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Jean Piaget Theory of Cognitive Development

In: Philosophy and Psychology

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An IQ test is a test designed to measure intellectual aptitude ,or ability to learn in school.Originally,intelligence was defined as mental age divided by chronological age,times 100-hence the term intelligent quotient or IQ. After taking the IQ test on the website ,I was not happy with my score and I don’t think it is an accurate assessment of my intellectual ability because i know I can do better than the score they gave me.English is not my first language,I am from Nigeria and an immigrant.I have to read the question very well and take my time to answer it but it stated in the test that each question should be answered in less than twenty seconds. I don’t think IQ test will predict academic achievement because the scores change,they are not consistent and i believe that no test can measure the complexities of the human brain.Many Studies suggest that people inherit a set of abilities,some high and some low,rather than a general intellectual ability(e.g Zhu et al,2010).Two leading developmentalists(Sternberg and Gardener) are among the many who believe that humans have multiple intelligence not just one. Robert Sternberg(1996) describes three types of intelligence,Academic intelligence which is measured by 1Q and achievement tests,creative intelligence evidenced by imaginative endeavors and pratical intelligence seen in everday problem solving.These three intelligences are particularly significant in adulthood,when academic intelligence is less relevant but pratical intelligence is crucial. Howard Gardener originally described seven intelligences;linguistics,logic-mathematical,musical,spatial,bodily-kinesthetic(movement),interpersonal(social understanding), and intrapersonal(self- Understanding),each associated with a particular brain region(Gardener,1983).He subsequently added an eight intelligence(naturalistic: understanding nature,as in biology,zoology or farming) and a ninth(existential: asking questions about life and death) (Gardener,1999,2006,Gardener and Moran,2006).Although every normal person has at least a little of all nine intelligences, each individual excels in some more than others.For example,a person might be gifted spatially but not linguistically(a virtual artist who cannot describe her work) or might have interpersonal but not naturalistic intelligence(a gifted clinical psychologist whose houseplants die). Gardener’s theory has been influential in education, especially the education of children(e.g,Rettig,2005), as teachers allow children to demonstrate knowledge in their own ways,illustrating History with a drawing rather than an essay for instance.Gardener’s theory has been used to suggest that some children learn by listening,others by looking,others by doing-an idea that led to research on learning styles.Similarly,Sternberg believes that marching instruction to a person’s analytic,creative or pratical ability advances his or her comprehension. However,these appilications do not seem to be supported by scientific research(Pashler,et al.2008).Debate continues about whether intelligence is general or multiple,as well as what the educational implications of IQ and achievements scores might be. REFERENCES. http://iqtest.com. Kathleen.S.Berger.The Developing Person Through The Life Span.8th ed.2011.Worth Publishers. Laura E.Berk.Development through the lifespan.6th ed.Pearson Publishers.

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