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МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ, МОЛОДІ ТА СПОРТУ УКРАЇНИ

НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ «ЛЬВІВСЬКА ПОЛІТЕХНІКА»

Л.В.Бордюк

ЖАНРИ НАУКОВОГО СТИЛЮ

МЕТОДИЧНІ ВКАЗІВКИ

до виконання практичних робіт

для студентів спеціальностей 8(7).02030303 «Прикладна лінгвістика»

Затверджено

на засіданні кафедри

прикладної лінгвістики

Протокол № 7 від 20.02.2013 р.

Львів – 2013

Жанри наукового стилю: Методичні вказівки до виконання практичних робіт для студентів спеціальностей 8(7).02030303 «Прикладна лінгвістика». /Укл.Л.В.Бордюк – Львів: Видавництво «Львівська політехніка», 2013. - 40 с.

Укладач Бордюк Л.В., канд.філол.наук, доц.

Відповідальний за випуск Левченко О.П., д-р філол.наук, проф.

Рецензенти Маркелова С.П., канд.філол.наук, доц.

Романишин Н.І., канд.філол.наук, доц.

Процес здобуття університетської освіти містить навчальну та науково-дослідну складові, що є специфічним проявом комунікативної діяльності і передбачає володіння науковим стилем мовлення.

Ключовими словами цих Методичних вказівок є стиль, жанр, англомовна наукова комунікація.

Стиль – це різновид літературної мови, що обслуговує певну сферу суспільної діяльності мовців і відповідно до цього має свої особливості добору й використання мовних засобів (лексики, фразеології, граматичних форм, синтаксичних конструкцій тощо) (Левченко О.П. Науковий стиль: культура мовлення).

Жанр – це форма організації мовного матеріалу в рамках того чи іншого стилю мови. Це соціально-комунікативне явище і водночас тип тексту із рядом порівняно стійких композиційних і мовних ознак.

Англомовна наукова комунікація – це вид комплексної міжкультурної діяльності, що має соціальні, культурні, когнітивні та власне мовні аспекти.

НАУКОВИЙ СТИЛЬ МОВЛЕННЯ

Науковий стиль – це функційний різновид літературної мови, що обслуговує сферу і потреби науки. Розрізняють власне науковий, науково-інформативний, науково-довідковий, навчально-науковий та науково-популярний підстилі.

Стисла характеристика наукового стилю:

Сфера використання – наукова діяльність, науково-технічний поступ та освіта.

Основне призначення – викладати наслідки теоретичних та емпіричних досліджень у відповідній галузі, обґрунтовувати гіпотези, доводити істинність теорій, роз'яснювати явища, аналізувати, систематизувати та класифікувати результати дослідження, обгрунтовувати їх істиність.

Науковий стиль мовлення використовується в наукових працях, для викладення результатів наукової та дослідницької діяльності. Метою наукового стилю є повідомлення, пояснення, тлумачення досягнутих наукових результатів, відкриттів тощо. Найпоширеніша форма наукового стилю — монолог.

Жанрова різноманітність наукового стилю зумовлена наявністю в ньому безлічі типів текстів. Oсновними жанрами власне наукового стилю є: монографія, наукова стаття, анотація, тези доповіді на науковій конференції, рецензія, дисертація, курсова робота, дипломна/магістерська робота, підручник, посібник, лекція, усна презентація,

Науковий стиль використовує певний набір мовно-стилістичних засобів: спеціальні слова (терміни і терміносполуки), складні синтаксичні конструкції (у яких має місце суворо впорядкований зв'язок). Слова вживаються переважно в прямих значеннях. Експресивно-емоційне забарвлення лексики використовується надзвичайно рідко. Науковим текстам властива нульова модальність.

У текстах наукового стилю часто вживаними є цитати, посилання на першоджерела.

Особливості наукового стилю :

Основні ознаки:

• ясність (понятійність) і предметність тлумачень,

• логічна послідовність і довідність викладу,

• узагальненість понять і явищ,

• об'єктивний аналіз,

• точність і лаконічність висловлювань,

• аргументація й переконливість тверджень,

• однозначне пояснення причинно-наслідкових відношень,

• докладні висновки.

Основні мовні засоби, спрямовані на інформування і пізнання, характеризуються:

• значною кількістю наукової термінології,

• наявністю схем, таблиць, графіків, діаграм, мап, систем математичних, фізичних, хімічних та інших знаків і позначок,

• оперуванням абстрактними, переважно чужомовними словами,

• уживанням суто наукової фразеології, стійких термінологічних словосполук,

• залученням цитат і посилань на першоджерела,

• здебільшого відсутністю авторської індивідуальної манери й емоційно-експресивної лексики,

• наявністю виразної композиційної структури тексту (послідовний поділ на розділи, частини, пункти, підпункти, параграфи, абзаци із застосуванням цифрової або літерної нумерації),

• наявністю дієслівних форм, зазвичай безособових, узагальнених чи неозначених, як правило, теперішнього часу, що констатують певні явища й факти; значну роль відіграють дієприслівникові й дієприкметникові звороти, які додатково окреслюють дії, предмети та явища,

• специфічною монологічністю текстів,

• переважанням різнотипних складних речень, стандартних виразів (кліше).

Жанр - форма організації мовного матеріалу в рамках того чи іншого стилю мови. Це соціально-комунікативне явище і водночас тип тексту із рядом порівняно стійких композиційних і мовних ознак. Жанрова різноманітність наукового стилю зумовлена наявністю в ньому безлічі типів текстів. Як було зазначено вище, основними жанри власне наукового стилю є: монографія, наукова стаття, анотація, тези доповіді на науковій конференції, рецензія, дисертація, курсова робота, дипломна/магістерська робота, підручник, посібник, лекція, дискусія тощо.

Англійська мова як lingua franca світової наукової спільноти

У сучасному глобалізованому світі англійська мова відома як lingua franca оскільки виконує об’єднавчу комунікативну функцію зокрема у сфері науки, техніки та освіти, що дає можливість науковцям та студентам долучатися до останніх світових наукових здобутків, обміну інформацією та участі у міжнародних подіях (фахових конференціях, конгресах, семінарах, програмах обміну тощо). Володіння англійською мовою є передумовою успішного науково-дослідного та освітнього процесів.

Слід зауважити, що в англійській мові лексеми science (наука), scientist (науковець), scientific(науковий) переважно пов’язані з природничими науками (фізикою, хімією, біологією), humanities - із гуманітарними науками, а лексемам academia, academic притаманна дещо ширша семантика у порівнянні з українською мовою: academia - сфера діяльності, що пов’язана з університетською освітою. Отже, коректними англійськими еквівалентами українських словосполучень англомовна наукова комунікація; англомовне наукове письмо; англомовні наукові жанри; науковий дискурс; науковий світ; наукове середовище, наукова стаття відповідно є English academic communication; English academic writing; English academic genres, academic discourse; research world; academic and research settings, research paper.

Дисципліна «Жанри наукового стилю» на кафедрі прикладної лінгвістики

Англійська мова як lingua franca науки, техніки та вищої освіти відіграє особливу роль в науковій письмовій комунікації, про що свідчить невпинне зростання кількості публікацій англійською мовою не лише у міжнародних, але й національних виданнях. (Яхонтова Т.В. English Academic Writing for Students and researches/Основи англомовного наукового письма). Обізнаність із нормами і канонами сучасного англомовного наукового письма та вміння представляти свої наукові здобутки повинні стати важливим аспектом освітнього процесу для студентів кафедри прикладної лінгвістики НУ «Львівська політехніка», оскільки курсові роботи із спеціальності та випускова магістерська кваліфікаційна робота/дипломна робота спеціаліста виконуються англійською мовою. Вони є зразком аргументативного академічного (наукового) дискурсу, що вимагає від студентів випускних курсів вироблення стратегії оволодіння базовими засадами письмової та усної комунікації англійською мовою та навичок продукування англійською мовою наукових текстів різних жанрів (курсова робота/term paper, анотація/research paper abstract, тези доповіді/conference abstract, реферат/summary а також грамотного, творчого опрацювання статей/research papers із міжнародних англомовних фахових журналів та вісників як джерел наукового знання та інформації у процесі написання магістерської/ дипломної роботи (MA Thesis).

Студенти 4-6 курсів беруть участь у міжнародних студентських конференціях, круглих столах, щорічній конференції CSIT (Computer Sciences & Information Technologies) НУ «Львівська політехніка», де робочою мовою є англійська мова.

Мета та завдання дисципліни, її місце в навчальному процесі

Мета викладення дисципліни:

Сформувати у студентів-лінгвістів ефективні вміння та навички володіння стратегією та тактиками науково-академічної комунікації з особливим акцентом на успішному функціонуванню у міжнародному академічному співтоваристві.

Завдання вивчення дисципліни:

У результаті вивчення дисципліни, фахівець повинен знати:

• стратегії ефективної наукової комунікації (усний иа письмовий формати)

• концепцію жанру як моделі комунікації крізь призму прикладної лінгвістики

• науково-академічні жанри як комунікативні події та їх структурно-композиційні та прагматичні ознаки

• основи та засади міжнародного англомовного наукового спілкування

• крос-культурний аспект жанрів міжнародного наукового стилю

• алгоритм продукування основних жанрів наукового стилю

Підготовлений фахівець повинен вміти:

• застосовувати у практичній діяльності особливості англомовного наукового письма (Мовна складова: стиль та регістр; змістовно-композиційна структура; лексика; терміносистема; граматичні форми та синтаксичні конструкції; корисні фрази та моделі. Етичний підхід, уникнення плагіату)

• враховувати міжкультурний характер наукової комунікації під впливом глобалізаційних процесів

• продукувати основні жанри англомовного наукового письма з урахуванням їх змістовно-композиційної структури:

▪ тези доповідей на міжнародній конференції (conference abstract)

▪ розширена анотація статті, реферування (summary)

▪ наукова стаття (research paper)

▪ анотація до статті (paper/journal abstract)

▪ науковий проект (research project)

▪ усна презентація (виступ на міжнародній конференції, семінарі, участь у засіданні круглого столу) : комуникативні та прагмалінгвістичні тактики підготовки та проведення презентації - моделювання психологічного, культурного та мовного аспектів.

З м і с т д и с ц и п л і н и:

Тема 1.

Англійська мова як міжнародна мова спілкування світової науково- академічної спільноти. Стратегії та тактики міжкультурної наукової комунікації (усний та письмовий формати). Етичні проблеми та плагіат.

Тема 2. Особливості наукового стилю. Жанр як комунікативна подія. Прагматичні та структурно-композиційні ознаки жанру. Типологія жанрів наукового стилю.

Тема 3. Лексичні та граматичні особливості англомовного наукового стилю (загально-наукова лексика, термінологічний апарат, поширені словосполучення, латинські вирази, характерні граматичні конструкції, порядок слів). Особливості пунктуації. Практикум.

Тема 4. Наукова стаття (research paper): жанрові характеристики. Практикум.

Тема 5. Тези доповідей на міжнародній конференції (conference abstract) : жанрові характеристики. Практикум.

Тема 6. Розширена анотація статті (summary) : жанрові характеристики. Практикум.

Тема 7. Усна презентація (виступ на міжнародній конференції, семінарі, участь у засіданні круглого столу) : Комуникативні та прагмалінгвістичні тактики підготовки та проведення презентації – моделювання психологічного, культурного та мовного аспектів. Практикум.

Презентація засвоєння студентами алгоритму створення вище зазначених науково-академічних жанрів.

РОБОЧИЙ ПЛАН

дисципліни «Жанри наукового стилю»

План практичних занять

Практичне заняття 1.

Тема. Англійська мова як міжнародна мова спілкування світової науково- академічної спільноти. Стратегії та тактики міжкультурної наукової комунікації (усний та письмовий формати). Етичні проблеми та плагіат.

Аргументація необхідності формування у студентів-лінгвістів ефективних вмінь та навичок володіння стратегією та тактиками науково-академічної комунікації з особливим акцентом на успішному функціонуванню у міжнародному академічному співтоваристві. Англійська мова як linqua franca міжнародної наукової комунікації. Плагіат як прояв академічного шахрайства. Аналіз ситуації в Україні та світі.

Практичне завдання :

- Продемонструвати роль англійської мови як академічної linqua franca

- Конкретизувати поняття стратегії та тактики у мовному аспекті

Самостійна робота студентів (СРС):

- Створити базу даних авторитетних міжнародних фахових журналів із питань лінгвістики для подальшого їх опрацювання.

Практичне заняття 2.

Стильова природа комунікації. Характеристика функціональних стилів. Особливості наукового стилю. Жанр як комунікативна подія. Прагматичні та структурно-композиційні ознаки жанру. Типологія жанрів наукового стилю.

Практичне завдання :

-Порівняти найбільш поширені жанри англомовної академічної комунікації.

- Виявити спільні та спеціфічні ознаки кожного із них.

Самостійна робота студентів (СРС):

Законспектувати типологію найбільш поширених жанрів англомовної академічної комунікації.

Практичне заняття 3.

Мовна складова: стиль та регістр; лексико-граматичні аспекти; корисні фрази та моделі, етичний підхід, уникнення плагіату

Лексичні та граматичні особливості англомовного наукового стилю (загально-наукова лексика, лінгвістичний термінологічний апарат, поширені словосполучення, латинські вирази, характерні граматичні конструкції, порядок слів). Особливості пунктуації.

Практичне завдання :

Виписати характерні групи лексичних одиниць

- іменників

- дієслів

- колокацій та конекторів

Самостійна робота студентів (СРС):

Проаналізувати та порівняти загально вживані лексичні одиниці та їхні академічні еквівленти (eg. to start – to commence; to show – to demonstrate)

Практичне заняття 4.

Жанрові характеристики наукової статті ( research paper)

Структурно-композиційні параметри. Лексичні та граматичні особливості : загально-наукова лексика, лінгвістичний та відповідний галузевий термінологічний апарат, поширені словосполучення, латинські вирази, характерні граматичні конструкції, порядок слів). Особливості пунктуації.

Практичне завдання :

Провести самостійний аналіз повноформатної статті із журналу Journal of Applied Linguistics.

Самостійна робота студентів (СРС):

Порівняти структурно-композиційні параметри англомовної та української статті лінгвістичного спрямування (Applied Linguistics; The Journal of Applied Linguistics; Word; World Englishes).

Практичне заняття 5.

Жанрові характеристики тез доповідей на міжнародній конференції (conference abstract). Структурно-композиційні параметри. Лексичні та граматичні особливості : загально-наукова лексика, лінгвістичний та відповідний галузевий термінологічний апарат, поширені словосполучення, характерні граматичні конструкції, порядок слів).

Анотація до журнальної статті (journal paper abstract). Структурно- композиційні параметри. Лексичні та граматичні особливості.

Практичне завдання :

- Підготувати тези доповіді на міжнародній конференції обсягом 500 слів (англ.мовою)

- Підготувати анотацію до журнальної статті англ.мовою обсягом 50 слів, 100 слів.

Самостійна робота студентів (СРС):

Порівняти структурно-композиційні параметри англомовної та української анотації до журнальної статті філологічного спрямування та тез доповіді на міжнародній конференції.

Практичне заняття 6.

Розширена анотація статті (summary): жанрові характеристики.

Структурно-композиційні параметри. Лексичні та граматичні особливості:загально-наукова лексика, лінгвістичний та відповідний галузевий термінологічний апарат, поширені словосполучення, характерні граматичні конструкції, порядок слів).

Практичне завдання:

Підготувати розширену анотацію статті українською та англ.мовами обсягом 1-2 стор.

Самостійна робота студентів (СРС):

Порівняти структурно-композиційні параметри англомовної та української анотації до журнальної статті філологічного спрямування та тез доповіді на міжнародній конференції

Практичне заняття 7 – Практичне заняття 8.

Усна презентація (виступ на міжнародній конференції, семінарі, участь у засіданні круглого столу) : Комуникативні та прагмалінгвістичні тактики підготовки та проведення презентації – моделювання психологічного, культурного та мовного аспектів. Презентації студентів власного відтворення зазначених вище жанрів наукового стилю у форматі Power Point.

Практичне завдання:

Приготувати у форматі Power Point власні презентації основних жанрів наукового стилю.

Самостійна робота студентів (СРС):

Порівняти та проаналізувати міжкультурний аспект усної академічної презентації

Перелік індивідуальних домашніх завдань:

1. Написання тез доповіді на міжнародній конференції (conference abstract)

2. Написання анотації наукової статті (research paper abstract)

3. Написання розширеної анотація статті; реферування (summary

4. Самостійний аналіз англомовної наукової статті (research paper)

5. Підготовка усної презентації (виступ на міжнародній студентській конференції)

Критерії оцінювання знань студентів:

Поточний контроль : 100 балів

• опрацювання та аналіз структурно-композиційної організації англомовної наукової статті (research paper) - 30 балів (5 статей)

• написання анотації наукової статті (research paper abstract) – 10 балів

• написання розширеної анотація статті; реферування (summary) - 20 балів

• написання тез доповіді на міжнародній конференції (conference abstract) -30 балів

• підготовка усної презентації на студентській науковій конференції у форматі Power Point (conference presentation) -10 балів

Прагматичне спрямування дисципліни «Жанри наукового стилю»

Прагматичне спрямування дисципліни «Жанри наукового стилю» полягає у підготовці та залученні студентів старших курсів до науково-дослідної роботи у своїй галузі, до ефективного опрацювання міжнародних фахових джерел та розвитку базових навичок побудови та написання англійською мовою наукових текстів різних жанрів, зокрема тез доповіді, анотації журнальної статті, а також магістерської кваліфікаційної роботи і дипломної роботи спеціаліста.

Ретельний структурно-композиційний та мовний аналіз автентичних англомовних наукових джерел, зокрема статей у міжнародних лінгвістичних журналах (Applied Linguistics; The Journal of Applied Linguistics; Word; Modern Language Journal, World Englishes, TEFL etc), та фахових українських журналах і вісниках (Іноземна філологія, Мова і культура, Функциональная лингвистика, СловоСвіт тощо) є одним із перших кроків у процесі успішного написання випускної кваліфікаційної роботи англійською мовою, а розширеної анотації до неї – українською мовою. Це завдання письмової наукової комунікації. Не менш важливим при представленні результатів теоретичного узагальнення та власного емпіричного дослідження є формат усної наукової комунікації - презентація, що будується за певними структурно-композиційними та мовними параметрами.

Лише засвоївши основи наукової риторики, якій притаманні порівняно стійкі композиційні і мовні ознаки, на матеріалі автентичних англомовних та українських фахових наукових видань, студенти можуть впевнено приступати до процесу написання власного дослідження – кваліфікаційної магістерської та дипломної роботи спеціаліста.

У навчальному посібнику «Основи англомовного наукового письма»/English Academic Writing for Students and Researchers, укладеному Яхонтовою Т.В (Львів: Вид-во «Паїс», 2003 р.) у стислій формі подаються особливості англомовного наукового стилю та його мовних рис (лексико-граматичний аспект), структурно-композиційні характеристики основних наукових жанрів (наукова стаття, розширена анотація, анотація журнальної наукової статті, тези доповіді) та мікрожанрів (науково-дослідний проект на здобуття гранту, біографічні дані/резюме/CV та різні види листів).

Детальне ознайомлення студентів-магістрів та спеціалістів кафедри прикладної лінгвістики із змістом відповідних розділів навчального посібника Яхонтової Т.В. стане у нагоді при підготовці до написання магістерської кваліфікаційної роботи та дипломної роботи спеціаліста з прикладної лінгвістики. Особливо важливими є розділи, у яких описується формальний регістр наукового стилю, загальновживана наукова лексика, латинські слова, вирази і скорочення, логічні конектори, а також усталені синтаксичні моделі, притаманні науковому дискурсу.

Оскільки магістерська кваліфікаційна робота та дипломна робота спеціаліста на кафедрі прикладної лінгвістики виконуються англійською мовою, нижче пропонуються базові практичні рекомендації щодо їх написання.

STRUCTURE OF STUDENT GRADUATION PAPERS

A student’s graduation paper (MA Thesis/Diploma Paper) is usually a lengthy written composition (60-70 pages). The length of a student’s graduation paper synopsis in Ukrainian (Анотація) is about 2 pages. The writer is involved in searching for published information on a specific topic, studying and analyzing this information and then writing about the topic chosen.

The graduation paper has a similar general structure. It includes Introduction, Body, Conclusion, References (and Appendix as an optional constituent).

The introductory part (2-3 pages) states what is to be discussed, introduces the object, subject, the goal and objectives of the research and claims its topicality. The theoretical background for an individual empirical research is outlined in Introduction (e.g. discourse analysis, the theory of genres, equivalence in translation, the theory of transformations in translation, the theory of lexico-semantic fields, functional grammar, the theory of term etc). The methods applicable for an individual research are explicated. The sources of illustrative materials and the number of analyzed and registered examples are given. The final paragraph of the introduction include key words (five to six words).

The longest part of a research paper is usually called the Body. It consists of carefully structured and logically organized and rubricated sections and subsections. None of the sections or subsections cannot fully coincide with the title of the research paper which is often a drawback of students’ research papers.

The concluding part usually summarizes the main points of the paper and restates, in different wording, the research statement. Often the conclusion also may have some indication of the implications of the study such as a recommendation for further research.

The list of references includes all mentioned and cited authors and works as well as dictionaries, encyclopedias, web sites and sources of illustrative materials.

An appendix (or appendices ) may be included for more argumentation).

LANGUAGE and STYLE

of WRITING a RESEARCH PAPER

Valuable theoretical and practical guidelines on academic writing suggested by Dr.Yakhontova (2003) have been thoroughly studied and applied. A detailed and very effective procedure for making steps in writing a research paper suggested by an American scholar Menasche L. (1997) has been used in developing an algorithm of writing a student’s research paper at the Department of Applied Linguistics.

Writing is a communicative skill and a complex cognitive process that requires a number of various skills. Dr.Yakhontova argues that it is possible to develop writing abilities by following certain strategies and practicing various patterns. Some of them are given below:

- “lifting” useful expressions from authentic English papers, combining them, adding some of your own and using them in your writing

- paying attention to the organization and language of English papers in the leading journals in your field

- learning how the key parts of the academic text are typically organized and structured

- being eager to rewrite and revise believing that the best way of mastering or improving writing (and not only in English) is to write as much as possible.

The style of English academic writing is formal, Its main characteristics are the absence of conversational features and the use of an appropriate vocabulary.

Formal academic style will normally avoid :

1. Contractions

The research won’t be continued until appropriate funding is secured - The research will not be continues until appropriate funding is secured

2. Addressing the reader directly:

You can see the data in Table 3. – The data can be seen in Table 3.

3. Phrasal verbs (although not always):

Researchers have found out that many mental illnesses are based on molecular defects –

Researchers have discovered that many mental diseases are based on molecular defects

4. Inappropriate negative forms : not …any – no

not… many – few

not …much – little

5. Short forms of the words or slang:

This booklet describes the requirements and content of the university graduation exams – This booklet describes the requirements and content of the university graduation examinations

6. Figures at the beginning of the sentence:

97 people visited the museum last week – Last week 97 people visited the museum.

The investigation didn’t yield any new results – The investigation yielded no new results

The ALGORITHM of writing a student’s final graduation paper (MA Thesis/Essay), the combination of a process and a product, can be presented as follows:

STEP 1. CHOOSING A SUBJECT

STEP 2 USING THE LIBRARY . Finding Relevant Books and Articles and Note-taking

STEP 3 . NARROWING THE FOCUS

STEP 4. DEVELOPING THE LIST OF PRELIMINARY BIBLIOGRAPHY

STEP 5. DEVELOPING A PRELIMINARY PAPER STATEMENT

STEP 6. TAKING NOTES

STEP 7. DEVELOPING PRELIMINARY OUTLINE

STEP 8. KEEPING ON READING AND NOTE-TAKING

STEP 9. REVISING THE PAPER STATEMENT

STEP 10. REVISING PRELIMINARY OUTLINE

STEP 11. DRAFTING THE BODY OF THE PAPER

STEP 12. DRAFTING THE INTRODUCTION AND CONCLUSI0N

STEP 13. COMPLETING THE PRELIMINARY DRAFT

STEP 14. FINAL DRAFT

STEP 15. POWER POINT FORMAT OF THE RESEARCH PAPER

DRAFTING THE BODY OF THE MA THESIS

BODY (Development)

The largest single part of the paper is the Body which consists of supporting information and arguments relevant to the main idea expressed in the Research Statement. It must logical, coherent, and cohesive in meaning and form.

The normal drafting process is as follows:

- do not start with the Introduction or Conclusion, instead write part of the Body of the paper

- select the part of the paper that you want to work on. Do not write the Introduction or Conclusion of the paper; instead, write the Body of the paper.

- carefully read your notices relevant to that section

- begin to write what you think might possibly be a relevant set of ideas. Do not try to write very logically and correctly at this stage – let the ideas come out on the page. No one except you will see what you are writing now.

- when you run out of ideas, go back to your notes and read them again. Use them to stimulate a fresh flow of thoughts. Write them down as they come to you.

- when you run out of ideas again, and your notes give you no further help, you can begin to work on some other part of your paper or reread what you have written so far. You can begin to change the order of ideas, omit some ideas, or add new ones; you can now cross out, or change any of the words, phrases, or sentences

DRAFTING THE INTRODUCTION AND CONCLUSI0N

INTRODUCTION

Write the Introduction to your paper last, so that you can make it a guide to the content and structure of the paper. Remember that you will discover things to say or add or change as you write the first drafts, so it would be a waste of time to prepare a polished introduction first.

The Introduction (2-3 pages) states what is to be discussed, introduces the object, subject, the goal and objectives of the research and claims its topicality. The theoretical background for an individual empirical research is outlined in Introduction (e.g. discourse analysis, the theory of genres, equivalence in translation, the theory of transformations in translation, the theory of lexico-semantic fields, functional grammar, the theory of term etc). The methods applicable for an individual research are explicated. The sources for supporting illustrative materials and the number of analyzed and registered examples are given. The final paragraph of the introduction may include key words (five to six words).

CONCLUSIONS

A good conclusion to a research paper is the logical outcome of all that has been said earlier. Usually, the research statement is repeated but not in exactly the same wording. Sometimes further research may be recommended in a conclusion. The end should not be sudden or abrupt. It is useful to restate the main points of your paper in a very summarized form but in different wording.

Література до практичних /семінарських/ занять

1.Бахтин М.М. Проблема речевых жанров//Бахтин М.М. Эстетика словесного творчества. Москва. 1979.

2.Бацевич Ф.С. Лінгвістична генеологія: проблеми і перспективи. Львів. 2005.

3.Левченко О.П. Науковий стиль: культура мовлення. Львів. Вид-во Львівської політехніки. 2012.

3.Яхонтова Т.В. Лінгвістична генеологія наукової комунікації. Львів. 2009.

4.Bordyuk L.V. Algorithm of Writing Student Research Papers in Applied Linguistics: Strategy. Structure, Methods & Steps. National University Lviv Polytechnic. 2008.

5.Ilchenko O.M. English for Science and Technology. Kyiv, 1996.

6.Jordan, R.R. (1996). Academic Writing Course. Harlow:Longman.Mauranen,

7.Mauranen, A. (1003). Cultural Differences in Academic Rhetoric. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

8.Menasche, L. (1997) Writing a Research Paper. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

9.Swales J.M. Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1990.

10.Yakhontova T.V.English Academic Writing. For Students and Researches. Lviv. Вид-во ПАІС. 2003.

Appendix 1.

Below are given the guidelines for submitting an abstract at the AILA (Association Internationale de Linquistique Applique) Congress.

AILA 2014

Guidelines for Abstract Submission

Title (15 words max.):

Good titles attract people to your session:

• make sure the title matches your abstract

• it should accurately reflect the content of your presentation

• try to make it eye catching & interesting

• avoid gimmicky titles

• each part of hyphenated or slashed words counts as one word

Summary (50 words max.)

• Suggested Format:

– 1-2 general sentence(s) relating your topic to importance in the field, theory and/or

research

– 1-2 sentence(s) describing what you are going to do in your session

– last item stating the implications of your study

• Write in 3rd person:

– “The presenters will describe…….” (NOT always a requirement, but good practice)

• Spell out acronyms used

• Do not include citations

• Do a word count at the end: 50 words max.

• The summary is important because it is what congress delegates will read in the program

book about your presentation.

Abstract (300 words max.)

The abstract is crucial because it is the sole document that the reviewers will read:

– It should have a clearly stated rationale

– It should contain evidence of current practice and/or research

– It should include supporting details and examples

– It needs to be carefully edited and proofread

– It should demonstrate that presenter has chosen correct type of presentation.

– It must meet the technical requirements (word count, verb tense, etc.)

– It should illustrate the importance of your study to the field, based on theory and/or

research

– It should clarify who the intended audience is

– It describes what the presenters intend to do

– It discusses the implications of the study

Good Proposals:

– identify the anticipated outcomes

– relate theory to practice

– address issues of current, local and global relevance

– are not narrowly focused

– draw on research, theory and practice from one or more disciplines

– are well written and free of typos/grammar mistakes

Final Instructions:

• Follow the “Call for Papers” form http://aila2014.com/abstract_submission.html

• Prepare your title, abstract, and summary before hand.

• Submit

Appendix 2.

Below are given the samples of abstracts in leading world journals on language and linguistics. Analyze their semantic and syntactic features.

International Journal of Applied Linguistics

Patterns of change in English as a lingua franca in the UAE

Ronald Boyle

© 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

Volume 21, Issue 2, pages 143–161, July 2011

Keywords: English as a lingua franca; multilingualism; corpus linguistics; second/foreign language acquisition; sociolinguistics

As foreign workers constitute about 90 per cent of the workforce of the UAE, English is used as the country's acrolectal lingua franca. In order to discover what effect this community of multilingual speakers is having on the lexicogrammar of English, a million-word corpus of examples of formal, written English as a lingua franca (ELF) was compiled, and was compared with data from the Longman Spoken and Written English Corpus. The results suggest that the patterns of use of non-finite complement clauses and of transitive and intransitive verbs, in particular, are beginning to change and that the changes are systematic. Where a choice of patterns exists, ELF usage appears to be converging on the dominant pattern.

Oxford Journals

Applied Linguistics

Sex/Gender, Language and the New Biologism

Deborah Cameron

Author Affiliations:Oxford University, UK

Abstract

In recent years there has been a striking shift in both academic and popular discourse on the subject of male–female differences. It is increasingly common for biological explanations to be proposed for differences that had previously been treated by most investigators as effects of socio-cultural factors. This article critically examines the arguments as they apply to the specific case of male–female differences in linguistic behaviour. It concludes that the relevant linguistic research evidence does not on balance support the new biologism; that evidence is more adequately accounted for using the socio-cultural approaches which most linguistic researchers favour.

• © Oxford University Press 2009

• Oxford Journals

• Applied Linguistics

• Volume 33, Issue 5

• Pp. 483-502.

APPLIED LINGUISTICS

Imposture: A Late Modern Notion in Poststructuralist SLA Research

Claire Kramsch

Author Affiliations:German Department, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USAE-mail: ckramsch@berkeley.edu

Abstract

This article explores the feelings of imposture that are sometimes experienced by multilingual subjects—learners of a language other than their own or users of multiple languages—and their difficulty of finding authentic or legitimate subject positions in a global world with fluid boundaries and uncertain categories of identity. It examines what modernist and poststructuralist approaches to the problem of imposture can yield in applied linguistic theory. Modernist scholars focus on revealing abuses of institutional power and on uncovering the artificiality of language rituals, whereas poststructuralist scholars seek to understand the social and historical conditions of possibility of discourses of imposture. They attempt to deal with the pervasive contradictions of the search for authenticity and legitimacy in a world of commodified discourses and self-declared authorities. In such a world, multilingual subjects have a particular role to play to transform imposture into the multilingual art of interrogating and imagining various forms of discourse.

• © Oxford University Press 2012

Towards developmental world Englishes

KINGSLEY BOLTON1, DAVID GRADDOL, CHRISTIANE MEIERKORD

© 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

World Englishes.Volume 30, Issue 4, pages 459–480, December 2011

ABSTRACT: Over the last three decades scholars promoting the world Englishes paradigm (WE) have worked towards establishing a more positive attitude towards international varieties of English. However, despite the best intentions of Western linguists working in this field, there is an obvious imbalance between the developed and developing world in many contexts of English language education. Educators and teachers in many Outer Circle and Expanding Circle contexts face difficulties in terms of conditions, facilities, and resources very different from those of Western institutions. Academics in developing societies have parallel difficulties in publishing research, both in journals and in books with international publishers, while local options for publishing are often restricted. This paper suggests a number of ways in which linguists and other scholars might begin to engage with a range of issues related to ‘developmental world Englishes’

World Englishes and postcolonialism: Reading Kachru and Said

1. IAN MAI CHI LOK

© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

World Englishes. Volume 31, Issue 4, pages 419–433, December 2012

ABSTRACT: Prompted by a recurrent question from students, this paper examines perspectives from world Englishes and postcolonial studies in relation to one another. Focusing on two critical thinkers, Braj B. Kachru and Edward W. Said, each section highlights relevant themes and ideas from selected works of each scholar and discusses points of convergence and divergence between the various positions. One argument here is that while ‘Englishes’ are conceived as relatively static categories constricted to specific geopolitical boundaries, such Englishes are at the same time used by individuals whose cultural consciousness and experience are dynamic. Insight such as this, drawn from a juxtaposed study of the work of Braj B. Kachru and Edward Said, can inspire the world Englishes project. At a broader level, it is suggested that a more comprehensive understanding of language and culture may be reached by approaching world Englishes and postcolonial studies in counterpoint.

Appendix 3.

Below are given the samples of abstracts in Ukrainian national linguistic journals. Analyze their layout and specific features.

Lyudmyla Bordyuk (Ukraine)

THE DISCOURSE OF ACKNOWLRDGEMENTS FROM A CROSS-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE (AN ENGLISH-UKRAINIAN ACADEMIC CONTEXT)

The format of the Acknowledgements section in scholarly publications has been treated as an academic micro-genre and a type of a written text. The research has been carried out across English and Ukrainian academic contexts. The ways of expressing acknowledgements is considered an integral part of international academic culture.

Key words: academic genre, micro-genre, acknowledgements, pragmatic purpose, cross-cultural analysis.

Л.Бордюк (Львів)

ДИСКУРС ВИРАЖЕННЯ ПОДЯКИ У МІЖКУЛЬТУРНОМУ АСПЕКТІ (АНГЛО-УКРАЇНСЬКИЙ АКАДЕМІЧНИЙ КОНТЕКСТ)

У статті розглянуто формат вираження подяки в наукових публікаціях як академічний мікрожанр і як тип письмового тексту. У результаті проведеного емпіричного дослідження надано висновки міжкультурного порівняння англійського та українського дискурсів вираження подяки як відображення академічних традицій.

Ключові слова: академічний жанр, мікрожанр, подяка, прагматична спрямованість, міжкультурний аналіз.

Л.Бордюк (Львов)

ДИСКУРС ВЫРАЖЕНИЯ БЛАГОДАРНОСТИ В МЕЖКУЛЬТУРНОМ АСПЕКТЕ (АНГЛО-УКРАИНСКИЙ АКАДЕМИЧЕСКИЙ КОНТЕКСТ)

В статье рассматривается формат выражения благодарности в научных публикациях как академический микрожанр и как тип письменного текста. В результате проведенного эмпирического исследования представлены выводы межкультурного сравнения английского и украинского дискурсов выражения благодарности/acknowledgements как отражение академических традиций.

Ключевые слова: академический жанр, микрожанр, благодарность, прагматическая направленность, межкультурный анализ.

Lyudmyla Bordyuk

Lviv, Ukraine

Intercultural Framework for Business Education in Ukraine

In the global marketplace of today’s business world intercultural competence is extremely valuable along with professional expertise and foreign language/s ability. Intercultural competence implies an awareness of one’s own cultural heritage and understanding of the culture of another country in addition to knowledge of the language. Methods and techniques of cross-cultural instructions as well as sources of professional and cultural information have been suggested.

Key words: intercultural communication, intercultural competence, globalization, business education, interdisciplinary links.

Бордюк Людмила

Львів

Міжкультурні основи бізнес освіти в Україні

Статтю присвячено проблемі формування міжкультурної компетенції у викладанні курсу ділової англійської мови та ділової комунікації. Міжкультурну компетенцію розглянуто як усвідомлення своєї власної культури та розуміння культури іншої країни у доповнення до знання мови. Запропоновано методи інтерактивного сприйняття культури крізь призму іноземної мови, а також джерела професійної ділової та культурної інформації.

Ключові слова : міжкультурне спілкування, міжкультурна компетенція, глобалізація, бізнес освіта, міждисциплінарні зв’язки.

Бордюк Людмила

Львов

Межкультурные основы бизнес образования в Украине

Статья посвящена проблеме формирования межкультурной компетенции студентов как часть курса делового английского языка и деловой коммуникации. Межкультурная компетенция рассматривается как осознание своего собственного культурного наследия и понимание культуры другой страны в дополнение к знанию языка. Предлагаются методы интерактивного восприятия культуры сквозь призму иностранного языка, а также источники профессиональной деловой и культурной информации.

Ключевые слова : межкультурное общение, межкультурная компетенция, глобализация, бизнес образование, междисцисплинарные связи.

Appendix 4.

Below is given a sample of conference abstract presented at the International Seminar on Internationalization of Ukrainian Higher Education (20-22 May 2011, Kyiv, Ukraine). Analyze its genre parameters, structural and lexico-semantic features.

Lyudmyla Bordyuk

Lviv Polytechnic University, Ukraine

STANDARDS, DOUBLE STANDARDS AND SUBSTANDARDS OF UKRAINIAN HIGHER SCHOOL IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERNATIONALIZATION

The understanding of university education internationalization from a Western academic perspective implies high standards, academic honesty and responsibility, quality assurance network, autonomy, mobility of students and staff, tuning and transferability among its major criteria. Ukraine as a post-Soviet country and an emerging economy is demonstrating its wish to join the European Area of Higher Education. The first-hand experience of teaching and doing research in Ukraine combined with participation in the U.S. and European academic projects makes it possible to claim that Ukraine’s international ambitions are of a declarative rather than pragmatic and feasible character. To faithfully be involved in the process of internationalization Ukraine is to do away with double standards in manifesting its ambitions and goals and implementing them. On the one hand, a notorious corruption in the administrative bodies which really dies hard hinders the process; on the other hand, the lack of civil society in Ukraine results in tolerating the sub-standards in various areas of social life including education. Some factors which slow down the international academic promotion of Ukraine are analyzed, but not limited to, below. They are social, ideological and financial.

University Admission regulations and procedures transparency are critical to Ukraine. Being heavily corrupted by the inconsistent policy of the Ministry of Education they endanger the democratic processes supported by young people (the procedure of independent entrance tests launched in 2008). The lack of transparency and strict guidelines makes the admission process stressful and frustrating for both applicants and their parents (a member of the Ukrainian Parliament committee on education exposed in media (11 May 2011, Express newspaper) the figures of bribes parents have to pay “to improve” their school leavers’ grades which are considered by university admissions commissions.

Plagiarism, or academic dishonesty and fraud, is the dominant practice in undergraduate, graduate, and even postgraduate students’ research. The so-called “copy-paste” computer technique without any reference to the author has become generally accepted. Unlike the U.S. and European Union countries, where the cases of plagiarism are regulated legally and disrespected by society (e.g. recent scandals in Germany) both Ukrainian authorities and public circles demonstrate indifference and tolerance.

Another ugly manifestation of academic dishonesty and fraud is the so-called “unauthorized academic services” broadly advertized in the university vicinity and at underground stations. Advertisement boards, walls, even poles and trees are plastered with inexpensive offers of “an overnight” term/ diploma papers and even doctoral theses. They have become part of the linguistic landscape of Ukrainian cities. Purchasing a fictitious university degree certificate, even from a leading higher school, is at the top of the “academic services” list. There is not any kind of legal consequences or criminal responsibility even though some Ukrainian public servants with fake university diplomas disgrace the Ukrainian system of higher education.

Using the library (books, catalogues and periodicals in the field) is an integral part of doing research. The process involves the appropriate library sources, properly budgeted and professionally compiled, as well as students’ special skills for searching for, finding, and processing them. In Ukraine, students may feel frustrated with non-availability of fundamental and the latest professional sources at their libraries (there are very few fortunate exceptions) which reflects a low library attendance level. The role of the library as a university intellectual center is underestimated in Ukraine.

Financial dependence of Ukrainian scholars and students is critical. The low level of university faculty members’ salary does not allow them to systematically participate in international professional events in the field. The international conference registration fee normally exceeds the month’s salary which makes the prospects of most Ukrainian scholars’ internationalization problematic.

Participation in international projects. Involvement in international exchange programs is an invaluable experience for Ukrainian university students and faculty from professional, personal and cross-cultural perspectives. Individual grants are a result of students’ significant academic and extracurricular achievements. But institutional grants are usually distributed by subjective criteria, i.e.”contact- or relation-based” instead of merit-based criteria.

To meet the international standards in higher education, Ukraine claiming its democratic ambitions is to challenge double standards and corruption in various manifestations of social life and replace the sub-standard with viable humanistic patterns and practices.

To conclude, the factors hindering academic promotion of Ukraine internationally are formed by:

- immature civil society (civic tolerance and indifference to corruption)

- ideology (education and knowledge economy are not among Ukraine’ priorities)

- insufficient financing

Appendix 5.

Below is given the article originally published at Translation Journal (http://accurapid.com/journal).

THE INVISIBLE IN TRANSLATION : THE ROLE OF TEXT

By Abdolmehdi Riazi, Ph.D.

Associate professor, Department of Foreign Languages & Linguistics

Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

E-mail: mailto:ariazi@shirazu.ac.ir?subject=inquiry from TranslationDirectory.com

This Paper was Presented at The First International Conference on Language, Literature, and Translation in the Third Millennium, Bahrain University, March 16-18, 2002

Abstract

It is conventionally believed that familiarity with the source and target languages, as well as the subject matter on the part of the translator is enough for a good translation. However, due to the findings in the field of text analysis, the role of text structure in translation now seems crucial. Therefore, the present paper sets out with an introduction on different types of translation followed by some historical reviews on text analysis, and will then describe different approaches to text analysis. As a case in point, a text analysis of the rhetorical structure of newspaper editorials in English and Persian and its contribution to the translation of this specific genre will be discussed. It will be indicated that newspaper editorials in these two languages follow a tripartite structure including "Lead," "Follow," and "Valuate" making translation of this specific genre possible and more accurate between the two languages. The paper will be concluded with the idea that text analysis can contribute and lead to more accurate and communicative translations.

Introduction

Conventionally, it is suggested that translators should meet three requirements, namely: 1) Familiarity with the source language, 2) Familiarity with the target language, and 3) Familiarity with the subject matter to perform their job successfully. Based on this premise, the translator discovers the meaning behind the forms in the source language (SL) and does his best to produce the same meaning in the target language (TL) using the TL forms and structures. Naturally and supposedly what changes is the form and the code and what should remain unchanged is the meaning and the message (Larson, 1984).

Therefore, one may discern the most common definition of translation, i.e., the selection of the nearest equivalent for a language unit in the SL in a target language. Depending on whether we consider the language unit, to be translated, at the level of word, sentence, or a general concept, translation experts have recognized three approaches to translation:

- translation at the level of word (word for word translation)

- translation at the level of sentence, and

- conceptual translation

In the first approach, for each word in the SL an equivalent word is selected in the TL. This type of translation is effective, especially in translating phrases and proper names such as United Nations, Ministry of Education, Deep Structure, and so on. However, it is problematic at the level of sentence due to the differences in the syntax of source and target languages. Translated texts as a product of this approach are not usually lucid or communicative, and readers will get through the text slowly and uneasily.

When translating at the sentence level, the problem of word for word translation and, therefore, lack of lucidity will be remedied by observing the grammatical rules and word order in the TL while preserving the meaning of individual words. So, sentences such as "I like to swim," "I think he is clever," and "We were all tired" can easily be translated into a target language according to the grammatical rules of that language. Translation at the sentence level may thus be considered the same as the translation at the word level except that the grammatical rules and word order in the TL are observed. Texts produced following this approach will communicate better compared to word for word translation.

In conceptual translation, the unit of translation is neither the word nor is it the sentence; rather it is the concept. The best example is the translation of idioms and proverbs such as the following.

"He gave me a nasty look" "Carrying coal to Newcastle"

"Do as Romans do while in Rome" "He kicked the bucket"

Such idioms and proverbs cannot be translated word for word; rather they should be translated into equivalent concepts in the TL to convey the same meaning and produce the same effect on the readers.

In addition to word-for-word, sentence-to-sentence, and conceptual translations, other scholars have suggested other approaches and methods of translation. Newmark (1988), for example, has suggested communicative and semantic approaches to translation. By definition, communicative translation attempts to produce on its readers an effect as close as possible to that obtained on the readers of the source language. Semantic translation, on the other hand, attempts to render, as closely as the semantic and syntactic structures of the TL allow, the exact contextual meaning of the original. Semantic translation is accurate, but may not communicate well; whereas communicative translation communicates well, but may not be very precise.

Another aspect of translation experts have attended to is the translation processes. For instance, Newmark (1988: 144) contends that there are three basic translation processes:

a. the interpretation and analysis of the SL text;

b.the translation procedure (choosing equivalents for words and sentences in the TL), and

c. the reformulation of the text according to the writer's intention, the reader's expectation, the appropriate norms of the TL, etc.

The processes, as Newmark states, are to a small degree paralleled by translation as a science, a skill, and an art.

This paper is concerned with some aspects of the first process. It will be suggested that a major procedure in the interpretation and analysis of the SL text should be text analysis at the macro-level with the goal of unfolding rhetorical macro-structures. By macro-structures we mean patterns of expression beyond sentence level. In the next parts of the paper, first a brief history of text analysis will be presented followed by approaches to text analysis. The paper will then continue by indicating how two specific genres; namely, newspaper editorials and poetry, lend themselves to macroanalysis of texts and how this analysis will help translators.

Historical Perspectives on Text Analysis

It is a major concern of linguists to find out and depict clearly how human beings use language to communicate, and, in particular, how addressers construct linguistic messages for addressees and how addressees work on linguistic messages in order to interpret and understand them.

Accordingly, two main approaches have been developed in linguistics to deal with the transmission and reception of the utterances and messages. The first is "discourse analysis," which mainly focuses on the structure of naturally occurring spoken language, as found in such "discourses" as conversations, commentaries, and speeches. The second approach is "text analysis," which focuses on the structure of written language, as found in such "texts" as essays and articles, notices, book chapters, and so on. It is worth mentioning, however, that the distinction between "discourse" and "text" is not clear-cut. Both "discourse" and "text" can be used in a much broader sense to include all language units with a communicative function, whether spoken or written. Some scholars (see, e.g., Van Dijk, 1983; Grabe and Kaplan, 1989; Freedman, 1989) talk about "spoken and written discourses"; others (see, e.g., Widdowson, 1977; Halliday, 1978; Kress, 1985; Leckie-Tarry, 1993) talk about "spoken and written text." In this paper, we stick to "text analysis" with a focus on the structure of written language at micro- and macro-levels.

According to Connor (1994), text analysis dates back to the Prague School of Linguistics, initiated by Vilem Mathesius in the 1920s. Later on it was elaborated by Jan Firbas and Frantisek Dane in the 1950s and 1960s. Connor (1994) believes that The Prague School's major contribution to text analysis was the notion of theme and rheme, which describes the pattern of information flow in sentences and its relation to text coherence.

On the other hand, Stubbs (1995) states that the notion of text analysis was developed in British linguistics from the 1930s to the 1990s. In this regard, the tradition, as Stubbs (1995) continues, is visible mainly in the work of Firth, Halliday, and Sinclair (See, e.g., Firth 1935, 1957a, 1957b; Halliday 1985, 1992; Sinclair 1987, 1990). The principles underlying these works, as stated by Stubbs, demand studying the use of real language in written and spoken discourse and performing textual analysis of naturally occurring language.

As (Connor 1994: 682) states, "systemic linguistics, a related approach to text analysis and semiotics, emerged in the 1960s with the work of linguists such as Halliday, whose theories emphasize the ideational or content-bearing functions of discourse as well as the choices people make when they use language to structure their interpersonal communications (see, e.g., Halliday, 1978)." Halliday's systemic linguistics has influenced text analysis tremendously as well as curriculum models for language education (see, e.g., Mohan 1986). Following Halliday and Hasan's (1976) taxonomy, the notion of cohesion has been one of the popular issues in text analysis.

According to Connor (1994), in the 1970s and 1980s, many linguists, psychologists, and composition specialists around the world embraced text and discourse analysis. Connor believes that this New School of Text Analysis is characterized by an eclectic, interdisciplinary emphasis, placing psychological and educational theories on an equal status with linguistic theories (whereas the Prague and systemic approaches primarily orient themselves to linguistics). Examples of text analysis from this new approach include studies of macro-level text structures such as Swales's (1990) studies of the organization of introductions in scientific research articles; and Biber's (1988) multidimensional computerized analysis of diverse features in spoken and written texts.

Bloor and Bloor (1995) contend that by the process of analysis, linguists build up descriptions of the language, and gradually discover more about how people use language in social communication. The same thing can be considered with the dynamic process of translation in that the discourse and rhetorical structures encoded in the source language can be reconstructed in the target language, and then the translator goes for the appropriate syntax and lexicon. One of the indexes of a "good" translation would, therefore, be to see to what extent a translator has been able to reconstruct the rhetorical structures of the source text in the target language through text analysis.

Approaches to Text Analysis

We may roughly divide the available literature on text analysis into two groups. First, those aiming at providing a detailed linguistic analysis of texts in terms of lexis and syntax. This approach has mostly referred to as analysis at micro-structure. Second, those related to the analysis and description of the rhetorical organization of various texts. This approach has been labeled as macro-structure analysis of texts. In this paper, we are concerned with macro-analysis and its implication in translation. First, the macro-structure of newspaper editorials in two languages, English, and Persian, will be presented. Then, the macro-structure of the poems of a famous Persian Poet, Hakim O'mar Khayam, and the English translation of these poems by a well-known English translator, Fitzgerald, will be presented as two cases in point. It would, of course, be naïve to generalize these cases to all languages and all types of genres without adequate research and empirical evidence. However, the point of discovering and unfolding macro-structures in a SL with the goal of reconstructing nearly the same patterns in the TL in the process of translation deserves theoretical and practical attention.

The Case of Newspaper Editorials

Bolivar (1994) studied editorials of The Guardian. She selected 23 editorials from The Guardian during the first three months of 1981. Based on the analysis of these editorials, she found out that a tripartite structure called "triad" organizes the macro structure of the editorials. Bolivar explains that the function of the triad is to negotiate the transmission and evaluation in written text and that it consists of three turns or elements, namely, Lead, Follow, and Valuate, serving distinctive functions of initiation, follow-up, and evaluation of the two. It shares similarities with the "exchange," as the minimal unit of spoken discourse. The following excerpt taken from The Gardian, "Behind closed Irish doors." March 3, 1981, cited in Bolivar (1994: 280-1) is an example of a triad.

L Britain and Ireland are now trying, at long last, to work out a less artificial link between them than that which binds two foreign states.

F This is the most hopeful departure of the past decade because it opens for inspection what had lain concealed for half a century and goes to the root of the anguish in Northern Ireland.

V The two countries now recognize that though they are independent of one another they cannot be foreign.

According to Bolivar, not all triads have three turns. Triads can exhibit more than three turns provided that the sequence LF is repeated and V is the final turn. Thus, triads such as LFLFV or LFLFLFV can be found when the V turn is delayed by the writer. The study of editorials from other British newspapers conducted by Bolivar confirmed the existence of three-part structures in those newspapers.

Parallel to Bolivar's study, Riazi and Assar (2001) conducted a similar study on Persian newspaper editorials to see if the same macro-structures are detectable in this particular genre. The editorials of six currently published Persian newspapers were examined. A sample of 60 editorials, 10 for each newspaper, was randomly selected to be analyzed.

The editorials were analyzed at two levels 1) at a rhetorical macro-structure level, and 2) at a micro syntactic level. Each text (editorial) was segmented by sentence units and was codified according to its function; lead, follow, or valuate. The inter-coder reliability indices of the segmentation and codification of the editorials were then determined. An inter-coder reliability index above .80 was obtained. The following excerpt from Iran (June 27, 1997), one of the newspapers, is an example of a triad in Persian newspaper editorials.

L The motivating command of the Late Imam in May 1979 was the beginning of a revolutionary era for the popular movement to construct and develop the villages through the establishment of an organization called Jihad-e-Sazandegy.

F It was a revolutionary institution whose fundamental duty was the improvement of economic and social conditions of villagers in Iran.

V The marvelous achievements of Jihad-e-Sazandegy and the fruitful actions of this public institution proved the Imam's correctness of recognition and depth of revolutionary perception.

Results of the analysis performed on the editorials indicated that the most frequent pattern pertaining to all the studied newspapers was LFV. In other words, we can say that the general macro-structure of Persian newspaper editorials is LFV. This finding is in line with that of Bolivar's (1994) as related to The Guardian newspaper. This common pattern between the two languages enhances the translatability of the newspaper editorials. The task of translators would be to look for the triads and go for the appropriate syntax and lexicon. It is interesting to point out that in both Bolivar's and our study, it was found that each turn is characterized by specific sentence types. For example, it was found that "Leads" were mostly expressed in interrogatives; "Follows" mostly used passive structures; and "Valuates" used conditional and copulas. The usage of special syntactic structures for specific turns can be justified partly in light of the discoursal function, attributed to each structure and reported in previous studies. Interrogative sentences, for example, are used with the goal of eliciting information or presenting some new topic for discussion. Since the main function of L turn is to introduce the aboutness of the triad and a subject, therefore, it seems quite reasonable to have interrogatives mostly in L turns. On the other hand, the correspondence of passive structures and F turns might be due to the fact that passives provide development and elaboration of the events. Reid (1990: 201) points out that "the passive voice is indicative of the formal interactional character of ...[a] prose as opposed to the more personal, interactive prose of narrative." As for V turns, we can say that the function of conditionals is to produce or suggest some kind of solution or desirable action on some conditions (Bolivar 1994), thus, the association between V turns and conditionals. Becoming aware of these macro- and micro-features of texts, we can make our translations of particular texts and genres more accurate, meaningful, and communicative.

The Case of Khayam's Robaiyat (Quatrains)

Omar Khayam was one of the most famous and beloved Persian poets of middle ages. The Robaiyat of Omar Khayam is among the few Persion masterpieces that have been translated into most languages, including English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Chinese, Hindi, Arabic, and Urdu. The most famous translation of the Robaiyat from Persian into English was undertaken in 1859 by Edward J. Fitzgerald. He has tried his utmost to adhere to the spirit of the original poetry.

Yarmohammadi (1995) studied the rhetorical organization of Khayam's Robaiyat (quatrains) and compared it with its English translation by Fitzgerald. His study revealed that the macro-structure of all Khayam's Robaiyat included three components, namely, "description," "recommendation," and "reasoning" which can be used as a criterion to distinguish between the real Khayam's Robaiyat and those erroneously attributed to him. Based on his analysis, Yarmohammadi came to the conclusion that the reason for Fitzgerald's successful translation of Khayam's Robaiyat is that he was able to reconstruct the same macro-structures in English and then apply appropriate sentence structures and lexis. The following is an example of one of the Khayam's quatrains as translated by Fitzgerald.

Fitzgerald:

And this delightful Herb whose tender Green

Fledges the River's Lip on which we lean—

Ah, lean upon it lightly! for who knows

From what once lovely Lip it springs unseen!

Literal:

The grass that grows by every stream

Like angelic smiles faintly gleam

Step gently, cause it not to scream

For it has grown from a lover's dream.

Conclusion

As Hatim and Mason (1997) state, a translator typically operates on the verbal record of an act of communication between source language speaker/writer and hearers/readers and seeks to relay perceived meaning values to a group of target language receiver(s) as an separate act of communication. However, according to Hatim and Mason (1990), we know little about what patterns there are and how equivalence could be achieved between them. One thing of which we can be confident, nevertheless, is that the patterns are always employed in the service of an overriding rhetorical purpose. This is an aspect of texture which is of crucial importance to the translator. The structure of the source text becomes an important guide to decisions regarding what should or should not appear in the derived text. The point that the present paper tried to make is the benefit translators may derive from text analysis in translation by determining the micro- and macro-indices of the texts to support them in their difficult task.

Text analysis is, thus, becoming a promising tool in performing more reliable translations. There are numerous studies done on text analysis, which can have interesting messages for translators. For example, the kind of structure frequently reported for argumentative genres include "introduction, explanation of the case under discussion, outline of the argument, proof, refutation and conclusion" (Hatch 1992: 185). As a final word, we may say that in translation we should first try to reconstruct the macro-structure and rhetorical structure of the source text in the target language and then look for the appropriate words and structures; this is a procedure that skillful translators perform in the process of translation consciously or unconsciously.

References

Biber, D. (1988). Variation across speech and writing. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bloor, T. & Bloor, M. (1995). The functional analysis of English: A Hallidayan approach. London: Arnold.

Connor, U. (1994). Text analysis. TESOL Quarterly, 28, 682-685.

Firth, J.R. (1935). The technique of semantics. Transactions of the philological society, 36-72.

Firth, J.R. (1957a). Papers in linguistics. London: Oxford University Press.

Firth, J.R. (1957b). A synopsis of linguistic theory, 1930-1955. Studies in Linguistic Analysis, Special Vol., Philological Society, 1-32.

Halliday, M. (1978). Language as social semiotic. London: Edward Arnold.

Halliday, M. & Hasan, R. (1976). Cohesion in English. London: Longman.

Halliday, M. (1985). An introduction to functional grammar. London: Edward Arnold.

Halliday, M. (1992). Language as system and language as instance: The corpus as a theoretical construct. In J. Svartvik (Ed.), Directions in corpus linguistics (pp. 61-77). Berlin: Mouton.

Hatim, B. & Mason, I. (1990). Discourse and the translator. London: Longman.

Hatim, B. & Mason, I. (1997). The translator as communicator. New York: Routledge.

Hartmann, R. (1980). Contrastive textology. Heildberg: Julius Groos Verlag.

Hinds, J. (1980). Organizational patterns in discourse. In T. Givon (Ed.), Syntax and semantics: Vol. 12: Discourse and syntax. New York: Academic Press.

Reid, J.M. (1990). Responding to different topic types: A quantitative analysis from a contrastive rhetoric perspective. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Second language writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Riazi, A. M., & Assar, F. (2001). A Text Analysis of Persian Newspapers Editorials. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities of Shiraz University, Vols. 31 & 32.

Sinclair, J. (1987). Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary. London: Happer Collins.

Sinclair, J. (1990). Collins Cobuild English Grammar. London: Happer Collins.

Stubbs, M. (1995). Text and corpus analysis. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers Inc.

Swales, J. (1990). Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Yarmohammadi, L. (1995).The discoursal and textual structure of Khayam's poetry in Fitzgerald's English versification. In L.Yrmohammadi (Ed.), Fifteen Articles in Contrastive Linguistics and the Structure of Persian: Grammar, Text and Discourse. Tehran: Rahnama Publications.

This article was originally published at Translation Journal (http://accurapid.com/journal).

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для студентів базового напряму «Філологія»

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