b
3. f
4. d
5. c
6. e
Main Ideas
7. b
8. a
9. c
10. b

Quiz B
Key Terms
1. a
2. e
3. b
4. d
5. c
6. f
Main Ideas
7. c

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
8. a
9. c
10. b

and the king, and it also included more protections of individual rights and freedoms. Together, these documents helped shape the colonists’ thinking when they established the new United States government. Essay
23. The Constitution reflects the Framers’ determination to prevent any one person or group of people from seizing control of the new nation. This was a direct response to their experiences with the British government. The Constitution contains many built-in checks and balances among the branches of government and between the States and the Federal Government.
The Constitution is also a testament to the power of compromise, because it shows how people with very different ideas were able to reach agreements on essential issues. Many of the Framers’ ideas were drawn from English documents and from Enlightenment thinking, but the
Constitution was a truly unique document at the time.

CHAPTER 2
Test A
Key Terms
1. b
2. a
3. f
4. d
5. i
6. j
7. h
8. g
9. e
10. c
Multiple Choice
11. a
12. b
13. b
14. c
15. c
16. b
17. a
18. c
19. d
20. c
Document-Based Question
21. The colonists deeply resented being taxed without being represented in the British government. They punished tax collectors by tarring and feathering them so that the
British government would clearly get the message that it would not be able to collect unjust taxes in the colonies. The colonists regarded the tax collectors, representatives of the oppressive British government, as stubborn and evil. They felt they had no choice but to resort to rebellion and violence. Critical Thinking
22. These landmark English documents established the ideas of ordered government, limited government, and representative government. The Magna
Carta included protections for citizens against absolute power. The Petition of
Right further limited the king’s power.
The English Bill of Rights established checks and balances between Parliament

Test B
Key Terms
1. c
2. b
3. g
4. f
5. j
6. d
7. a
8. h
9. i
10. e
Multiple Choice
11. a
12. b
13. a
14. c
15. d
16. b
17. a
18. d
19. d
20. c
Document-Based Question
21. The cartoon shows that the colonists deeply resented being taxed without being represented in the British government.

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
They punished tax collectors by tarring and feathering them. They wanted to show the British government that it would not be able to collect unjust taxes in the colonies. The colonists thought the tax collectors were stubborn and evil. They felt they had no choice but to resort to rebellion and violence.
Critical Thinking
22. These English documents established the ideas of ordered government, limited government, and representative government. The Magna Carta included protections for citizens against absolute power. The Petition of Right further limited the king’s power. The English
Bill of Rights established checks and balances between Parliament and the king. It also included more protections of individual rights and freedoms. Together, these documents shaped the colonists’ thinking when they established the new government of the United States.
Essay
23. The Constitution reflects the Framers’ goal to keep any one person or group of people from taking control of the new nation.
This is because of their experiences with the British government. The Constitution contains many built-in checks and balances among the branches of government and between the States and the federal government. The Constitution also shows how different groups can compromise.
People with very different ideas were able to reach agreements on important issues. Many of the Framers’ ideas were drawn from English documents, but the
Constitution was a unique document at the time. 3. judicial—relating to law; review—to study again; judicial review—to study a law again
4. executive—chief officer in a government; agreement—an arrangement or compact; executive agreement—an arrangement made by the chief officer in a government
5. c
6. e
7. b
8. a
9. d

Chapter Outline 2
I. Section 1: Basic Principles
A. The Outline of the Constitution
1. principles
2. 10, 27
3. VI
B. Popular Sovereignty the people
C. Limited government
1. above
2. rule of law
D. Separation of Powers
1. branches
2. Congress
E. Checks and Balances
1. approve
2. override
F. Judicial Review constitutional G. Federalism federal government (or national government), state
II. Section 2: Formal Amendment
A. The Formal Amendment Process
Congress, state legislatures
B. The 27 Amendments
1. 10
2. 22nd
3. 1789, 1992
III. Section 3: Change by Other Means
A. Legislative, Executive, and Judicial
Influence
1. Laws
2. executive
3. interprets
B. Party Practices
1. party
2. presidency, vice presidency
C. Custom
1. Cabinet
2. no-third-term

CHAPTER 3
Prereading and Vocabulary 2
1. popular—the people; sovereignty—power; popular sovereignty—power from the people 2. electoral—relating to elections; college—a group of people with a common purpose; electoral college—a group of people who elect Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
CHAPTER 3 Section 1

Federalism:
Meaning: Power is divided among the central government and several regional governments. In what way did federalism represent a compromise made by the Framers? It was a compromise between the loosely tied confederation of nearly independent
States, created by the weak Articles of
Confederation, and a too powerful central government. Reading Comprehension 3
1. A Articles I–III
B Article V
C Article IV
D Preamble
E Article VI
2. Popular Sovereignty:
Meaning: The people are the only source for governmental power; government can govern only with the consent of the governed. How does the government exercise popular sovereignty? through popularly elected leaders chosen by the people to represent them in the exercise of the people’s power
Limited Government:
Meaning: No government is all-powerful.
A government may do only those things that the people have given it power to do.
What are two other terms used to express the concept of limited government? constitutionalism and rule of law
Separation of Powers
Meaning: Legislative, executive, and judicial powers are distributed among three distinct and independent branches of government. How does separation of powers contribute to limited government? Separation of powers prevents the concentration of power in the hands of one person or group. Checks and Balances:
Meaning: Each branch is subject to constitutional checks, or restraints, by the other branches. Each branch has certain powers with which it can check the actions of the other two.
Why does the President tend to select judges that most senators favor? because the Senate holds the power to confirm or reject judicial appointments
Judicial Review:
Meaning: A court has the power to determine the constitutionality of a governmental action.
When a court declares a law unconstitutional, what does this mean?
The law is illegal. It becomes null and void, and has no force or effect.

Reading Comprehension 2
1. a. Articles I–III
b. Article V
c. Article IV
d. Preamble
2. Popular Sovereignty
Meaning: People hold all political power.
People influence government by voting to choose government representatives.
Limited Government
Meaning: The government is not allpowerful and must follow the law.
Limited government can be described as the rule of law.
Separation of Powers
Meaning: The government is divided into legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The judicial branch tells what the laws mean. Checks and Balances
Meaning: A system in which each branch of government checks the others to prevent one branch from becoming too powerful.
Any one of the following is acceptable:
The President can’t make laws, but must approve laws passed by Congress;
Congress can override the President’s veto; Congress must approve all money spent by the country; the President names federal judges and other important officials, but the Senate must approve each appointment; the Supreme Court cannot make laws, but can decide if a law is constitutional. Judicial Review
Meaning: Courts have the power to decide whether or not a government action is constitutional. Marbury v. Madison established this power.
Federalism

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
Meaning: Federalism is a system in which power is divided between the federal government and state governments.
Federalism allowed there to be an effective national government while still preserving the rights of the states to govern independently. Checks and Balances
Definition: Each branch is subject to constitutional checks, or restraints, by the other branches. Each branch has certain powers with which it can check the actions of the other two.
Article I, Section 2, Clause: 5: The House of
Representatives can impeach officials of any branch. Article I, Section 3, Clause: 6: The Senate tries impeachments. Article I, Section 7, Clause: 2: The President may sign or reject bills passed by Congress, but Congress can override the veto with a two-thirds vote of both houses.
Article I, Section 7, Clause: 3: This Clause applies veto and override rules to all orders, resolutions, or other votes of Congress.
Article I, Section 8, Clause: 9: Congress has the power to set up the lower federal courts.
Article II, Section 2, Clause: 1: The President can grant reprieves and pardons, which constitute checks on the judicial branch.
Article II, Section 2, Clause: 2: The Senate must confirm treaties and appointments of the
President for them to take effect.
Article II, Section 3: The President must report to the Congress on the state of the Union; this
Section gives the President the power to call
Congress into special session.
Article II, Section 4: This Section provides for the impeachment of members of the executive branch, a power granted to Congress in
Article I.
Federalism
Definition: Power is divided among the central government and several regional governments. Article I, Section 10, Clause: all: This section forbids the States from engaging in activities that the Constitution assigned to the Federal
Government, such as entering into treaties, coining money, taxing imports, and keeping a standing army.
Article III, Section 2, Clause: 1: The federal judiciary has the power to settle disputes between States and between citizens of different States.
Article IV, Section all: This Article outlines the relationship between the States and the
Federal Government.
Article V: Amending the federal Constitution requires approval of two thirds of the States.

Core Worksheet 3
Popular Sovereignty
Definition: The people are the only source for any and all governmental power; government can govern only with the consent of the governed. Preamble: The source of this Constitution is
“We the People.”
Article I, Section 2, Clause 1: Members of the
House of Representatives will be elected by the people.
Limited Government
Definition: No government is all-powerful. A government may do only those things that the people have given it power to do.
Article I, Section 3, Clause 7: Impeached and convicted public officials can also face criminal charges. Article I, Section 9, Clause: all: This Section prohibits several actions by government, including suspending writs of habeas corpus and taxing in certain ways.
Article I, Section 10, Clause 1: This Clause applies the prohibitions in Article I, Section 9, to the States.
Article II, Section 1, Clause 8: The oath of office binds the President to the limits of the
Constitution.
Separation of Powers
Definition: Legislative, executive, and judicial powers are distributed among three distinct and independent branches of government.
Article I, Section I: This Section assigns all legislative powers to Congress.
Article I, Section 8, Clause: all: This Section enumerates the powers granted to Congress.
Article II, Section 1, Clause 1: This Clause assigns executive powers to the President.
Article II, Section 2, Clause: all: This Section enumerates the powers granted to the
President.
Article III, Section 1: This Section assigns judicial power to the courts.

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
Quiz B

Article VI, Section 2: The Constitution is the supreme law of the land, above the laws of any State.
Judicial Review
Definition: A court has the power to determine the constitutionality of a congressional or presidential action.
This principle was intended by the Framers, based on Federalist writings, but it was not specifically stated in the Constitution.
Judicial Review was established later in: the Supreme Court decision in Marbury v.
Madison.

Key Terms
1. c
2. d
3. f
4. a
5. e
6. b
Main Ideas
7. b
8. a
9. a
10. d

Extend Worksheet 3, 4

CHAPTER 3 Section 2

Excerpt 1: popular sovereignty
Excerpt 2: limited government, federalism
Excerpt 3: separation of powers, checks and balances Excerpt 4: limited government
Excerpt 5: federalism, separation of powers, limited government
Excerpt 6: judicial review
1. a government that derives all its powers directly or indirectly from the people
2. Its jurisdiction extends only to
“enumerated objects” and leaves the rest of the powers to the States.
3. The Constitution divides powers between the State and Federal governments, and those powers that the Federal Government has are further divided among different departments (branches). The Constitution also provides checks and balances to protect against a “gradual concentration of the several powers in the same department.” Reading Comprehension 3
1. By Whom? Congress
How Proposed: by a 2/3 vote in each house of Congress
How Ratified: 1. by 3/4 of State legislatures 2. by conventions in 3/4 of the
States
By Whom? national convention
How Proposed: national convention called by Congress at the request of 2/3 of State legislatures How Ratified: 1. by 3/4 of State legislatures 2. by conventions in 3/4 of the
States
2. by national convention
3. “No State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the
Senate.”
4. The President has no formal role in the amendment process (does not sign or veto amendments), but his or her political influence can affect the success or failure of an attempt to amend the Constitution.
5. yes; no
6. 1789: distribution of seats in the House of
Representatives
1810: voiding the citizenship of anyone accepting any foreign title or other such honor 1861: prohibiting any amendment relating to slavery
1924: giving Congress the power to regulate child labor
1972: proclaiming the equal rights of women Quiz A
Key Terms
1. e
2. f
3. c
4. a
5. b
6. d
Main Ideas
7. b
8. a
9. a
10. d

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
1978: giving the District of Columbia seats in Congress
7. 1–10: Bill of Rights
11: States immune from certain lawsuits
12: Changes in electoral college procedures
13: Abolition of slavery
14: Citizenship, equal protection, and due process 15: No denial of vote because of race, color, or previous enslavement
16: Congress given the power to tax incomes 17: Popular election of U.S. senators
18: Prohibition of alcohol
19: Women’s suffrage
20: Change of dates for presidential and congressional terms
21: Repeal of Prohibition (18th
Amendment)
22: Limit on presidential terms
23: District of Columbia allowed to vote in presidential elections
24: Ban of tax payment as voter qualification 25: Presidential succession, vice presidential vacancy, and presidential disability 26: Voting age changed to 18
27: Ban on congressional pay increases during same term

needing the support of three more states to be ratified.
5. the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments
6. the 18th and 21st amendments
7. Amendment: 1–10
Year Ratified: 1791
Summary: Bill of Rights
Amendment: 11
Year Ratified: 1795
Summary: States cannot be sued by residents of other States
Amendment: 12
Year Ratified: 1804
Summary: Changed the way the President and Vice President are elected
Amendment: 13
Year Ratified: 1865
Summary: Outlawed slavery
Amendment: 14
Year Ratified: 1868
Summary: Defined citizenship
Amendment: 15
Year Ratified: 1870
Summary: Gave African American men the right to vote
Amendment: 18
Year Ratified: 1919
Summary: Banned the making, use, or transportation of alcohol
Amendment: 21
Year Ratified: 1933
Summary: Repealed the 18th Amendment
Amendment: 22
Year Ratified: 1951
Summary: Limited the number of terms in which a President may serve to two
Amendment: 26
Year Ratified: 1971
Summary: Lowered the voting age to 18
Amendment: 27
Year Ratified: 1992
Summary: Forbids members of Congress from raising their own pay in that term

Reading Comprehension 2
1. Group: Congress
How Proposed: a 2/3 vote in each house of
Congress
How Ratified:
1. by 3/4 of state legislatures
2. by conventions in 3/4 of the states
Group: National convention
How Proposed: National convention called by Congress at the request of 2/3 of state legislatures How Ratified:
1. by 3/4 of state legislatures
2. by conventions in 3/4 of the states
2. An amendment has never been proposed by a national convention.
3. A state can approve an amendment it rejected earlier.
4. ERA was the Equal Rights for Women
Amendment of 1972. It did not become an amendment because it expired in 1982

Bellringer Worksheet 3
1. 13th Amendment; 1865; 10 months, 6 days
2. 17th Amendment; 1913; 10 months, 26 days 3. presidential succession; 1967; 1 year, 7 months, 4 days
4. 23rd; 1961; 9 months, 13 days
5. 19th; 1920; 1 year, 2 months, 14 days
6. 27th

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
Core Worksheet 3

Quiz A

Answers will vary to reflect the skits presented in class.

Key Terms
1. b
2. a
3. d
4. f
5. c
6. e
Main Ideas
7. c
8. b
9. d
10. a

Skills Worksheet 3
1. The Addams excerpt is a first-hand account of a woman who worked in the suffrage movement. She gives arguments in favor of the vote for women in an attempt to persuade people to agree with her. The historian’s account was written almost 100 years after the events took place by someone who did not have firsthand knowledge of them.
2. According to Henretta, women began asking why they should not be allowed to vote when they had shown themselves capable of handling other responsibilities.
He also suggests that women would advocate for “more enlightened legislation” if they had the vote—an idea supported by Addams when she writes about using the ballot to “educate and protect from danger factory children” and
“bring the cultural forces to bear upon our materialistic civilization.”
3. Addams does not think women are given enough credit for what they do. She says that they are “constantly being overlooked and slighted in our political institutions” even though they “preserve the home.”

Quiz B
Key Terms
1. c
2. b
3. a
4. f
5. d
6. e
Main Ideas
7. c
8. a
9. d
10. a

CHAPTER 3 Section 3
Reading Comprehension 3

Skill Activity 2

1. Means of Change: Legislation
How It Works: by passing laws to spell out provisions of the Constitution; by using congressional power to define and interpret constitutional meaning that is not otherwise explicit
Means of Change: Executive Action
How It Works: by using its powers to define and interpret constitutional meaning that is not otherwise explicit
Means of Change: Court Decisions
How It Works: by interpreting and applying the Constitution to cases the
Court decides
Means of Change: Party Practices
How It Works: by shaping the processes of government through party politics
Means of Change: Custom
How It Works: by establishing precedents, thereby shaping processes of government
2. A. court decision

1. A secondary source is written by a person who did not have firsthand knowledge of the events. The historian’s account was written almost 100 years after the events took place by someone who did not have first-hand knowledge of them.
2. According to Henretta, women began asking why they should not be allowed to vote when they had successfully handled other responsibilities. He also suggests that women would push for “more enlightened legislation” if they had the vote. Addams writes that women do not want the vote to take over men’s work or affairs. She says that women must have the right to vote to fulfill their traditional responsibilities.
3. Addams does not think women are given enough credit for what they do. She says that they are “constantly being overlooked and slighted in our political institutions.”

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
Bellringer Worksheet 3

B. party practices
C. custom
D. legislation
E. executive action

1. False. Countless changes by informal methods have occurred over the years.
2. True. For example, the Constitution does not provide for political parties, yet parties influence much of the business of government. 3. True. The laws Congress passes add specifics to the broad powers outlined in the Constitution.
4. False. Executive agreements with other countries do not require congressional approval. 5. True. Court decisions determine what actions are or are not permitted by the
Constitution.
6. True. Party agendas influence the actions of government officials at all levels.
7. False. The make-up of the Cabinet was established by custom.

Reading Comprehension 2
1. (a) basic legislation, (b) executive action,
(c) court decisions, (d) party practices, (e) custom and usage
2. (a) court decision, (b) custom, (c) party practices, (d) legislation, (e) executive action 3. (a) Federal court system: The Constitution set up the Supreme Court; however, it left the creation of all other federal courts to
Congress. Congress passed the Judiciary
Act of 1789. Since then, all federal courts except the Supreme Court have been set up by acts of Congress.
(b) Executive department: The
Constitution created the presidency and vice presidency. Beyond that, Congress set up the executive department.
(c) Commerce powers: The Constitution gives Congress the power to regulate commerce. However, by passing laws,
Congress has clarified and expanded these powers. 4. The Constitution says that only Congress can declare war. However, many times in history the President has sent troops into combat without the approval of Congress.
5. Because the nation’s courts interpret and apply the Constitution in many of the cases they hear, they, too, have an influence on the meaning of the Constitution. An example is the power of judicial review established by a decision of the Supreme
Court.
6. At first the electoral college elected the
President. However, because of the influence of political parties, the electoral college today simply reflects each state’s popular vote.
7. A Vice President has taken over 8 times in history after the death of a President.
This wasn’t written into the Constitution until the passage of the 25th Amendment in 1967. Before 1967, the Constitution stated that the powers and duties of the presidency—not the office itself—should be given to the Vice President.

Core Worksheet 3
Part 1
1. custom and usage
2. executive action
3. basic legislation
4. court decisions
5. party practices
Part 2
1. Possible example: Congress passes a law placing a tariff on imported steel.
2. Possible example: The President issues an executive order, banning trade with a nation suspected of aiding terrorists.
3. Possible example: The Supreme Court overturned a conviction, stating that the accused had been denied due process because he had not been informed of his rights. 4. Possible example: In the Senate, the parties meet in separate caucuses to discuss the party’s position on an issue.
5. Possible example: By custom, the opposing party broadcasts a response to the
President’s State of the Union address.

Core Worksheet 2
Part 1
1. custom and usage
2. executive action
3. basic legislation
4. court decisions
5. party practices

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
2. Students might cite any of the following about the decision: (1) It made the judiciary a co-equal branch of government with the legislative and executive branches. (2) It established the
Supreme Court as the final arbiter of the
Constitution. (3) It gave the Supreme Court the authority to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional. (4) It established that the rule of law would govern Supreme Court decisions. (5) It established the neutrality and credibility of the Supreme Court.
3. Students’ paragraphs will vary, depending on the case they choose. They should explain how the Court asserted the power of judicial review in its decision in that case. Part 2
1. Possible example: Congress passes a law placing a tariff on imported steel.
2. Possible example: The President issues an executive order, banning trade with a nation suspected of aiding terrorists.
3. Possible example: The Supreme Court overturns a conviction, stating that the accused had been denied due process because he had not been informed of his rights. 4. Possible example: In the Senate, the parties meet in separate caucuses to discuss the party’s position on an issue.
5. Possible example: By custom, the opposing party broadcasts a response to the
President’s State of the Union address.

Quiz A

Landmark Decisions of the Supreme
Court 2

Key Terms
1. d
2. b
3. e
4. f
5. c
6. a
Main Ideas
7. b
8. c
9. b
10. a

1. The case arose from the political rivalry between the Federalists and the
Democratic-Republicans.
2. Adams expected to continue to influence the government after his party was out of power by appointing Federalists to the new judicial positions.
3. Jefferson did not want the judicial positions filled by members of the rival political party.
4. Yes, the Court believed that Marbury had a right to his commission and that the executive branch under President Jefferson was wrong to deny him the commission.
5. The Court said that it could not force the executive branch to give Marbury his commission because it did not have the authority to do so. The Judiciary Act of
1789 that granted the Court that power conflicted with the Constitution.
6. Students’ answers may vary but should focus on the importance of the rule of law rather than the personal preferences of individuals who are in power.
7. Students might cite any of the following about the decision: (1) It made the judiciary a co-equal branch of government with the legislative and executive branches. (2) It established the Supreme Court as the final arbiter of the Constitution. (3) It gave the
Supreme Court the authority to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional. (4) It established that the rule of law would

Quiz B
Key Terms
1. c
2. d
3. f
4. b
5. e
6. a
Main Ideas
7. b
8. c
9. b
10. a

Landmark Decisions of the Supreme
Court 3, 4
1. Students’ answers may vary but should focus on the importance of the rule of law rather than the personal preferences of individuals who are in power.

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued) govern Supreme Court decisions. (5) It established the neutrality and credibility of the Supreme Court.
8. Students’ paragraphs should show a clear understanding that whenever a court finds a law to be unconstitutional, it is using its power of judicial review, established in the landmark case, Marbury v. Madison.

decisions and the popular interpretation of the Constitution with bringing about these positive changes. Because of the people’s ability to amend and interpret the Constitution, Jordan’s faith in the document is strong.
Critical Thinking
22. The first ten amendments are called the Bill of Rights. They mostly protect individual rights and freedoms, such as freedom of belief and expression, freedom of the press and assembly, the right to bear arms, and fair and equal treatment before the law.
These amendments limit the power of the Federal Government and protect the people of the United States from abuse by the State and Federal governments and court systems. The Bill of Rights upholds the principles of limited government and popular sovereignty.
Essay
23. The Constitution has remained flexible enough to guide the United States through changing times for several reasons. Most importantly, it describes some very basic principles that constitute the guiding philosophy of the republic.
These principles are broad in nature and are meant to limit the government and describe how it should function. The
Constitution is also flexible because it can be formally amended to suit changing times. Through the amendment process, the States and the National Government can work together to keep the Constitution responsive to the will of the people.
In addition, the provisions laid out in some sections of the Constitution are skeletal, providing the opportunity for
Congress to flesh out the operations of government through legislation that addresses the needs of the times.
For example, there is only a very basic description of the courts in the
Constitution. Congress has established the complex modern court system through the laws it has passed since the Constitution was adopted.
Finally, common customs and usage, such as political parties and senatorial courtesy, have shaped and influenced the way the Constitution has been interpreted and used throughout its history.

CHAPTER 3
Test A
Key Terms
1. f
2. e
3. j
4. c
5. h
6. a
7. i
8. b
9. g
10. d
Multiple Choice
11. c
12. c
13. a
14. b
15. a
16. d
17. c
18. b
19. b
20. b
Document-Based Question
21. As an African American and a woman,
Jordan’s rights would not have been protected by the Constitution at the time it was written, nor for many years thereafter.
She would not have had the right to vote, hold office, or even be free like a white male at the time of the Constitution. She points out that by amendments such as the 13th Amendment, which abolished slavery; the 15th Amendment, which grants the right to vote to people of all races; and the 19th Amendment, which grants women the right to vote, the
Constitution was eventually updated and corrected to include people of all races and both genders in the rights and freedoms it protects. She also credits court

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
Test B

before the law. These amendments limit the power of the federal government.
They also protect the people of the United
States from abuse by the state and federal government and court systems. The Bill of
Rights upholds the principles of limited government and popular sovereignty.
Essay
23. The Constitution has remained flexible enough to guide the United States through changing times for several reasons. Most importantly, it provides some very basic principles that guide the nation. These principles are broad ideas. They are meant to limit the government and describe how it should work. The Constitution is also flexible because it can be formally amended to suit changing times. Through the amendment process, the states and the national government can work together.
This helps the Constitution to reflect the will of the people.
The general way in which parts of the
Constitution were written has provided the opportunity for Congress to flesh out the operations of government. Congress does this through legislation that addresses the needs of the times. For example, there is only a very basic description of the courts in the Constitution. Congress has established the complex modern court system through the laws it has passed since the Constitution was adopted.
Finally, common customs and usage have shaped and influenced the way the
Constitution has been interpreted and used throughout its history.

Key Terms
1. d
2. g
3. e
4. c
5. j
6. a
7. f
8. i
9. h
10. b
Main Ideas
11. c
12. a
13. c
14. a
15. b
16. d
17. c
18. b
19. b
20. b
Document-Based Question
21. As an African American and a woman,
Jordan’s rights would not have been protected by the Constitution at the time it was written, nor for many years thereafter.
She would not have had the right to vote, hold office, or even be free. She points out that amendments eventually updated and corrected the Constitution so that it protects the rights and freedoms of people of all races and both genders.
These amendments include the 13th
Amendment, which abolished slavery; the 15th Amendment, which grants the right to vote to people of all races; and the
19th Amendment, which grants women the right to vote. Jordan also credits court decisions and the popular interpretation of the Constitution with bringing about these positive changes. Because of the people’s ability to amend and interpret the Constitution, Jordan’s faith in the document is strong.
Critical Thinking
22. The first ten amendments are called the Bill of Rights. They mostly protect individual rights and freedoms, such as freedom of belief and expression, freedom of the press and assembly, the right to bear arms, and fair and equal treatment

CHAPTER 4
Prereading and Vocabulary 2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

(down) inherent
(across) expressed
(down) delegated
(across) exclusive
(down) concurrent
(down) implied
(across) reserved

Chapter Outline 2
I. Section 1: Federalism: Powers Divided
A. The System of Federalism

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
1. Framers, national government, states
2. abuse
B. Federal Government Powers
1. delegated
2. Expressed, Implied, Elastic, Inherent, sovereign C. Powers Denied the Federal Government
1. federalism
2. exports, freedoms
D. The Role of the States reserved, federal government
E. Exclusive and Concurrent Powers
1. federal government
2. Concurrent powers
F. The Supreme Law of the Land
Supremacy Clause
II. Section 2: The National Government and the 50 States
A. Federal Government Guarantees
1. republican
2. invasion, internal
B. Admitting New States
1. enabling act
2. act of admission
C. Conditions for Admission interfere, own affairs
D. Cooperative Federalism grants-in-aid E. Types of Grants categorical, block, project
F. Responsibilities of the States
1. funding
2. naturalization
III. Section 3: Interstate Relations
A. Interstate Compacts
1. agreements, foreign
2. Congress
B. Full Faith and Credit
1. laws, records, valid
2. criminal law
C. Extradition
Extradition
D. Privileges and Immunities
Privileges, Immunities

Possible examples: coining money; regulating interstate commerce
Implied Powers
Definition: powers that are not expressly stated in the Constitution but that are reasonably suggested by the expressed powers
Possible examples: creating a national bank; ending racial discrimination
Inherent Powers
Definition: powers that belong to the National
Government because it is a sovereign state in the world community
Possible examples: regulating immigration; granting diplomatic recognition to other sovereign states
Reserved Powers
Definition: powers that the Constitution does not grant to the National Government nor deny to the States
Possible examples: licensing professionals, regulating speed limits
Concurrent Powers
Definition: powers that both the National
Government and the States possess and exercise Possible examples: collecting taxes; borrowing money Exclusive Powers
Definition: powers that can be exercised by the
National Government alone
Possible examples: making treaties with foreign states; taxing imports

Reading Comprehension 2
1. Federalism is the division of powers between a national government and several smaller, local governments. The
United States is a federal system because power is divided between a national government and fifty state governments.
2. Expressed powers examples: Any two of the following are acceptable: the power to collect taxes, declare war, coin money, make treaties, appoint officials, and make laws Implied powers: These powers are contained in what is known as the Elastic
Clause because it has been stretched so far to cover so many different situations.
Inherent powers examples: Any two of the following are acceptable: the power to regulate immigration, acquire territory, and protect citizens

CHAPTER 4 Section 1
Reading Comprehension 3
Expressed Powers
Definition: specific powers assigned to the
National Government by the Constitution

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued) weak Articles of Confederation, and to a much-feared, too-powerful central government. In part to allay concerns from smaller States, the Framers agreed to create a bicameral national legislature—with one house (the Senate) having equal representation, and the other (the House of Representatives) having representation based on population. To win the votes needed for ratification, Federalist leaders also assured the ratifying convention in
Massachusetts that they would enact a national bill of rights to protect individuals from possible oppression by the new
National Government.

3. Reserved powers are powers denied to the national government and reserved for the states; exclusive powers are powers that only the national government has; and concurrent powers are powers that the national government and the states share.

Core Worksheet 3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Reserved
Concurrent
Implied
Inherent
Expressed
Reserved
Concurrent
Expressed
Implied
Expressed
Implied
Implied
Inherent
Expressed
Expressed
Reserved
Reserved

Skill Activity 2
1. The Framers needed to create a national government that was strong enough to deal with the nation’s problems but that would also preserve the powers of the states. 2. (a) James Madison said that the state governments were too uncertain and the people wanted changes made to address this. (b) Patrick Henry argued that a strong national government would jeopardize the rights and privileges of individuals and that the states would lose too much power.
3. (a) The Framers found their solution in federalism. The federal system provides for a division of power between the national government and the states. The state governments balance the power of the federal government. (b) Each level of government in the federal system can do things that the other level cannot.
Certain powers are denied or not given to the national government, and certain powers are reserved to the states. These limits make it difficult for the national government to abuse its powers.

Skills Worksheet 3
1. How could they create a new central government that would be strong enough to administer the nation’s affairs effectively but would also preserve the powers of the States? Some people, like
Madison and Hamilton, supported a strong central government, while others, like Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams, wanted to preserve the powers of State governments. Framers from smaller States were particularly concerned about the amount of power their States would have in the new government.
2. Answers will vary, but students should outline three strategies, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each.
3. Answers will vary. Students should choose one of the strategies identified in the previous question and explain why they think it would be the most effective in resolving the problem.
4. The Framers found their solution in federalism. The federal system, with its division of powers, was an alternative to both the system of nearly independent
States, loosely tied to one another in the

Quiz A
Key Terms
1. e
2. c
3. f
4. a
5. d
6. b
Main Ideas
7. c

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
8. a
9. b
10. d

2.

Quiz B
Key Terms
1. e
2. c
3. f
4. a
5. d
6. b
Main Ideas
7. c
8. a
9. b
10. d

3.

4.

CHAPTER 4 Section 2
Reading Comprehension 3
A.
Step 1: Area asks Congress for admission.
Step 2: Congress passes an enabling act.
Step 3: A territorial convention prepares a
State constitution.
Step 4: The constitution is put to a popular vote in the proposed State.
Step 5: The approved constitution is submitted to Congress.
Step 6: Congress passes an act of admission, creating a new State.
Step 7: President signs the act, admitting the new State to the Union.
B.
Categorical grants: grants made for specific, closely defined purposes
Block grants: grants made for particular but broadly defined areas of public policy
Project grants: grants made for specific projects to States, localities, and private agencies that apply for them
Lulu payments: federal funds paid to areas in which there are large federal landholdings in lieu of property taxes that local governments cannot collect from the National Government

5.

6.

(d) recognition of each state’s physical boundaries Step 1: A territory applies to Congress for admission. Step 2: Congress passes an enabling act.
Step 3: The territory writes and approves a constitution. Step 4: Congress approves the constitution and passes an act of admission.
Step 5: The President signs the act and the state is admitted to the Union.
Grants-in-aid programs are grants of federal money or other resources, such as land, to states, cities, counties, and other local units.
Categorical grants: special reasons, such as school lunches, building roads, or building airports Block grants: a particular but broadly defined area of public policy, such as health care, social services, or welfare
Project grants: specific projects in states or localities that apply for them, such as medical research
(a) States fund national elections.
(b) States take care of the naturalization of immigrants. (a) The FBI aids state police.
(b) The states use data compiled by the
Census Bureau.

Bellringer Worksheet 3
Steps 1, 2, 4
Steps 5, 6
Step 3
Although the States hold primary responsibility for dealing with local issues, occasions occur when they cannot fulfill these obligations alone. At those times, the
Constitution provides for the intervention, support, or cooperation of the National
Government.
5. Article IV, Section 4: the Invasion and
Internal Disorder provision
1.
2.
3.
4.

Core Worksheet 3
1. The law has identified failing schools and demanded that they improve, and it has changed the conversation about education in America.
2. NCLB has increased the authority of the Federal Government in establishing

Reading Comprehension 2
1. (a) a republican form of government
(b) protection from invasion and domestic violence (c) protection of each state’s legal existence

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)

3.
4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

educational criteria for public schools, an area generally reserved for the States.
There have been some gains, but these successes are open to debate.
Scores have climbed slowly, there continues to be an inadequacy in meeting standards, and schools are faced with the stigma of being a “failing school.”
The law has changed the conversation about education in America and has focused on students who have been previously overlooked.
The department has already approved pilot programs in five States, and wants
Congress to include a “growth” model in
NCLB.
The Department of Education is emphasizing long-term trends and patience with the process of education reform. Answers will vary. Students should support their position with facts from the article. Education is a responsibility normally reserved to the States. However, the States depend in part on federal funding to operate schools. The No Child Left Behind law places strings on these federal grants.
States must meet the law’s conditions to get the grant money. In effect, the federal grants for education transfer some of the power to control education from the States to the Federal Government.

growing, due to changes in the global marketplace, rapid technological growth, and pressures from corporations and advocacy groups. Domestic spending ebbs and flows are also expanding the federal role and centralizing government.
2. Pre-emptions are actions of the National
Government that would either substitute nationwide policies and programs for those of States and localities, or prohibit
States and localities from exercising certain powers that have previously been their responsibility. Pre-emptions replace
State or local laws or require States or local governments to adhere to certain standards, and they are increasing in frequency. 3. Although the grants are optional, States and localities are usually so dependent on funding from federal grants-in-aid that participation is not really voluntary.

Quiz A
Key Terms
1. a
2. e
3. d
4. c
5. f
6. b
Main Ideas
7. b
8. a
9. d
10. b

Core Worksheet ELL
1. reform sanctions proficiency landmark assessing performance strides mounting traction adequate 2. 3
3. States will lose federal funds.
4. identifying weak schools and demanding better performance

Quiz B
Key Terms
1. a
2. e
3. d
4. c
5. f
6. b
Main Ideas
7. b
8. a
9. d
10. b

Extend Worksheet 3, 4
1. The need to nationalize and streamline certain regulations and standards is

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
CHAPTER 4 Section 3

states. (b) Any one of the following is acceptable: A state may discriminate in the areas of voting, running for public office, obtaining licenses, or paying college or university tuition.

Reading Comprehension 3
Interstate Compact
Definition: formal agreement entered into, with the consent of Congress, between or among States or between a State and a foreign state Location: Article 1, Section 10, Clause 3
Full Faith and Credit
Definition: requirement that each State accept the validity of public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other State
Location: Article 4, Section 1
Extradition
Definition: the legal process by which a fugitive from justice in one State is returned to that State
Location: Article 4, Section 2, Clause 2
Privileges and Immunities
Definition: stipulation that all citizens are entitled to certain “privileges and immunities,” regardless of their State of residence; no State can draw unreasonable distinctions between its own residents and those persons who happen to live in other
States
Location: Article 4, Section 2, Clause 1 (and reinforced in the 14th Amendment)

Core Worksheet 3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Privileges and Immunities
Full Faith and Credit
Privileges and Immunities
Extradition
Privileges and Immunities
Full Faith and Credit
Privileges and Immunities

Quiz A
Key Terms
1. f
2. e
3. b
4. d
5. a
6. c
Main Ideas
7. a
8. b
9. c
10. a

Quiz B
Key Terms
1. b
2. f
3. d
4. a
5. c
6. e
Main Ideas
7. a
8. b
9. c
10. a

Reading Comprehension 2
1. (a) Interstate compacts are agreements states make with one another and with foreign states. (b) Either of the following is acceptable: the contract between New York and New Jersey creating the Port of New
York Authority; the Compact on Juveniles.
2. (a) The Full Faith and Credit Clause declares that the laws, records, and results of court cases of one state are valid in all others. (b) Any two of the following are acceptable: marriage licenses, birth certificates, titles to property.
3. (a) Extradition is the legal process by which a fugitive from justice in one state is returned to that state. (b) Any of the following is acceptable: in cases concerning race, in cases concerning politics, or in cases involving disputes over child custody.
4. (a) The Privileges and Immunities Clause forbids any state from discriminating unreasonably against people from other

CHAPTER 4
Test A
Key Terms
1. e
2. d
3. i
4. a
5. h
6. j

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)
7. g
8. b
9. f
10. c
Multiple Choice
11. b
12. d
13. b
14. c
15. b
16. d
17. a
18. b
19. b
20. c
Document-Based Question
21. Sample response: Since the Department of Health and Human Services has by far the largest portion, States and local governments apparently ask for a great deal of federal assistance in paying for health care for the needy and elderly through programs such as Medicaid. The next-highest sponsors of federal grants are the departments of Transportation and
Education. This would indicate that State and local governments need help paying for things such as road maintenance and school programs.
Critical Thinking
22. Possible response: The Privileges and
Immunities Clause states that the citizens of each State are entitled to the privileges and immunities of citizens in all other
States. In other words, no State can draw unreasonable distinctions between its own residents and those who happen to live in other States. So, a person from one State is allowed to buy property or get married in another State, and the contract is considered legal in both States. However, reasonable distinctions are allowed. For example, a State can require persons from other States to pay higher fees for hunting licenses. Essay
23. Sample response: The federal system ensures that the National Government does not become too powerful by requiring it to share powers with the States and by limiting the powers it can claim for itself.
This makes the National Government more accountable to the people of the States.

Over the years, though, there has been a back-and-forth power struggle between the two levels of government. Gradually, the National Government has taken more power for itself in an effort to unify the nation’s solutions to problems. Some people fear that the National Government has already become too powerful and takes too much liberty from the people, levies too much taxation, and shuts the
States out too often.
I believe that federalism is the best system for the United States, but its continued strength and success depends greatly on the American people being educated about the dangers of giving too much power to a central government. It depends on whether one believes that the National Government is best able to solve people’s problems, or that local governments and individuals are. I believe in always striving for a balance.

Test B
Key Terms
1. e
2. d
3. i
4. a
5. h
6. j
7. g
8. b
9. f
10. c
Main Ideas
11. b
12. d
13. b
14. c
15. b
16. d
17. a
18. b
19. b
20. c
Document-Based Question
21. (a) The chart shows the federal agencies that give the most federal grant money to state and local governments. (b) The chart shows that state and local governments need a great deal of federal assistance for health and human services. I can tell

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued) this because the greatest amount of grant money is paid out by the Department of Health and Human Services. (c) The next two greatest needs of state and local governments are transportation and education. Critical Thinking
22. (a) The Privileges and Immunities Clause forbids any state from discriminating unreasonably against people from other states. (b) Any one of the following is acceptable:
The Clause guarantees that any citizen may travel or live in any state. Any citizen may use the facilities in any state. Citizens may buy, own, sell, or rent property in any state. Employers cannot be required by the state to hire only residents of that state.
Essay
23. Sample response: The federal system ensures that the national government does not become too powerful by requiring it to share powers with the states and by limiting the powers it can claim for itself.
Over the years, though, there has been a power struggle between the national and state governments. Gradually, the national government has taken more power for itself as the states have become increasingly dependent upon national government money. Some people fear that the national government has already become too powerful and takes too much liberty from the people by shutting out the states from decision making.
I believe that federalism is the best system for the United States. However, its continued strength and success depend on the American people being educated about the dangers of giving too much power to a central government. I think that we should have more balance between the powers of the state and national governments. The balance has shifted too far in favor of the national government.

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...Jail and Prisons Jail and prisons have played a huge role in our history. While at times we might not think about it, jails and prisons are a huge reason why America isn’t in utter chaos. Over the years jails and prisons have grown to get to the level they are today. What was once an unsanitary, careless, and at times cruel prison or jail is now a more sophisticated well developed correction center that are meant to shape the behavior of an offender and rehabilitate the offender. Jails are a place where criminals are taken and separated from society, because they have committed a petty crime, a serious crime or have committed a murder. The jails are intended hold defendants while they await their trail. The inmate has no access to the outside of the jail and no access to the benefits a free citizen has. Those who have a bail set but do not bail out are also held at the jail as well as those inmates being transferred to the county jail from a state jail for either a bench warrant or just in need of a temporary housing unit until they arrive at their true destination. The jail makes the life for many inmates horrible so they won’t be back again; unfortunately many offenders come back after the first offense. It’s a place for inmates to take a hard look at their life’s to change them around before they have to face prison time but some that are sentenced to a year or two are allowed to carry out their time in jails now. Jails however have grown to become more than just a...

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Jails and Prisons

...Jail and Prison CJA/204 May 3, 2012 Albert Mendoza Jail and Prison Prisons and jails hold some similar characteristics but are entirely different entities in which they serve in the legal system. A prison is where all convicted offenders are to spend their sentences that range from one year to life and in jail most offenders are only there either for holding, pending transportation to prison units or serving a sentence for a short amount of time ranging from a few months to a year. There are four types of prisons federal, state, municipal, and military. Federal prison is operated and managed by the government who normally house inmates who have been convicted of a crime in violation of a federal statue. State prisons are facilities operated by a state and used to house and rehabilitate criminals. State prisons have a minimum and maximum security prisons which are divided based on the severity of the crime. Municipal prison is a high security prison. Military prison is operated by the military and is used to house prisoners of war, enemy combatants, those whose freedom is deemed a national security risk by the military or national authority and member of the military found guilty of a serious crime. The concept of prison as a total institution is to have authorities the life of the inmates controlled by the authorities. If the authorities weren’t in control then the whole prison system would be pointless. Jails play a big role in our criminal justice...

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Jail and Prison

...Jail and Prison p 2 In the Criminal Justice world the jail and prisons play an extremely important role to society. These facilities have a history just like any other part of Criminal Justice, and were created with great Purpose. There is much about these facilities that are not known by the general public. This paper will Educate on the types of prisons, also the concept of the prison as a whole institution. I will also go over The community based corrections programs. Maybe one of the more important topics is the violence behind the walls, that is not always mentioned to the public will also be covered in this paper. Then finally, I will go over the concept of parole and probation, along with the role of truth in sentencing. First, we have many types of facilities just in the United States, for example; there is State Facilities which are run by the State Department of Corrections, and each state has many of the facilities. Arizona alone has at least ten of these prisons across Arizona, some states have more and some less. Prisoners in these facilities have violated state laws in some fashion or another. There are also Federal Prisons, which hold prisoners who have violated federal law. There are private prisons that are owned by private companies. In some cases, such as Corrections Corporation of America they will contract with state prisons and...

Words: 1246 - Pages: 5